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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Transcriptional Correlates Of Proximal-Distal Identify And Regeneration Timing In Axolotl Limbs, S. Randal Voss, David Murrugarra, Tyler B. Jensen, James R Monaghan Jun 2018

Transcriptional Correlates Of Proximal-Distal Identify And Regeneration Timing In Axolotl Limbs, S. Randal Voss, David Murrugarra, Tyler B. Jensen, James R Monaghan

Neuroscience Faculty Publications

Cells within salamander limbs retain memories that inform the correct replacement of amputated tissues at different positions along the length of the arm, with proximal and distal amputations completing regeneration at similar times. We investigated the possibility that positional memory is associated with variation in transcript abundances along the proximal-distal limb axis. Transcripts were deeply sampled from Ambystoma mexicanum limbs at the time they were administered fore arm vs upper arm amputations, and at 19 post-amputation time points. After amputation and prior to regenerative outgrowth, genes typically expressed by differentiated muscle cells declined more rapidly in upper arms while cell ...


Increased Liver Tumor Formation In Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2-Deficient Mice, Liansheng Zhong, Ji Na Kong, Michael B. Dinkins, Silvia Leanhart, Zhihui Zhu, Stefka D. Spassieva, Haiyan Qin, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Rebecca Wang, Xue Jiang, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Guanghu Wang, Erhard Bieberich Mar 2018

Increased Liver Tumor Formation In Neutral Sphingomyelinase-2-Deficient Mice, Liansheng Zhong, Ji Na Kong, Michael B. Dinkins, Silvia Leanhart, Zhihui Zhu, Stefka D. Spassieva, Haiyan Qin, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Rebecca Wang, Xue Jiang, Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian, Guanghu Wang, Erhard Bieberich

Physiology Faculty Publications

Sphingolipids are key signaling lipids in cancer. Genome-wide studies have identified neutral SMase-2 (nSMase2), an enzyme generating ceramide from SM, as a potential repressor for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, little is known about the sphingolipids regulated by nSMase2 and their roles in liver tumor development. We discovered growth of spontaneous liver tumors in 27.3% (9 of 33) of aged male nSMase2-deficient (fro/fro) mice. Lipidomics analysis showed a marked increase of SM in the tumor. Unexpectedly, tumor tissues presented with more than a 7-fold increase of C16-ceramide, concurrent with upregulation of ceramide synthase 5. The fro/fro liver ...


Novel Function Of Ceramide For Regulation Of Mitochondrial Atp Release In Astrocytes, Ji-Na Kong, Zhihui Zhu, Yutaka Itokazu, Guanghu Wang, Michael B. Dinkins, Liansheng Zhong, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Silvia Leanhart, Xue Jiang, Haiyan Qin, Wenbo Zhi, Stefka D. Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich Jan 2018

Novel Function Of Ceramide For Regulation Of Mitochondrial Atp Release In Astrocytes, Ji-Na Kong, Zhihui Zhu, Yutaka Itokazu, Guanghu Wang, Michael B. Dinkins, Liansheng Zhong, Hsuan-Pei Lin, Ahmed Elsherbini, Silvia Leanhart, Xue Jiang, Haiyan Qin, Wenbo Zhi, Stefka D. Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich

Physiology Faculty Publications

We reported that amyloid β peptide (Aβ42) activated neutral SMase 2 (nSMase2), thereby increasing the concentration of the sphingolipid ceramide in astrocytes. Here, we show that Aβ42 induced mitochondrial fragmentation in wild-type astrocytes, but not in nSMase2-deficient cells or astrocytes treated with fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inhibitor of ceramide synthases. Unexpectedly, ceramide depletion was concurrent with rapid movements of mitochondria, indicating an unknown function of ceramide for mitochondria. Using immunocytochemistry and super-resolution microscopy, we detected ceramide-enriched and mitochondria-associated membranes (CEMAMs) that were codistributed with microtubules. Interaction of ceramide with tubulin was confirmed by cross-linking to N-[9-(3-pent-4-ynyl-3-H-diazirine-3-yl ...


Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O’Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres Dec 2017

Serine-Dependent Sphingolipid Synthesis Is A Metabolic Liability Of Aneuploid Cells, Sunyoung Hwang, H. Tobias Gustafsson, Ciara O’Sullivan, Gianna Bisceglia, Xinhe Huang, Christian Klose, Andrej Schevchenko, Robert C. Dickson, Paola Cavaliere, Noah Dephoure, Eduardo M. Torres

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Aneuploidy disrupts cellular homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological responses and adaptation to aneuploidy are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms is important because aneuploidy is associated with diseases, including intellectual disability and cancer. Although tumors and mammalian aneuploid cells, including several cancer cell lines, show altered levels of sphingolipids, the role of sphingolipids in aneuploidy remains unknown. Here, we show that ceramides and long-chain bases, sphingolipid molecules that slow proliferation and promote survival, are increased by aneuploidy. Sphingolipid levels are tightly linked to serine synthesis, and inhibiting either serine or sphingolipid synthesis can specifically impair the fitness ...


