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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, Minwoo Nam Jan 2017

Role Of Energy Metabolism In The Thermogenic Gene Program, Minwoo Nam

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In murine and human brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondria are powerful generators of heat. Emerging evidence has suggested that the actions of mitochondria extend beyond this conventional biochemical role. In mouse BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity is accompanied by attenuated expression of Ucp1, a key thermogenic gene, implying a mitochondrial retrograde signaling. However, few have investigated this association in the context of mitochondria-nucleus communication.

Using mice with adipose-specific ablation of LRPPRC, a regulator of respiratory capacity, we show that respiration-dependent retrograde signaling from mitochondria to nucleus contributes to transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming of BAT. Impaired respiratory ...


Mtorc2 Promotes Lipid Storage And Suppresses Thermogenesis In Brown Adipose Tissue In Part Through Akt-Independent Regulation Of Foxo1: A Dissertation, Chien-Min Hung Oct 2016

Mtorc2 Promotes Lipid Storage And Suppresses Thermogenesis In Brown Adipose Tissue In Part Through Akt-Independent Regulation Of Foxo1: A Dissertation, Chien-Min Hung

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Recent studies suggest adipose tissue plays a critical role in regulating whole body energy homeostasis in both animals and humans. In particular, activating brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity is now appreciated as a potential therapeutic strategy against obesity and metabolic disease. However, the signaling circuits that coordinate nutrient uptake and BAT function are poorly understood. Here, I investigated the role of the nutrient-sensing mTOR signaling pathway in BAT by conditionally deleting Rictor, which encodes an essential component of mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) either in brown adipocyte precursors or mature brown adipocytes. In general, inhibiting BAT mTORC2 reduces glucose uptake and ...


Viral Proteases As Drug Targets And The Mechanisms Of Drug Resistance: A Dissertation, Kuan-Hung Lin Sep 2016

Viral Proteases As Drug Targets And The Mechanisms Of Drug Resistance: A Dissertation, Kuan-Hung Lin

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Viral proteases have been shown to be effective targets of anti-viral therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, under the pressure of therapy including protease inhibitors, the virus evolves to select drug resistance mutations both in the protease and substrates. In my thesis study, I aimed to understand the mechanisms of how this protease−substrate co-evolution contributes to drug resistance. Currently, there are no approved drugs against dengue virus (DENV); I investigated substrate recognition by DENV protease and designed cyclic peptides as inhibitors targeting the prime site of dengue protease.

First, I used X-ray crystallography ...


Understanding Drug Resistance And Antibody Neutralization Escape In Antivirals: A Dissertation, Kristina L. Prachanronarong Apr 2016

Understanding Drug Resistance And Antibody Neutralization Escape In Antivirals: A Dissertation, Kristina L. Prachanronarong

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Antiviral drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of viral infections, including influenza and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Influenza neuraminidase (NA) is a viral sialidase on the surface of the influenza virion and a primary antiviral target in influenza. Two subtypes of NA predominate in humans, N1 and N2, but different patterns of drug resistance have emerged in each subtype. To provide a framework for understanding the structural basis of subtype specific drug resistance mutations in NA, we used molecular dynamics simulations to define dynamic substrate envelopes for NA to determine how different patterns of drug resistance have ...


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen Dec 2015

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In Dynamics Of Transcriptional Response To Stress In Yeast: A Dissertation, Hsiuyi V. Chen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The following work demonstrates that chromatin regulators play far more pronounced roles in dynamic gene expression than they do in steady-state. Histone modifications have been associated with transcription activity. However, previous analyses of gene expression in mutants affecting histone modifications show limited alteration. I systematically dissected the effects of 83 histone mutants and 119 gene deletion mutants on gene induction/repression in response to diamide stress in yeast. Importantly, I observed far more changes in gene induction/repression than changes in steady-state gene expression. The extensive dynamic gene expression profile of histone mutants and gene deletion mutants also allowed me ...


Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu Oct 2015

Roles Of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 7 And Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 6 In Adipocyte Differentiation: A Dissertation, Yu-Jie Hu

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Regulation of gene expression comprises a wide range of mechanisms that control the abundance of gene products in response to environmental and developmental changes. These biological processes can be modulated by posttranslational modifications including arginine methylation. Among the enzymes that catalyze the methylation, protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is known to modify histones to repress gene expression. Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is a putative arginine demethylase that potentially antagonize PRMT7. However, the biological significance of these enzymes is not well understood. This thesis summarizes the investigation of both PRMT7 and JMJD6 in cell culture models for adipocyte differentiation. The ...


