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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor Of Erk Activity, Christopher D. Harvey, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Haining Zhong, Ryohei Yasuda, Roger J. Davis, Karel Svoboda Dec 2008

A Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensor Of Erk Activity, Christopher D. Harvey, Anka G. Ehrhardt, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Haining Zhong, Ryohei Yasuda, Roger J. Davis, Karel Svoboda

Davis Lab Publications

The activity of the ERK has complex spatial and temporal dynamics that are important for the specificity of downstream effects. However, current biochemical techniques do not allow for the measurement of ERK signaling with fine spatiotemporal resolution. We developed a genetically encoded, FRET-based sensor of ERK activity (the extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity reporter, EKAR), optimized for signal-to-noise ratio and fluorescence lifetime imaging. EKAR selectively and reversibly reported ERK activation in HEK293 cells after epidermal growth factor stimulation. EKAR signals were correlated with ERK phosphorylation, required ERK activity, and did not report the activities of JNK or p38. EKAR reported ERK ...


Book Review: Insect Physiology And Biochemistry. Second Edition. Crc Press, Boca Raton., Russell A. Jurenka Dec 2008

Book Review: Insect Physiology And Biochemistry. Second Edition. Crc Press, Boca Raton., Russell A. Jurenka

Entomology Publications

Insect physiology is a specialized discipline within the larger framework of animal physiology. Almost every graduate program in Entomology has a requirement for an insect physiology course and an up to date textbook is required. Students using insects as model organisms should also be interested in this textbook. The textbook primarily describes physiology but there is quite a bit of biochemistry, which adds to the text as a resource. Physiology and biochemistry should be taught together; in order to understand physiology the biochemistry behind the physiology must also be understood. This 2nd edition textbook does a nice job of ...


Evidence For Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior In Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females, David L. Dorhout, Thomas W. Sappington, Marlin E. Rice Oct 2008

Evidence For Obligate Migratory Flight Behavior In Young European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Females, David L. Dorhout, Thomas W. Sappington, Marlin E. Rice

Entomology Publications

European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, flight behavior was examined in laboratory experiments. Adults were each tethered to 1 of 16 round-about flight mills in an environmental chamber, and the data were relayed to a computer. Parameters analyzed included duration, distance, and speed of the longest continuous flight and total flight time during an 8-h night. Comparisons were made between unmated and mated adults of both sexes at different ages up to 5 d after emergence. For unmated females, duration of the longest flight was highest the first night after emergence, declining significantly by 5 d of age. In contrast, duration ...


Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima Jun 2008

Predator-Induced Plasticity In Sleep Architecture In Wild-Caught Norway Rats (Rattus Norvegicus), John Lesku, Rebekah Bark, Dolores Martinez-Gonzalez, Niels Rattenborg, Charles Amlaner, Steven Lima

Charles J. Amlaner

Sleep is a prominent behaviour in the lives of animals, but the unresponsiveness that characterizes sleep makes it dangerous. Mammalian sleep is composed of two neurophysiological states: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Given that the intensity of stimuli required to induce an arousal to wakefulness is highest during deep SWS or REM sleep, mammals may be most vulnerable during these states. If true, then animals should selectively reduce deep SWS and REM sleep following an increase in the risk of predation. To test this prediction, we simulated a predatory encounter with 10 wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus ...


Tendinopathy Discrimination By Use Of Spatial Frequency Parameters In Ultrasound B-Mode Images, Gregory R. Bashford, Nicholas Tomsen, Shruti Arya, Judith M. Burnfield, Kornelia Kulig May 2008

Tendinopathy Discrimination By Use Of Spatial Frequency Parameters In Ultrasound B-Mode Images, Gregory R. Bashford, Nicholas Tomsen, Shruti Arya, Judith M. Burnfield, Kornelia Kulig

Biomedical Imaging and Biosignal Analysis Laboratory

The structural characteristics of a healthy tendon are related to the anisotropic speckle patterns observed in ultrasonic images. This speckle orientation is disrupted upon damage to the tendon structure as observed in patients with tendinopathy. Quantification of the structural appearance of tendon shows promise in creating a tool for diagnosing, prognosing, or measuring changes in tendon organization over time. The current work describes a first step taken towards this goal—classification of Achilles tendon images into tendinopathy and control categories. Eight spatial frequency parameters were extracted from regions of interest on tendon images, filtered and classified using linear discriminant analysis ...