Novel Interconnections In Lipid Metabolism Revealed By Overexpression Of Sphingomyelin Synthase-1, Gergana M. Deevska, Patrick P. Dotson Ii, Alexander A. Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B. Kelly, Alfred H. Merrill Jr., Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian Jan 2017

Novel Interconnections In Lipid Metabolism Revealed By Overexpression Of Sphingomyelin Synthase-1, Gergana M. Deevska, Patrick P. Dotson Ii, Alexander A. Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B. Kelly, Alfred H. Merrill Jr., Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian

Physiology Faculty Publications

This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1) exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin) but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have fewer triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function. Treatment with 1 mm palmitate increases de novo ceramide synthesis in both cell lines to a similar degree, causing accumulation of C16:0-ceramide (and some C18:0-, C20:0-, and C22:0-ceramides) as well as C16 ...


Omecamtiv Mecarbil Enhances The Duty Ratio Of Human Β-Cardiac Myosin Resulting In Increased Calcium Sensitivity And Slowed Force Development In Cardiac Muscle, Anja M. Swenson, Wanjian Tang, Cheavar A. Blair, Christopher M. Fetrow, William C. Unrath, Michael J. Previs, Kenneth S. Campbell, Christopher M. Yengo Jan 2017

Omecamtiv Mecarbil Enhances The Duty Ratio Of Human Β-Cardiac Myosin Resulting In Increased Calcium Sensitivity And Slowed Force Development In Cardiac Muscle, Anja M. Swenson, Wanjian Tang, Cheavar A. Blair, Christopher M. Fetrow, William C. Unrath, Michael J. Previs, Kenneth S. Campbell, Christopher M. Yengo

Physiology Faculty Publications

The small molecule drug omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) specifically targets cardiac muscle myosin and is known to enhance cardiac muscle performance, yet its impact on human cardiac myosin motor function is unclear. We expressed and purified human β-cardiac myosin subfragment 1 (M2β-S1) containing a C-terminal Avi tag. We demonstrate that the maximum actin-activated ATPase activity of M2β-S1 is slowed more than 4-fold in the presence of OM, whereas the actin concentration required for half-maximal ATPase was reduced dramatically (30-fold). We find OM does not change the overall actin affinity. Transient kinetic experiments suggest that there are ...


Rad Gtpase: Identification Of Novel Regulatory Mechanisms And A New Function In Modulation Of Bone Density And Marrow Adiposity, Catherine Nicole Kaminski Withers Jan 2017

Rad Gtpase: Identification Of Novel Regulatory Mechanisms And A New Function In Modulation Of Bone Density And Marrow Adiposity, Catherine Nicole Kaminski Withers

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

The small GTP-binding protein Rad (RRAD, Ras associated with diabetes) is the founding member of the RGK (Rad, Rem, Rem2, and Gem/Kir) family that regulates voltage-dependent calcium channel function. Given its expression in both excitable and non-excitable cell types, the control mechanisms for Rad regulation and the potential for novel functions for Rad beyond calcium channel modulation are open questions. Here we report a novel interaction between Rad and Enigma, a scaffolding protein that also binds to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 1 (Smurf1). Overexpression of Smurf1, but not of a ...


Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf May 2016

Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes In Histone H2b Variants As Cells Undergo Inorganic Arsenic-Mediated Cellular Transformation, Matthew Rea, Tingting Jiang, Rebekah Eleazer, Meredith Eckstein, Alan G. Marshall, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Exposure to inorganic arsenic, a ubiquitous environmental toxic metalloid, leads to carcinogenesis. However, the mechanism is unknown. Several studies have shown that inorganic arsenic exposure alters specific gene expression patterns, possibly through alterations in chromatin structure. While most studies on understanding the mechanism of chromatin-mediated gene regulation have focused on histone post-translational modifications, the role of histone variants remains largely unknown. Incorporation of histone variants alters the functional properties of chromatin. To understand the global dynamics of chromatin structure and function in arsenic-mediated carcinogenesis, analysis of the histone variants incorporated into the nucleosome and their covalent modifications is required. Here ...


Transmural Heterogeneity Of Cellular Level Cardiac Contractile Properties In Aging And Heart Failure, Premi Haynes Jan 2014

Transmural Heterogeneity Of Cellular Level Cardiac Contractile Properties In Aging And Heart Failure, Premi Haynes

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

The left ventricle of the heart relaxes when it fills with blood and contracts to eject blood into circulation to meet the body’s metabolic demands. Dysfunction in either relaxation or contraction of the left ventricle can lead to heart failure. Transmural heterogeneity is thought to contribute to normal ventricular wall motion but it is not well understood how transmural modifications affect the failing left ventricle. The overall hypothesis of this dissertation is that normal left ventricles exhibit transmural heterogeneity in cellular level contractile properties and with aging and heart failure there are region-specific changes in cellular level contractile mechanisms ...