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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson Jun 2019

Tracing Nutrient Sources To Lipid Production In Insects Using Stable Isotope (Δ13c, Δ2h) Tracers: Implications For Nutritional Physiology Of Migratory Species., Libesha Anparasan, Keith A. Hobson

Western Research Forum

Using stable isotope measurements of insect tissues to determine origin and migratory patterns is well established. However, isotopically determining nutritional origins of lipids, the primary fuel of migration, has not been as thoroughly researched. We explored isotopic links between diet and stored lipids in laboratory raised True armyworm moths (Mythimna unipuncta) using δ13C and δ2H measurements. Pupae were randomly separated into four groups (n=20) and fed isotopically distinct nectar, each consisting of a combination of high δ13C (C4 sugar), or low δ13C (C3 sugar) carbohydrate, with high δ2H (deuterium ...


Maternal Protein Restriction (Mpr): A Risk Factor For Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Ards), Reza Khazaee Mar 2018

Maternal Protein Restriction (Mpr): A Risk Factor For Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Ards), Reza Khazaee

Western Research Forum

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as severe lung dysfunction. The lung impairments in ARDS result from alterations to pulmonary surfactant; a lipid-protein mixture coating the inside of the lung and maintains the lungs’ ability to expand easily. Due to a lack of effective pharmacological therapies mortality associated with ARDS is over 30%. Our research focuses on risk factors that indicate a susceptibility to the disease, which could provide new and early therapeutic options. One such potential risk factor is Maternal Protein Restriction (MPR). MPR is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset ...


Developing Novel Therapeutics For Bacterial Lung Infections, Brandon J. Baer, Ruud Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita Mar 2018

Developing Novel Therapeutics For Bacterial Lung Infections, Brandon J. Baer, Ruud Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial lung infections are leading causes of death worldwide. Unfortunately, increasing resistance to antibiotics and the inflammation often accompanying these infections are leading to poor outcomes despite antibiotic intervention. Complicating treatment further, the tree-like branching structure of the lung makes drug delivery to distal sites of infection difficult. Our research aims to address these challenges by developing new therapeutics and new tools to improve and assess drug delivery, bacterial killing and inflammation. Our therapy combines host defense peptides, which have been shown to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria and down regulate inflammation, with a pulmonary vehicle, exogenous surfactant, that can improve ...


Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel May 2017

Endocrine And Metabolic Effects Of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical And Clinical Studies", Peter Havel

Science Seminar Series

Peter J. Havel of the School of Veterinary Medicine at UC Davis will speak on his research on Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Preclinical and clinical studies at this Science Seminar Series lecture.


Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg May 2017

Capacitive Memory Alters Alternans And Spontaneous Activity In A Minimal Cardiomyocyte Model, Tien Comlekoglu, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes Apr 2017

Using Fluorescence Microscopy To Identify A Potential New Treatment For Heart Failure, Ryan D. Himes

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cardiac glycosides have been used to treat heart failure for centuries, but they have a narrow therapeutic window, as they inhibit their target receptor nearly irreversibly. Overdoses can lead to arrhythmias. Phospholemman is a natural inhibitor of the same target as cardiac glycosides. It is possible that mutating phospholemman could achieve the same therapeutic benefit, while allowing cells to reverse the inhibition and thereby avoid an arrhythmia. I used fluorescence microscopy to screen candidate phospholemman mutants and identify one that binds more avidly to its target than the naturally occurring phospholemman. This mutant, L30A, caused similar effects as cardiac glycosides ...


Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model Mar 2017

Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer Mar 2017

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Molecular Regulation Of Stem Cell Behavior During Tissue Repair And Cancer Formation, Nestor J. Oviedo Mar 2017

Molecular Regulation Of Stem Cell Behavior During Tissue Repair And Cancer Formation, Nestor J. Oviedo

Science Seminar Series

Oviedo will be presenting his work on identifying the mechanisms of adult stem cell fate determination based on their topographical location in the adult body. Understanding stem cell fate determination is crucial because tissue repair and neoplastic growth are greater in anterior than in posterior regions of adult animals. Despite its critical implications for stem cell biology, carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine, this physiological phenomenon has remained overlooked. Recent findings from his group provide intriguing evidence implying DNA repair mechanisms and cellular signaling through post-translational modifications regulate stem cell fate decision depending on their topographical location in the adult body. We ...


Design Of Novel Ion Channel Modulators, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy Nov 2016

Design Of Novel Ion Channel Modulators, Vladimir Yarov-Yarovoy

Science Seminar Series

Function and modulation of neuronal sodium channels are critical for the neuromodulation of electrical excitability and synaptic transmission in neurons - the basis for many aspects of signal transduction, learning, memory and physiological regulation. Mutations in neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel genes are responsible for various human neurological disorders. Furthermore, human neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels are primary targets of therapeutic drugs used as local anesthetics and for treatment of neurological and cardiac disorders. Yarov-Yarovoy's lab is working on rational design of novel therapeutically useful blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels for treatment of pain and epilepsy. Serious, chronic pain affects at least ...


Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis Oct 2016

Maintenance Of The Ph Gradient In The Gastric Mucus Layer., Owen Lewis

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Geometric Control Of Yap-Dependent Mechanotransduction: A Proposed Model, Ngozi A. Eze, Heather A. Cirka, Kristen L. Billiar May 2016

Geometric Control Of Yap-Dependent Mechanotransduction: A Proposed Model, Ngozi A. Eze, Heather A. Cirka, Kristen L. Billiar

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The Billiar lab is interested in the interplay between mechanical tension and programmed cell death (namely, apoptosis) in cells growing on micro-contact printed aggregates. The Billiar lab uses a bioinspired hydrogel to develop an in vitro model for mechanosensitive signaling in mammalian cells. The micro-contact printed cell aggregates experience a loss of tensional homeostasis at the center of the aggregates, which results in selective cell death at the center, but not periphery of the aggregates, followed by calcification, similar to excised diseased aortic valves. However, the subcellular mechanisms responsible for transducing the mechanical cues from the loss of tensional homeostasis ...


Mice Deficient In Sfrp1 Exhibit Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism, Lotfi M. Bassa, Kelly J. Gauger, Elizabeth M. Henchey, Melissa Brown, Sallie S. Schneider May 2014

Mice Deficient In Sfrp1 Exhibit Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism, Lotfi M. Bassa, Kelly J. Gauger, Elizabeth M. Henchey, Melissa Brown, Sallie S. Schneider

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain and glucose homeostasis in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO). Sfrp1-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body ...


Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry May 2014

Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin utilize common signaling pathways, via smad2/3 and smad4, to mediate tumor suppression by effecting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Differences in temporal expression patterns suggest that each cytokine has specific roles in mammary gland development. Activin is expressed during pregnancy and lactation and is required for branching and lactogenesis, implying a role in mammary gland maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta is expressed during involution during mammary gland regression and functions to re-organize the mammary epithelial content to the non-lactating state. Previously, we found that TGF-beta and activin do share common signaling pathways allowing ...


Fluorescent Probes For Molecular Imaging Of Ros/Rns Species In Living Systems, Maolin Guo, Yibin Wei, Weiqi Yang, Xiaofei Fu, Yi Zhang, Bing Yan May 2014

Fluorescent Probes For Molecular Imaging Of Ros/Rns Species In Living Systems, Maolin Guo, Yibin Wei, Weiqi Yang, Xiaofei Fu, Yi Zhang, Bing Yan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are highly reactive species which play crucial roles in many fundamental physiological processes including cellular signalling pathways. Over-production of these reactive species by various stimuli leads to cellular oxidative stress which is linked to various disease conditions. Therefore, the development of novel detection methods for ROS and RNS is of great interest and indispensable for monitoring the dynamic changes of ROS and RNS in cells and for elucidating their mechanisms of trafficking and connections to diseases. We have been recently developing various fluorescent sensors which can selectively detect metal ions, ROS ...


Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis: Focusing On The Role Of Exercise And Flavonoids, Mahdi Garelnabi, Halleh Mahini May 2013

Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis: Focusing On The Role Of Exercise And Flavonoids, Mahdi Garelnabi, Halleh Mahini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the majority of death in the world. A number of determinants most of them associated with lifestyle starting from early childhood onwards are responsible for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). Some risk factors facilitate the development of atherosclerosis, while others participate in the plaques formation, resulting in the manifestation of the disease.

Objectives: In the current study we investigated the role of exercise and antioxidants intakes; specifically quercetin in mouse model. We looked into the sex responses to the quercetin intake and physical activity. We also looked into the effect of quercetin treatment on HepG2 cell ...


Effect Of Temperature And Oxygen Levels On Lactate Production In Palaemonetes Pugio, Robin Schofield, Teresa Mika, Carl Reiber Apr 2011

Effect Of Temperature And Oxygen Levels On Lactate Production In Palaemonetes Pugio, Robin Schofield, Teresa Mika, Carl Reiber

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Oxygen delivery rates must keep pace with the increased metabolic rate observed in poikilothermic animals exposed to increased temperature if aerobic metabolism is to be maintained. Physical failure of the oxygen delivery system to meet these demands may be a mechanism of cardiac failure in crustaceans at temperature extremes. As part of the determination of the effect of temperature on the cardio-respiratory system, we are measuring whole animal lactate levels in grass shrimp acclimated to 20°C over temperature ranges in normoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Lactate levels are measured as an indicator of a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism ...