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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Impact Of Collateral Enlargement On Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Alexander Jerome Bynum Dec 2011

Impact Of Collateral Enlargement On Smooth Muscle Phenotype, Alexander Jerome Bynum

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Peripheral Artery Disease is a very serious disease characterized by an arterial occlusion due to atherosclerotic plaques. In response to an arterial occlusion, arteriogenesis occurs, causing smooth muscle cells to transition from a contractile to synthetic state. Also following an arterial occlusion, functional impairment was seen in the collateral circuit. An immunofluorescence protocol was developed in order to assess the impact of collateral enlargement (arteriogenesis) on smooth muscle phenotype at various time points. Smooth muscle α-actin was used to mark all smooth muscle cells, Ki-67 was used to label proliferating smooth muscle cells, and a fluorescent nuclear stain was used ...


The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent Aug 2011

The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Astrogliosis is induced by neuronal damage and is also a pathological feature of the major aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that control the cascade of astrogliosis have not been well established. In a previous study, we identified a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein (p44/WDR77) and found that it plays a critical role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells. In the present study, we found that deletion of the p44 gene in the mouse brain caused accelerated aging with dramatic astrogliosis. The p44/WDR77 is expressed in astrocytes and loss of p44/WDR77 expression ...


Mitochondrial Metabolic Suppression And Reactive Oxygen Species Production During Hypometabolism In Mammals, Jason Cl Brown Jul 2011

Mitochondrial Metabolic Suppression And Reactive Oxygen Species Production During Hypometabolism In Mammals, Jason Cl Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

During hibernation, daily torpor, and fasting, mammals reduce metabolic rate (MR) up to 99%, 95%, and 30%, respectively, compared to resting levels. Mitochondrial metabolic suppression likely contributes to this MR reduction, and the first objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of active, regulated inhibition and passive thermal effects as body temperature (Tb) falls, to mitochondrial metabolic suppression, and to examine the mechanisms involved using top-down elasticity analysis and novel statistical approach. The second objective of this study was to determine how mitochondrial metabolic suppression affects mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, a topic which has ...


The Impact Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, 2-Phenoxyethanol, And Carvone-Methyl Salicylate On The Innate Immune Response Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Charles R. Wulff Jan 2011

The Impact Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, 2-Phenoxyethanol, And Carvone-Methyl Salicylate On The Innate Immune Response Of Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Charles R. Wulff

Honors Theses

Anesthesia plays a vital role in the maintenance of aquaculture species, where it is used to minimize stress during complex handling tasks such as transport, assessment, and harvesting. However, anesthetics have been shown to suppress the innate immune response, which could impact immunity and increase risk of infection. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and 2-Phenoxyethanol (2-PE) represent two of the most commonly used anesthetics in aquaculture, with R-(+)-carvone, in the form of carvone-methyl salicylate (CMS) has recently been proposed as an alternative anesthetic for food fish. These three anesthetics were used to assess the influence of anesthetics on the immune system ...


Destruction Of Biological Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles By Hypochlorous Acid And Its Scavenging By Lycopene, Dhiman Maitra Jan 2011

Destruction Of Biological Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles By Hypochlorous Acid And Its Scavenging By Lycopene, Dhiman Maitra

Wayne State University Dissertations

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant generated by the hemoprotein myeloperoxidase. Although HOCl plays an important role in the innate immune response,sustained high levels of HOCl has been implicated to play a harmful role. In several pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, endometriosis and sickle cell disease where HOCl is elevated there are reports of significant free iron accumulation. Free iron is toxic since it can lead to the generation of other secondary free radicals such as hydroxyl radical by Fenton reaction. The exact source and mechanism by which the free iron is generated is not clearly understood. This ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang Jan 2011

Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang

Wayne State University Dissertations

For nearly half a century, it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release ...