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Physiology

2012

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Cpeb Protein Orb2 Has Multiple Functions During Spermatogenesis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shuwa Xu, Nathaniel Hafer, Blessing Agunwamba, Paul Schedl Nov 2012

The Cpeb Protein Orb2 Has Multiple Functions During Spermatogenesis In Drosophila Melanogaster, Shuwa Xu, Nathaniel Hafer, Blessing Agunwamba, Paul Schedl

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding (CPEB) proteins are translational regulators that can either activate or repress translation depending on the target mRNA and the specific biological context. There are two CPEB subfamilies and most animals have one or more genes from each. Drosophila has a single CPEB gene, orb and orb2, from each subfamily. orb expression is only detected at high levels in the germline and has critical functions in oogenesis but not spermatogenesis. By contrast, orb2 is broadly expressed in the soma; and previous studies have revealed important functions in asymmetric cell division, viability, motor function, learning, and memory. Here ...


Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang Oct 2012

Comparison Of Reproductive And Flight Capacity Of Loxostege Sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Developing From Diapause And Non-Diapause Larvae, Daosong Xie, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W. Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang

Entomology Publications

The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), uses both diapause and migration as life history strategies. To determine the role of diapause plays in the population dynamics of L. sticticalis, the reproductive and flight potentials of adults originating from diapause and nondiapause larvae were investigated under controlled laboratory conditions. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, and daily egg production of females originating from diapause larvae were not significantly different from those originating from nondiapause larvae, showing that diapause has no significant effect on reproductive capacity when adults are provided with an adequate carbohydrate source. However, females that developed from diapause larvae ...


Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan Sep 2012

Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

Protein phosphatase activity acts as a primary determinant of the extent and duration of phosphorylation of cellular proteins in response to physiological stimuli. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) belongs to the PPP superfamily, and is associated with regulatory subunits that confer substrate specificity, allosteric regulation, and subcellular compartmentalization. In addition, all eukaryotic cells contain multiple heat-stable proteins that originally were thought to inhibit phosphatase catalytic subunits released from the regulatory subunits, as a fail-safe mechanism. However, discovery of C-kinase-activated PP1 inhibitor, Mr of 17 kDa (CPI-17) required fresh thinking about the endogenous inhibitors as specific regulators of particular phosphatase complexes ...


Green Tea Extract Protects Against Fibrogenesis Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Diet-Induced Obese Rats, Allyson M. Bower Aug 2012

Green Tea Extract Protects Against Fibrogenesis Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease In Diet-Induced Obese Rats, Allyson M. Bower

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid Aug 2012

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Acetaminophen Metabolism And Toxicity, David M. Ng, Ali Navid

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Acetaminophen is a common analgesic and antipyretic. Metabolism of acetaminophen and acetaminophen-induced liver necrosis are predicted using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Pharmacokinetic means the model determines where the drug is distributed in the body over time. Physiologically-based means the anatomy and physiology of the human body is reflected in the structure and functioning of the model. Acetaminophen is usually safe and effective when taken as recommended, but consumption at higher levels may lead to liver damage. Additionally, other factors such as alcoholic liver disease, smoking, and malnutrition affect the maximum safe dose of acetaminophen.


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Jul 2012

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

GSBS Student Publications

Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in ...


Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis Jul 2012

Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in cancer, but the role of JNK in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the JNK signaling pathway reduces the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) conditional deletion model of prostate cancer. Mice with JNK deficiency in the prostate epithelium (DeltaJnk DeltaPten mice) develop androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer more rapidly than control (DeltaPten) mice. Similarly, prevention of JNK activation in the prostate epithelium (DeltaMkk4 DeltaMkk7 DeltaPten mice) causes rapid development of invasive adenocarcinoma. We found that JNK signaling defects cause an ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian May 2012

Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are vital to nuclear-cytoplasmic communication in eukaryotes. The yeast Thp1-Sac3-Cdc31-Sus1 complex, also known as the TREX-2 complex, is anchored to the NPC via the nucleoporin Nup1, and is essential for mRNA export. In this study, the Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast TREX-2 complex was discovered. Physical and functional evidence support the identification of the Arabidopsis orthologs of the yeast Thp1 and Nup1. Of three Sac3 Arabidopsis homologs, two are putative TREX-2 components. Surprisingly, none are required for mRNA export as is the yeast Sac3. Physical association with TREX-2 was observed for the two Cdc31 homologs, but ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn May 2012

Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn

Davis Lab Publications

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse and human macrophages and thereby indirectly inhibits insulin signaling in cocultured adipocytes. This occurs through activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways independent of the RBP4 receptor, STRA6. RBP4 effects are markedly attenuated in JNK1-/- JNK2-/- macrophages and TLR4- ...


The Time-Course Of The Effects Of Growth Hormone During Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Auditory Hair Cell Regeneration, Yajie Wang May 2012

The Time-Course Of The Effects Of Growth Hormone During Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Auditory Hair Cell Regeneration, Yajie Wang

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Growth hormone (GH) was upregulated in the zebrafish inner ear following sound exposure in a previous study. To identify the specific role of GH in hair cell regeneration and the possible cellular mechanisms of this regeneration, groups of zebrafish were divided into baseline (no sound exposure, no injection), buffer-injected and GH-injected groups. Buffer- and GH-injected fish were exposed to a 150 Hz tone at a source level of 179 dB re 1 μPa root mean squared (RMS) for 36 h. Phalloidin-staining was used to assess the effects of GH on hair cell bundle density; BrdU-labeling was used to assess the ...


Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy Apr 2012

Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Diabetes mellitus comprises a cohort of genetic and metabolic diseases which are characterized by the hallmark symptom of hyperglycemia. Diabetic subtypes are based on their pathogenetic origins: the most prevalent subtypes are the autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the metabolic disease of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Genetic factors are major contributory aspects to diabetes development, particularly in T2DM where there is close to 80% concordance rates between monozygotic twins. However, the functional state of the pancreatic β cell is of paramount importance to the development of diabetes. Perturbations that lead to β cell dysfunction impair insulin production ...


Flowcell Systems For Single Molecule Detection, John G. K. Williams, Gregory R. Bashford, Jiyan Chen, Dan Draney, Nara Narayanan, Bambi L. Reynolds, Pamela Sheaff Apr 2012

Flowcell Systems For Single Molecule Detection, John G. K. Williams, Gregory R. Bashford, Jiyan Chen, Dan Draney, Nara Narayanan, Bambi L. Reynolds, Pamela Sheaff

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

The present invention provides compounds, methods and systems for sequencing nucleic acid using single molecule detection. Using labeled NPs that exhibit charge-switching behavior, single-molecule DNA sequencing in a microchannel sorting system is realized. In operation, sequencing products are detected enabling real-time sequencing as successive detectable moieties flow through a detection channel. By electrically sorting charged molecules, the cleaved product molecules are detected in isolation without interference from unincorporated NPs and without illuminating the polymerase-DNA complex.


Two-Dimensional Blood Flow Velocity Estimation Using Apparent Speckle Pattern Angle Dependence On Scan Velocity, Tiantian Xu, Gregory R. Bashford Jan 2012

Two-Dimensional Blood Flow Velocity Estimation Using Apparent Speckle Pattern Angle Dependence On Scan Velocity, Tiantian Xu, Gregory R. Bashford

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

An algorithm which measures the lateral component of blood flow velocity was developed in our previous studies based on the increase in speckle size due to relative motion between moving scatterers and spatial rate of scanner A-line acquisition (scan velocity). In this paper, the apparent dominant angle of the speckle pattern in a straight vessel was investigated and a new method of two-dimensional blood flow velocity estimation is introduced. Different scan velocities were used for data acquisition from blood flow traveling at an angle relative to the ultrasound beam. The apparent angle of the speckle pattern changes with different scan ...


Glucocorticoid Actions On Brain Serotonergic Systems, Nina Caroline Donner Jan 2012

Glucocorticoid Actions On Brain Serotonergic Systems, Nina Caroline Donner

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Repeated or chronic stress experience can precipitate serious psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety. In many psychiatric disorders, both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and brain serotonergic systems are dysregulated. My dissertation addresses the role that glucocorticoids (GCs) play in the control of brain serotonergic function. The overarching hypothesis is that chronically elevated GCs in otherwise healthy individuals, acting through corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-dependent mechanisms, are sufficient to worsen emotionality and alter serotonergic functionality. To test this hypothesis, I developed a non-invasive rodent model by treating adult, male rats chronically with corticosterone (CORT), the rodent equivalent to human cortisol, via the ...


Fetal Arterial Mechanics In Health And Disease: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) And Preeclampsia (Pe) Biomechanical Changes In Vascular Development, Reuben Blair Dodson Jan 2012

Fetal Arterial Mechanics In Health And Disease: Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) And Preeclampsia (Pe) Biomechanical Changes In Vascular Development, Reuben Blair Dodson

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Preeclampsia (PE) is a maternal disease of pregnancy, which affects up to 5-10% of all pregnancies. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly seen by itself or with preeclampsia and affects up to 8% of pregnancies. These common complications of pregnancy are associated with both acute and chronic complications for the fetus and newborn. Studies have consistently shown that children whose mothers experience maternal complications during gestation are developmentally programmed for cardiovascular disease later in life. The work in this dissertation aims to better understand the impacts of maternal disease-induced fetal programming on vascular compliance, blood flow and blood pressure within ...


Monitoring Cerebral Hemodynamics With Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound During Cognitive And Exercise Testing In Adults Following Unilateral Stroke, Brian P. Watt, Judith M. Burnfield, Edward J. Truemper, Thad W. Buster, Gregory R. Bashford Jan 2012

Monitoring Cerebral Hemodynamics With Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound During Cognitive And Exercise Testing In Adults Following Unilateral Stroke, Brian P. Watt, Judith M. Burnfield, Edward J. Truemper, Thad W. Buster, Gregory R. Bashford

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

An observational study was performed as a preliminary investigation into the use of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) for recording cerebral hemodynamic changes during multiple tasks. TCD is a method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ultrasound transducers in contact with the surface of the head. Using the maximum flow envelope of the Doppler spectrum returning from the middle cerebral artery (MCA), standard clinical flow indices can be calculated and displayed in real time providing information concerning perturbations in CBF and their potential cause. These indices as well as flow velocity measurements have been recognized as useful in measuring changes ...


Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

We describe a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells stimulated by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In contrast to "regular," round-shaped blebs, which are often seen in response to cell damage, pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs) formed as longitudinal membrane protrusions toward anode. PLB length could exceed the cell diameter in 2 min of exposure to 60-ns, 10-kV/cm pulses delivered at 10-20 Hz. Both PLBs and round-shaped nsPEF-induced blebs could be efficiently inhibited by partial isosmotic replacement of bath NaCl for a larger solute (sucrose), thereby pointing to the colloid-osmotic water uptake as the principal driving force for ...


A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel Jan 2012

A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel

CMC Senior Theses

The field of stem cell research has been growing more because of the interest in using stem cells to cure diseases and heal injuries. Human embryonic stem cells, because of the controversy surrounding them—and subsequently the difficulties in acquiring samples of the existing aging cell lines—can only be used in limited capacities. While the development of induced pluripotent stem cells in the last decade has allowed the field to progress closer to medical treatments, the low efficiency of reprogramming a somatic cell to a pluripotent state, and the vast molecular and genomic differences between human embryonic stem cells ...


Cell Cycle Arrest Associated With Anoxia-Induced Quiescence, Anoxic Preconditioning, And Embryonic Diapause In Embryos Of The Annual Killifish Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Camie Lynn Meller, Robert Meller, Roger P. Simon, Kristin M. Culpepper, Jason E. Podrabsky Jan 2012

Cell Cycle Arrest Associated With Anoxia-Induced Quiescence, Anoxic Preconditioning, And Embryonic Diapause In Embryos Of The Annual Killifish Austrofundulus Limnaeus, Camie Lynn Meller, Robert Meller, Roger P. Simon, Kristin M. Culpepper, Jason E. Podrabsky

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Embryos of the annual killifish Austrofundulus limnaeus can enter into dormancy associated with diapause and anoxia-induced quiescence. Dormant embryos are composed primarily of cells arrested in the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle based on flow cytometry analysis of DNA content. In fact, most cells in developing embryos contain only a diploid complement of DNA, with very few cells found in the S, G2, or M phases of the cell cycle. Diapause II embryos appear to be in a G0-like state with low levels of cyclin D1 and p53. However, the active form of pAKT is high during diapause ...


Synergy Between Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) E-Peptides And Igf-I Signaling Alters Growth In Skeletal Muscle, Becky Kathleen Brisson Jan 2012

Synergy Between Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) E-Peptides And Igf-I Signaling Alters Growth In Skeletal Muscle, Becky Kathleen Brisson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent growth factor that regulates and promotes growth in many types of cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle. The igf1 gene encodes mature IGF-I and a carboxy-terminal extension called the E-peptide. In rodents, alternative splicing and post-translational processing produce two E-peptides (EA and EB). The mature IGF-I produced by both isoforms is identical, while EA and EB share less than 50% homology. EB has been studied extensively and has been reported to promote cell proliferation and migration independently of IGF-I and its receptor (IGF-IR) in culture, but the mechanism by which EB causes these ...


Aberrant Sialylation Alters Cardiac Electrical Signaling, Andrew Ednie Jan 2012

Aberrant Sialylation Alters Cardiac Electrical Signaling, Andrew Ednie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the heart, electrical signaling is responsible for its rhythmicity and is necessary to initiate muscle contraction. The net electrical activity in a cardiac myocyte during a contraction cycle is observed as the action potential (AP), which describes a change in membrane potential as a function of time. In ventricular cardiac myocytes, voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) and voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) play antagonistic roles in shaping the AP with the former initiating membrane depolarization and the latter repolarizing it. Functional changes in the primary cardiac Nav isoform, Nav 1.5, or any one of the many Kv isoforms expressed in ...


Template-Based Structure Prediction And Classification Of Transcription Factors In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tao Lu, Yuedong Yang, Bo Yao, Song Liu, Yaoqi Zhou, Chi Zhang Jan 2012

Template-Based Structure Prediction And Classification Of Transcription Factors In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tao Lu, Yuedong Yang, Bo Yao, Song Liu, Yaoqi Zhou, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plants. However, there is no systematic study of their structures and functions of most TFs in plants. Here, we performed template-based structure prediction for all TFs in Arabidopsis thaliana, with their full-length sequences as well as C-terminal and N-terminal regions. A total of 2,918 model structures were obtained with a high confidence score. We find that TF families employ only a smaller number of templates for DNA-binding domains (DBD) but a diverse number of templates for transcription regulatory domains (TRD). Although TF families are classified according to DBD, their sizes have a ...


Symbiosis (Addiction: Biology, Psychology And Society), Ahmed Mustafa, Sharon Morgillo, Shree Dhawale Dec 2011

Symbiosis (Addiction: Biology, Psychology And Society), Ahmed Mustafa, Sharon Morgillo, Shree Dhawale

Ahmed Mustafa Dr.

No abstract provided.