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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2018

Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Imaging of fluorescent small molecule transport into electropermeabilized cells reveals polarized patterns of entry, which must reflect in some way the mechanisms of the migration of these molecules across the compromised membrane barrier. In some reports, transport occurs primarily across the areas of the membrane nearest the positive electrode (anode), but in others cathode-facing entry dominates. Here we compare YO-PRO-1, propidium, and calcein uptake into U-937 cells after nanosecond (6 ns) and microsecond (220 µs) electric pulse exposures. Each of the three dyes exhibits a different pattern. Calcein shows no preference for anode- or cathode-facing entry that is detectable with ...


Structure Of The Picornavirus Replication Platform: A Potential Drug Target For Inhibiting Virus Replication, Meghan Suzanne Warden Jan 2018

Structure Of The Picornavirus Replication Platform: A Potential Drug Target For Inhibiting Virus Replication, Meghan Suzanne Warden

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

Picornaviruses are small, positive-stranded RNA viruses, divided into twelve different genera. Members of the Picornaviridae family cause a wide range of human and animal diseases including the common cold, poliomyelitis, foot and mouth disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy. The picornavirus genome is replicated via a highly conserved mechanism involving a presumed cloverleaf structure located at the 5’ noncoding region of the virus genome. The 5’ cloverleaf consists of three stem loops (B, C, and D) and one stem (A), which interact with a variety of virus and host cell proteins during replication. In this dissertation, human rhinovirus serotype 14 (HRV-14) SLB ...


The Chondrocyte Channelome: A Novel Ion Channel Candidate In The Pathogenesis Of Pectus Deformities, Anthony J. Asmar Jul 2017

The Chondrocyte Channelome: A Novel Ion Channel Candidate In The Pathogenesis Of Pectus Deformities, Anthony J. Asmar

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Costal cartilage is a type of rod-like hyaline cartilage connecting the ribs to the sternum. The chest wall deformities pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) involve displacement of the sternum causing a depression or protrusion of the chest. There is little knowledge about costal cartilage and pectus deformities with much of its understanding based on assumptions from articular cartilage. Chondrocytes are subjected to a constantly changing environment with fluctuations in pH and osmolarity. Ion channels detect these changes and in turn regulate proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Using ion channel qPCR arrays, we produced expression profiles for normal ...


Hyper-Activation Of Pp60(Src) Limits Nitric Oxide Signaling By Increasing Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels During Acute Lung Injury, Sanjiv Kumar, Xutong Sun, Satish Kumar Noonepalle, Qing Lu, Evgeny Zemskov, Ting Wang, Saurabh Aggarwal, Christine Gross, Shruti Sharma, Ankit A. Sesai, John D. Catravas Jan 2017

Hyper-Activation Of Pp60(Src) Limits Nitric Oxide Signaling By Increasing Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Levels During Acute Lung Injury, Sanjiv Kumar, Xutong Sun, Satish Kumar Noonepalle, Qing Lu, Evgeny Zemskov, Ting Wang, Saurabh Aggarwal, Christine Gross, Shruti Sharma, Ankit A. Sesai, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

The molecular mechanisms by which the endothelial barrier becomes compromised during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated acute lung injury (ALI) are still unresolved. We have previously reported that the disruption of the endothelial barrier is due, at least in part, to the uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of RhoA. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which LPS induces eNOS uncoupling during ALI. Exposure of pulmonary endothelial cells (PAEC) to LPS increased pp60Src activity and this correlated with an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production, but also an increase in ...


Mitochondrial Function Assessed By 31p Mrs And Bold Mri In Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Yuchi Liu, Xunbai Mei, Jielei Li, Nicola Lai, Xin Yu Jan 2016

Mitochondrial Function Assessed By 31p Mrs And Bold Mri In Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Yuchi Liu, Xunbai Mei, Jielei Li, Nicola Lai, Xin Yu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The study aims to characterize age-associated changes in skeletal muscle bioenergetics by evaluating the response to ischemia-reperfusion in the skeletal muscle of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a rat model of non-obese type 2 diabetes (T2D). 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI was performed on the hindlimb of young (12 weeks) and adult (20 weeks) GK and Wistar (control) rats. 31P-MRS and BOLD-MRI data were acquired continuously during an ischemia and reperfusion protocol to quantify changes in phosphate metabolites and muscle oxygenation. The time constant of phosphocreatine recovery, an index of mitochondrial oxidative capacity ...