Calcium And Cell Volume Regulation In Alligator Mississippiensis Erythrocytes, Alina Spivak Apr 2008

Calcium And Cell Volume Regulation In Alligator Mississippiensis Erythrocytes, Alina Spivak

Eukaryon

Maintenance of proper cell volume is critical for cell survival and proliferation; consequently, animal cells routinely control their volume to maintain homeostasis. For instance, biological processes such as the response to ischemia (insufficient blood flow), lymphocyte activation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death) are associated with changes in cell volume. It has been well established that osmotic swelling associated with a hypotonic medium is followed by a regulated volume decrease (RVD) resulting from the efflux of specific solutes. However, the signaling mechanisms of RVD are ill defined. The effect of calcium on RVD was studied because this ion is a common ...


Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 Regulates Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition Induced By Tgf-Beta1, John F. Alcorn, Amy S. Guala, Jos Van Der Velden, Brian Mcelhinney, Charles G. Irvin, Roger J. Davis, Yvonne M.W. Janssen-Heininger Apr 2008

Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 Regulates Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition Induced By Tgf-Beta1, John F. Alcorn, Amy S. Guala, Jos Van Der Velden, Brian Mcelhinney, Charles G. Irvin, Roger J. Davis, Yvonne M.W. Janssen-Heininger

Davis Lab Publications

Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a cardinal cytokine in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling, and promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As a molecular interaction between TGF-beta1 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been demonstrated, the goal of this study was to elucidate whether JNK plays a role in TGF-beta1-induced EMT. Primary cultures of mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) from wild-type, JNK1-/- or JNK2-/- mice were comparatively evaluated for their ability to undergo EMT in response to TGF-beta1. Wild-type MTEC exposed to TGF-beta1 demonstrated a prominent induction of mesenchymal mediators and a loss of epithelial markers, in conjunction with a loss ...


Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven Jan 2008

Distinct Phospho-Forms Of Cortactin Differentially Regulate Actin Polymerization And Focal Adhesions, Anne E. Kruchten, Eugene W. Krueger, Yu Wang, Mark A. Mcniven

Faculty Publications

Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is overexpressed in many cancers and is a substrate for both tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin has been observed to increase cell motility and invasion in vivo, although it has been reported to have both positive and negative effects on actin polymerization in vitro. In contrast, serine phosphorylation of cortactin has been shown to stimulate actin assembly in vitro. Currently, the effects of cortactin serine phosphorylation on cell migration are unclear, and furthermore, how the distinct phospho-forms of cortactin may differentially contribute to cell migration has not been directly compared ...


C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production During Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Infection, Joao H.F. Pedra, Jochen Mattner, Jian Tao, Steven M. Kerfoot, Roger J. Davis, Richard A. Flavell, Philip W. Askenase, Zhinan Yin, Erol Fikrig Jan 2008

C-Jun Nh2-Terminal Kinase 2 Inhibits Gamma Interferon Production During Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Infection, Joao H.F. Pedra, Jochen Mattner, Jian Tao, Steven M. Kerfoot, Roger J. Davis, Richard A. Flavell, Philip W. Askenase, Zhinan Yin, Erol Fikrig

Davis Lab Publications

Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) plays a critical role in the early eradication of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. However, the mechanisms that regulate IFN-gamma production upon infection remain poorly understood. Here we show that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) inhibits IFN-gamma production during A. phagocytophilum infection. jnk2-null mice were more refractory to infection with A. phagocytophilum and produced increased levels of IFN-gamma after challenge with the pathogen. The resistance of jnk2-null mice to A. phagocytophilum infection was due to elevated levels of IFN-gamma secreted by conventional and natural killer (NK) T cells. The administration of alpha-galactosylceramide, a strong NK T-cell agonist, increased IFN-gamma release ...


Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor) Dec 2007

Single Slide Sets To Accompany The Srs Basics Of Sleep Guide (Version 1.1), Charles Amlaner (Editor), Orfeu Buxton (Editor)

Charles J. Amlaner

Contains 10 hour-long peer-reviewed lectures in Powerpoint based on the SRS basics of sleep guide.