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Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

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Physiology

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Geometric Control Of Yap-Dependent Mechanotransduction: A Proposed Model, Ngozi A. Eze, Heather A. Cirka, Kristen L. Billiar May 2016

Geometric Control Of Yap-Dependent Mechanotransduction: A Proposed Model, Ngozi A. Eze, Heather A. Cirka, Kristen L. Billiar

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The Billiar lab is interested in the interplay between mechanical tension and programmed cell death (namely, apoptosis) in cells growing on micro-contact printed aggregates. The Billiar lab uses a bioinspired hydrogel to develop an in vitro model for mechanosensitive signaling in mammalian cells. The micro-contact printed cell aggregates experience a loss of tensional homeostasis at the center of the aggregates, which results in selective cell death at the center, but not periphery of the aggregates, followed by calcification, similar to excised diseased aortic valves. However, the subcellular mechanisms responsible for transducing the mechanical cues from the loss of tensional homeostasis ...


Mice Deficient In Sfrp1 Exhibit Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism, Lotfi M. Bassa, Kelly J. Gauger, Elizabeth M. Henchey, Melissa Brown, Sallie S. Schneider May 2014

Mice Deficient In Sfrp1 Exhibit Increased Adiposity, Dysregulated Glucose Metabolism, Lotfi M. Bassa, Kelly J. Gauger, Elizabeth M. Henchey, Melissa Brown, Sallie S. Schneider

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of obesity and related complications remain unclear. Wnt signaling plays an important role in preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. The expression of a Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1), is increased in response to initial weight gain, then levels are reduced under conditions of extreme obesity in both humans and animals. Here we report that loss of Sfrp1 exacerbates weight gain and glucose homeostasis in mice in response to diet induced obesity (DIO). Sfrp1-/- mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) exhibited an increase in body mass accompanied by increases in body ...


Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry May 2014

Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin utilize common signaling pathways, via smad2/3 and smad4, to mediate tumor suppression by effecting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Differences in temporal expression patterns suggest that each cytokine has specific roles in mammary gland development. Activin is expressed during pregnancy and lactation and is required for branching and lactogenesis, implying a role in mammary gland maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta is expressed during involution during mammary gland regression and functions to re-organize the mammary epithelial content to the non-lactating state. Previously, we found that TGF-beta and activin do share common signaling pathways allowing ...


Fluorescent Probes For Molecular Imaging Of Ros/Rns Species In Living Systems, Maolin Guo, Yibin Wei, Weiqi Yang, Xiaofei Fu, Yi Zhang, Bing Yan May 2014

Fluorescent Probes For Molecular Imaging Of Ros/Rns Species In Living Systems, Maolin Guo, Yibin Wei, Weiqi Yang, Xiaofei Fu, Yi Zhang, Bing Yan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) are highly reactive species which play crucial roles in many fundamental physiological processes including cellular signalling pathways. Over-production of these reactive species by various stimuli leads to cellular oxidative stress which is linked to various disease conditions. Therefore, the development of novel detection methods for ROS and RNS is of great interest and indispensable for monitoring the dynamic changes of ROS and RNS in cells and for elucidating their mechanisms of trafficking and connections to diseases. We have been recently developing various fluorescent sensors which can selectively detect metal ions, ROS ...


Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis: Focusing On The Role Of Exercise And Flavonoids, Mahdi Garelnabi, Halleh Mahini May 2013

Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis: Focusing On The Role Of Exercise And Flavonoids, Mahdi Garelnabi, Halleh Mahini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the majority of death in the world. A number of determinants most of them associated with lifestyle starting from early childhood onwards are responsible for Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). Some risk factors facilitate the development of atherosclerosis, while others participate in the plaques formation, resulting in the manifestation of the disease.

Objectives: In the current study we investigated the role of exercise and antioxidants intakes; specifically quercetin in mouse model. We looked into the sex responses to the quercetin intake and physical activity. We also looked into the effect of quercetin treatment on HepG2 cell ...