Investigating The Effects Of Mutant Fus On Stress Response In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Thesis, Laura J. Kaushansky Aug 2015

Investigating The Effects Of Mutant Fus On Stress Response In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Thesis, Laura J. Kaushansky

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During stress, eukaryotes regulate protein synthesis in part through formation of cytoplasmic, non-membrane-bound complexes called stress granules (SGs). SGs transiently store signaling proteins and stalled translational complexes in response to stress stimuli (e.g. oxidative insult, DNA damage, temperature shifts and ER dysfunction). The functional outcome of SGs is proper translational regulation and signaling, allowing cells to overcome stress.

The fatal motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) develops in an age-related manner and is marked by progressive neuronal death, with cytoplasmic protein aggregation, excitotoxicity and increased oxidative stress as major hallmarks. Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Liposarcoma (FUS) is ...


Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, Laura V. Danai Apr 2015

Role Of Protein Kinase Map4k4 In Energy Metabolism: A Dissertation, Laura V. Danai

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Systemic glucose regulation is essential for human survival as low or chronically high glucose levels can be detrimental to the health of an individual. Glucose levels are highly regulated via inter-organ communication networks that alter metabolic function to maintain euglycemia. For example, when nutrient levels are low, pancreatic α-cells secrete glucagon, which signals to the liver to promote glycogen breakdown and glucose production. In times of excess nutrient intake, pancreatic β-cells release insulin. Insulin signals to the liver to suppress hepatic glucose production, and signals to the adipose tissue and the skeletal muscle to take up excess glucose via insulin-regulated ...


Chromatin Regulators And Dna Repair: A Dissertation, Gwendolyn M. Bennett Dec 2014

Chromatin Regulators And Dna Repair: A Dissertation, Gwendolyn M. Bennett

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintenance of genome stability. However, the compaction of the eukaryotic genome into chromatin creates an inherent barrier to any DNA-mediated event, such as during DNA repair. This demands that there be mechanisms to modify the chromatin structure and thus access DNA. Recent work has implicated a host of chromatin regulators in the DNA damage response and several functional roles have been defined. Yet the mechanisms that control their recruitment to DNA lesions, and their relationship with concurrent histone modifications, remain unclear. We find that efficient DSB recruitment of many yeast chromatin regulators ...


Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine Sep 2014

Small Rnas And Argonautes Provide A Paternal Epigenetic Memory Of Germline Gene Expression To Promote Thermotolerant Male Fertility: A Dissertation, Colin C. Conine

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During each life cycle, gametes must preserve and pass on both genetic and epigenetic information, making the germline both immortal and totipotent. In the male germline the dramatic morphological transformation of a germ cell through meiosis, into a sperm competent for fertilization, while retaining this information is an incredible example of cellular differentiation. This process of spermatogenesis is inherently thermosensitive in numerous metazoa ranging from worms to man. Here, I describe the role of two redundant AGO-class paralogs, ALG-3/4, and their small RNA cofactors, in promoting thermotolerant male fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. alg-3/4 double mutants exhibit temperature dependent ...


An Integrated Structural Mechanism For Relief Of Autoinhibition And Membrane Targeting In Cytohesin Family Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: A Dissertation, Andrew W. Malaby Apr 2014

An Integrated Structural Mechanism For Relief Of Autoinhibition And Membrane Targeting In Cytohesin Family Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: A Dissertation, Andrew W. Malaby

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) regulate and organize diverse cellular processes through their role in converting GTPases from the inactive GDP bound state to the active GTP bound state. An increasing number of GEFs undergo autoregulatory mechanisms through complex intramolecular interactions. Relief of autoinhibition involves specific phosphorylation or binding to lipid and/or effector proteins at sites distal from the catalytic domain, and is often coupled to membrane recruitment. In Cytohesin Arf GEFs, the catalytic Sec7 domain is autoinhibited by a linker region and C-terminal helix flanking a Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain. Upon binding of the PH domain to low ...