Picosecond To Terahertz Perturbation Of Interfacial Water And Electropermeabilization Of Biological Membranes, P. Thomas Vernier, Zachary A. Levine, Ming-Chak Ho, Shu Xiao, Iurii Semenov, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2015

Picosecond To Terahertz Perturbation Of Interfacial Water And Electropermeabilization Of Biological Membranes, P. Thomas Vernier, Zachary A. Levine, Ming-Chak Ho, Shu Xiao, Iurii Semenov, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Non-thermal probing and stimulation with subnanosecond electric pulses and terahertz electromagnetic radiation may lead to new, minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and to methods for remote monitoring and analysis of biological systems, including plants, animals, and humans. To effectively engineer these still-emerging tools, we need an understanding of the biophysical mechanisms underlying the responses that have been reported to these novel stimuli. We show here that subnanosecond (≤500 ps) electric pulses induce action potentials in neurons and cause calcium transients in neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells, and we report complementary molecular dynamics simulations of phospholipid bilayers in electric fields in which ...


Introduction To Fifth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2015

Introduction To Fifth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

This special issue of the Journal of Membrane Biology contains reports on recent developments in the field of electroporation by participants in the International Workshop and Postgraduate Course on Electroporation-Based Technologies and Treatments held in November 2014 in Ljubljana. This was the eighth session of what is now an annual event, first organized in 2003.


Leptin Regulates Cd16 Expression On Human Monocytes In A Sex-Specific Manner, Joseph G. Cannon, Gyanendra Sharma, Gloria Sloan, Christiana Dimitropoulou, R. Randall Baker, Andrew Mazzoli, Barbara Kraj, Anthony Mulloy, Miriam Cortez-Cooper Jan 2014

Leptin Regulates Cd16 Expression On Human Monocytes In A Sex-Specific Manner, Joseph G. Cannon, Gyanendra Sharma, Gloria Sloan, Christiana Dimitropoulou, R. Randall Baker, Andrew Mazzoli, Barbara Kraj, Anthony Mulloy, Miriam Cortez-Cooper

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Fat mass is linked mechanistically to the cardiovascular system through leptin, a 16 kDa protein produced primarily by adipocytes. In addition to increasing blood pressure via hypothalamic-sympathetic pathways, leptin stimulates monocyte migration, cytokine secretion, and other functions that contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development. These functions are also characteristics of CD16-positive monocytes that have been implicated in the clinical progression of atherosclerosis. This investigation sought to determine if leptin promoted the development of such CD16-positive monocytes. Cells from 45 healthy men and women with age ranging from 20 to 59 years were analyzed. Circulating numbers of CD14++16++ monocytes, which are ...


Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2014

Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

This fourth special electroporation-based technologies and treatments issue of the Journal of Membrane Biology contains reports on recent developments in the field of electroporation by participants in the 7th International Workshop and Postgraduate Course on electroporation based technologies and treatments (EBTT 2013) held in Ljubljana, November 17–23, 2013. The 65 participants included faculty members, invited lecturers, special guests, and young scientists, and students from 16 countries. In addition to lectures on the fundamentals, this year’s sessions included talks on microbial inactivation by pulsed electric fields, modeling of intracellular electroporation, electroporation in food processing, and electrotransfer-facilitated DNA vaccination.


Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver Jan 2014

Basic Features Of A Cell Electroporation Model: Illustrative Behavior For Two Very Different Pulses, Reuben S. Son, Kyle C. Smith, Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar, P. Thomas Vernier, James C. Weaver

Bioelectrics Publications

Science increasingly involves complex modeling. Here we describe a model for cell electroporation in which membrane properties are dynamically modified by poration. Spatial scales range from cell membrane thickness (5 nm) to a typical mammalian cell radius (10 μm), and can be used with idealized and experimental pulse waveforms. The model consists of traditional passive components and additional active components representing nonequilibrium processes. Model responses include measurable quantities: transmembrane voltage, membrane electrical conductance, and solute transport rates and amounts for the representative "long" and "short" pulses. The long pulse-1.5 kV/cm, 100 μs-evolves two pore subpopulations with a valley ...


Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

We describe a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells stimulated by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In contrast to "regular," round-shaped blebs, which are often seen in response to cell damage, pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs) formed as longitudinal membrane protrusions toward anode. PLB length could exceed the cell diameter in 2 min of exposure to 60-ns, 10-kV/cm pulses delivered at 10-20 Hz. Both PLBs and round-shaped nsPEF-induced blebs could be efficiently inhibited by partial isosmotic replacement of bath NaCl for a larger solute (sucrose), thereby pointing to the colloid-osmotic water uptake as the principal driving force for ...


The Effects Of Cocaine And Ecstasy On Cardiac Myocytes And The Intact Myocardium, David A. Tiangco Apr 2010

The Effects Of Cocaine And Ecstasy On Cardiac Myocytes And The Intact Myocardium, David A. Tiangco

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cocaine and ecstasy are widely used illicit drugs. Both drugs have undergone intense scrutiny as information regarding their side-effects has become available. One important yet incomplete area of investigation pertains to their effects on the heart. The purpose of the current studies was to test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine or ecstasy will adversely affect cellular homeostasis and normal heart function. Cultured cardiac myocytes (H9c2) and New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used to measure the responses to various concentrations of cocaine or ecstasy at both the cellular and intact organ system levels. We observed that cocaine and ...


The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff Apr 2006

The Study Of Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Function, And Regulation In The Renal Vasculature During Postnatal Renal Development, Brian Blake Ratliff

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The newborn kidney is vulnerable to vasomotor acute renal failure (ARF) from adverse perinatal events or complications of prematurity. Nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation is vitally protective in this type of ARF, but its relationship with other vasoactive factors, such as angiotensin II (AII) has not been examined. In the immature kidney, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, specifically eNOS and nNOS, are developmentally regulated, but their specific role and regulation are unknown.

The enhanced vasodilatory role of NO in the immature kidney was hypothesized to be attributed to regulatory, expressional, and functional differences in eNOS and nNOS isoforms from the adult ...


In Vivo Role Of 20-Hydroxyecdysone In The Regulation Of The Vitellogenin Mrna And Egg Development In The American Dog Tick, Dermacentor Variabilis (Say), Deborah M. Thompson, Sayed M.S. Khalil, Laura A. Jeffers, Usha Ananthapadadmanaban, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Robert D. Mitchell, Christopher J. Osgood, Charles S. Apperson, R. Michael Roe Jan 2005

In Vivo Role Of 20-Hydroxyecdysone In The Regulation Of The Vitellogenin Mrna And Egg Development In The American Dog Tick, Dermacentor Variabilis (Say), Deborah M. Thompson, Sayed M.S. Khalil, Laura A. Jeffers, Usha Ananthapadadmanaban, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Robert D. Mitchell, Christopher J. Osgood, Charles S. Apperson, R. Michael Roe

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Injection of the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) into partially fed (virgin) female adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, while they are attached and feeding on the rabbit host, initiated the expression of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene, and Vg protein secretion and uptake by the ovary. The induction of egg production by 20-E in this bioassay was dose dependent in the range of 1-50 times the concentration normally found in a replete, vitellogenic female. Ticks examined 4d after the 50x treatment were still attached to the host, had numerous enlarged vitellin-filled (brown) oocytes in their ovaries, but had not engorged ...


Hybridization Between The Watersnakes Nerodia Sipedon And Nerodia Fasciata, In The Carolinas: A Morphological And Molecular Approach, Konrad Mebert Apr 2003

Hybridization Between The Watersnakes Nerodia Sipedon And Nerodia Fasciata, In The Carolinas: A Morphological And Molecular Approach, Konrad Mebert

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

A few traditionally applied diagnostic characters of color pattern were compared with an additional set of morphological and genetic characters to evaluate differences between Nerodia sipedon and N. fasciata and to study the dynamics across their hybrid zone in the Carolinas. Many of the morphological characters exhibited significant interspecific differences, although only the number of dorsally complete crossbands (CBa) was diagnostic by itself. A discriminant function analysis of morphological characters was successful in separating both taxa. Species-specific nuclear markers, identified by the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique were nearly fixed and served as diagnostic markers. They revealed extensive introgression ...


Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (Lif): Murine Preimplantation Embryo Development, Implantation Rates, And Skeletal Development, Michael Hayes Mitchell Jul 1998

Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (Lif): Murine Preimplantation Embryo Development, Implantation Rates, And Skeletal Development, Michael Hayes Mitchell

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which demonstrates perplexing physiological effects. It has been demonstrated that LIF is essential for implantation in mice. Little is known relating to the manner by which LIF effects pre-implantation and post-implantation development. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects LIF on pre-implantation development, to determine the effects that it may have on implantation rates, successful pregnancy rates, and resorption rates, and to determine the effects that LIF has on the skeletal development of mice. For the embryo transfer experiments, embryos were exposed to test compounds in the transfer medium ...


Characterization Of The Biological Functions Of Human Recombinant Zona Pellucida Protein 3, Yu Wen Juan Jul 1998

Characterization Of The Biological Functions Of Human Recombinant Zona Pellucida Protein 3, Yu Wen Juan

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Recombinant human zona pellucida protein 3 (rhZP3), expressed. isolated and purified from PA-1 cells, is characterized for its biological activity and the role in the signal transduction pathway. Characterization of the biological activity of rhZP3 was detected by hemizona assay and immunofluorescence staining of acrosome reaction The results indicated that rhZP3 exhibited an inhibition in the binding assay (HZI 43.6 +/-3.3; n = 9; 30 ng/mL rhZP3) and induction of acrosome reaction (198.6% +/- 77.2% increase from baseline; n = 29; 30 ng/mL rhZP3). It was further confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy that there was no ...


Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase And Growth Factor Regulation Of Flow-Mediated Vascular Remodeling, David Anthony Tulis Jul 1997

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase And Growth Factor Regulation Of Flow-Mediated Vascular Remodeling, David Anthony Tulis

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

This study was designed to characterize structural remodeling of male Wistar rat mesenteric arteries exposed to elevated blood flow in vivo for 1, 3, or 7 days. A series of arterial ligations induced blood flow increases in ileal and second-order branch arteries compared to same animal control vessels. Neither mean carotid nor local mesenteric arterial pressures changed significantly pre- to post-ligation. The primary flow-mediated force in both vessels was shear stress with possible involvement of acute stretch-induced wall stress in the ileal artery. Significant luminal expansion and medial wall hypertrophy occurred in the ileal and second-order arteries in a time-dependent ...


Interaction Of Acth And Estradiol In The Regulation Of Growth, Differentiation, And Steroidogenic Maturation Of The Baboon Fetal Adrenal Gland, Maria Gomez Leavitt Jul 1997

Interaction Of Acth And Estradiol In The Regulation Of Growth, Differentiation, And Steroidogenic Maturation Of The Baboon Fetal Adrenal Gland, Maria Gomez Leavitt

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The present study determined whether the growth of, as well as ACTH receptor and P-450 enzyme messenger ribonucleic acid and/or protein levels in the baboon fetal adrenal are dependent upon fetal pituitary ACTH during mid and late gestation and the mechanism by which placental estrogen modulates ACTH actions. Administration of betamethasone (3mg/day) to baboon mothers on days 60-99 of gestation and to the fetus (0.6 mg/, n = 4) or to the fetus (0.6mg) and mother (6 mg/ml; n = 4) every other day between days 150-164 of gestation (term = 184 days) decreased (P $53β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase (3β-HSD ...


Choline Acetyltransferase And Carnitine Acetyltransferase Activity In Human Spermatozoa During Capacitation, Lisa A. Eccles Jan 1997

Choline Acetyltransferase And Carnitine Acetyltransferase Activity In Human Spermatozoa During Capacitation, Lisa A. Eccles

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The regional distribution of ChAT activity in human spermatozoa is altered during in vitro capacitation and it correlates with the fertilizing potential of sperm.