Fus/Tls In Stress Response - Implications For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Dissertation, Reddy Ranjith Kumar Sama Mar 2014

Fus/Tls In Stress Response - Implications For Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Dissertation, Reddy Ranjith Kumar Sama

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. ALS is typically adult onset and is characterized by rapidly progressive loss of both upper and lower motor neurons that leads to death usually within 3-5 years. About 90% of all the cases are sporadic with no family history while the remaining 10% are familial cases with mutations in several genes including SOD1, FUS/TLS, TDP43 and C9ORF72.

FUS/TLS (Fused in Sarcoma/Translocated in Liposarcoma or FUS) is an RNA/DNA binding protein that is involved in multiple cellular functions including DNA damage ...


Analyses Of All Possible Point Mutations Within A Protein Reveals Relationships Between Function And Experimental Fitness: A Dissertation, Benjamin P. Roscoe Mar 2014

Analyses Of All Possible Point Mutations Within A Protein Reveals Relationships Between Function And Experimental Fitness: A Dissertation, Benjamin P. Roscoe

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The primary amino acid sequence of a protein governs its specific cellular functions. Since the cracking of the genetic code in the late 1950’s, it has been possible to predict the amino acid sequence of a given protein from the DNA sequence of a gene. Nevertheless, the ability to predict a protein’s function from its primary sequence remains a great challenge in biology. In order to address this problem, we combined recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies with systematic mutagenesis strategies to assess the function of thousands of protein variants in a single experiment. Using this strategy ...


From Neurodegeneration To Infertility And Back - Exploring Functions Of Two Genes: Armc4 And Tardbp: A Dissertation, Wei Cheng Jan 2014

From Neurodegeneration To Infertility And Back - Exploring Functions Of Two Genes: Armc4 And Tardbp: A Dissertation, Wei Cheng

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes degeneration in both upper and lower motor neurons. ALS progresses relentlessly after the onset of the disease, with most patients die within 3-5 years of diagnosis, largely due to respiratory failure. Since SOD1 became the first gene whose mutations were associated with ALS in 1993, more than 17 ALS causative genes have been identified. Among them, TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP) lies in the central of ALS pathology mechanism study, because TDP43 proteinopathy is observed not only in familial ALS cases carrying TARDBP mutations, but also in most of ...


Investigation Of Multiple Concerted Mechanisms Underlying Stimulus-Induced G1 Arrest In Yeast: A Dissertation, Patricia A. Pope Jun 2013

Investigation Of Multiple Concerted Mechanisms Underlying Stimulus-Induced G1 Arrest In Yeast: A Dissertation, Patricia A. Pope

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Progression through the cell cycle is tightly controlled, and the decision whether or not to enter a new cell cycle can be influenced by both internal and external cues. For budding yeast one such external cue is pheromone treatment, which can induce G1 arrest. Two distinct mechanisms are known to be involved in this arrest, one dependent on the arrest protein Far1 and one independent of Far1, but the exact mechanisms have remained enigmatic. The studies presented here further elucidate both of these mechanisms.

We looked at two distinct aspects of the Far1-independent arrest mechanism. First, we studied the role ...


Genetic Deficiency Of Cd40 In Mice Exacerbates Metabolic Manifestations Of Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Chang-An Guo Apr 2013

Genetic Deficiency Of Cd40 In Mice Exacerbates Metabolic Manifestations Of Diet-Induced Obesity: A Dissertation, Chang-An Guo

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The past two decades have seen an explosive increase of obesity rates worldwide, with more than one billion adults overweight and 300 million of them obese. Obesity and its associated complications have become leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and major contributing factors to the rising costs of national health care.

The pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes in rodents and humans is characterized by low-grade inflammation and chronic activation of immune pathways in adipose tissue and liver. The CD40 receptor and its ligand, CD40L, initiate immune cell signaling promoting inflammation, but conflicting data on ...


Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy Apr 2012

Contribution Of Wfs1 To Pancreatic Beta Cell Survival And Adaptive Alterations In Wfs1 Deficiency: A Dissertation, Bryan M. O'Sullivan-Murphy

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Diabetes mellitus comprises a cohort of genetic and metabolic diseases which are characterized by the hallmark symptom of hyperglycemia. Diabetic subtypes are based on their pathogenetic origins: the most prevalent subtypes are the autoimmune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and the metabolic disease of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Genetic factors are major contributory aspects to diabetes development, particularly in T2DM where there is close to 80% concordance rates between monozygotic twins. However, the functional state of the pancreatic β cell is of paramount importance to the development of diabetes. Perturbations that lead to β cell dysfunction impair insulin production ...