Regional immunoreactivity in human spermatozoa as assessed by fluorescent immunocytochemistry was compared with ChAT and CaAT activity determined by enzymatic methodologies. Increasing proportions of sperm exhibited ChAT immunoreactivity along the equatorial region with a concomitant decrease in ChAT reactivity in the midpiece. Also, competitive studies with unlabeled ChAT blocked the equatorial region labeling; the unlabeled CaAT blocked staining along the midpiece region of the tail, suggesting some cross-reactivity of the ChAT antiserum with the CaAT enzyme ...


The Assessment Of Osteoinductivity Of Human Allograft Demineralized Bone Matrix By In Vivo And In Vitro Assay Models, Min Zhang Apr 1996

The Assessment Of Osteoinductivity Of Human Allograft Demineralized Bone Matrix By In Vivo And In Vitro Assay Models, Min Zhang

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The osteoinductive potential (osteoinductivity) is a very important aspect of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a biomaterial. This study is directed at establishing qualitative and quantitative assays of the osteoinductivity of human DBM. Further aspects of this study include an assessment of the effects of the production process, matrix characterization, and donor related factors on osteoinductivity of the DBM.

Athymic mice were chosen as the animal model for use in the in vivo bioassay. Implantation of DBM in muscle pouches provided for much higher osteoinductivity (remineralization to 10% calcium) than subcutaneous site implantation (remineralization to 1.6% calcium). Histological observations ...


A Kinetic Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Muscle Contraction With A Series Of Nucleotides, Wei Jiang Apr 1995

A Kinetic Investigation Of The Mechanism Of Muscle Contraction With A Series Of Nucleotides, Wei Jiang

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Muscle contraction is thought to be accomplished by sliding of myosin filaments along actin filaments. Although actomyosin naturally uses ATP as an energy source, it can also use other nucleoside triphosphates (NTP) as substrates. In this work, the dependence of rate and equilibrium constants of the various steps in the muscle contraction mechanism upon nucleotide structure was investigated to unravel the dependence of the mechanical properties of the muscle upon changes in different biochemical steps of the mechanism.

The experiments measuring the dissociation of actomyosin by NTP (or mant-NTP) shows that both the rate constant of actomyosin-S1 dissociation and second ...


Laminin Potentiates Differentiation Of Pcc4uva Embryonal Carcinoma Into Neurons, T. M. Sweeney, Roy C. Ogle, C. D. Little Sep 1990

Laminin Potentiates Differentiation Of Pcc4uva Embryonal Carcinoma Into Neurons, T. M. Sweeney, Roy C. Ogle, C. D. Little

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

The embryonal carcinoma PCC4uva differentiates into neurons in response to treatment with retinoic acid and dbcAMP. We used this in vitro model system to study the effects of laminin on early neural differentiation. Laminin substrata markedly potentiate neural differentiation of retinoic acid and dbcAMP-treated cultures. Only laminin induced more rapid neural cell body clustering, neurite growth and neurite fasciculation as compared to type IV collagen, type I collagen, and fibronectin substrata. Exogenous laminin substrata promoted greater cell attachment, cellular spreading and growth to confluence than type IV collagen, type I collagen, fibronectin and glass substrata. Laminin-induced effects were inhibited by ...


Quantitation And Identification Of Organic N-Chloramines Formed In Stomach Fluid On Ingestion Of Aqueous Hypochlorite, Frank E. Scully Jr., Katherine Mazina, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Frederick Kopfler Jan 1986

Quantitation And Identification Of Organic N-Chloramines Formed In Stomach Fluid On Ingestion Of Aqueous Hypochlorite, Frank E. Scully Jr., Katherine Mazina, Daniel E. Sonenshine, Frederick Kopfler

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The chemical reactions that hypochlorite undergoes in the body when chlorinated water is ingested have received very little attention. Because amino nitrogen compounds are important components of the average diet, the reactions of hypochlorite with amino compounds in the stomach were investigated. Stomach fluid was recovered from Sprague-Dawley rats that had been fasted for 48 hr and administered 4 mL deionized water. The chlorine demand of the stomach fluid was determined. An average volume-independent demand of 2.7 mg chlorine was measured. At doses below 40 mg/L chlorine reducing reactions appeared to account for reduction of all oxidizing species ...