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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales Dec 2010

Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Prostate cancer (CAP) is the most common epithelial malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. The identification of predictive and prognostic biomarkers in CAP patients is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Although the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and radiographic studies are clinically approved to predict response to therapy, these tests can oftentimes prove to be inadequate in certain patients. Thus, it is important to discover new biomarkers to improve chances of survivability. We and others have shown that longitudinal measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may aid in predicting response ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Agc Kinases In Human Malignant, Shaokun Shu Oct 2010

Molecular Mechanism Of Agc Kinases In Human Malignant, Shaokun Shu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The maintenance of normal cell function and tissue homeostasis is dependent on the precise regulation of multiple signaling pathways that control cellular decisions to either proliferate, differentiate, arrest cell growth, or initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cancer arises when clones of mutated cells escape this balance and proliferate inappropriately without compensatory apoptosis. Deregulated cell growth occurs as a result of perturbed signal transduction that modulates or alters cellular behavior or function to keep the critical balance between the rate of cell-cycle progression (cell division) and cell growth (cell mass) on one hand, and programmed cell death (apoptosis, autophagy) on the ...


The Human In 3d: Advanced Morphometric Analysis Of High-Resolution Anatomically Accurate Computed Models, Summer J. Decker Oct 2010

The Human In 3d: Advanced Morphometric Analysis Of High-Resolution Anatomically Accurate Computed Models, Summer J. Decker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computed virtual models of anatomical structures are proving to be of increasing value in clinical medicine, education and research. With a variety of fields focused on craniofacial and pelvic anatomy there is a need for accurate anatomical models. Recent technological advancements in computer and medical imaging technologies have provided the tools necessary to develop three-dimensional (3D) functional models of human anatomy for use in medicine (surgical planning and education), forensics and engineering (computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis).

Traditionally caliper methodologies are used in the quantitative analysis of human anatomy. In order for experts in anatomy and morphometrics to ...


The Biogeochemistry Of Submerged Coastal Karst Features In West Central Florida, Keith Michael Garman Sep 2010

The Biogeochemistry Of Submerged Coastal Karst Features In West Central Florida, Keith Michael Garman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

West Central Florida is a complex karst environment with numerous sinkholes, springs, and submerged cave systems. Many of these karst features are anchialine, located within the subterranean estuary where freshwater and saltwater mix. Water quality data and/or fauna data were obtained from twenty-one karst features and their associated cave systems. The anchialine karst environment of the study area has a wide range of habitats with measured salinities ranging from freshwater at <0.2 ppt to sulfidic, hypersaline water at 38.5 ppt and measured pH readings ranging from 6.39 in water impacted by sulfur oxidizing bacteria to 10.3 in an isolated room of a cave. Stygobitic crustaceans were identified in conduits extending beneath the Gulf of Mexico supporting the hypotheses that freshwater crustaceans could survive higher sea levels in freshwater conduits beneath saltwater. The fauna associated with the anchialine cave systems included Sabellidae and Polychaeta worms, hydroids, cnidarians and hydrobiid snails. Jewfish Sink, like other anaerobic marine basins that were submarine springs, has four zones: oxic zone, transition zone, upper anoxic zone and anoxic bottom water. The upper zones have seasonal water quality variations from winter cooling and sinking of surface water and changes in the microbial communities. Activity of sulfate reducing bacteria is carbon limited in the anoxic zones, where sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process, and primary production is phosphate limited in the oxic zones. Organic input from the Gulf of Mexico drives the bacterial anaerobic ecosystem, resulting in a “sulfide pump”, in which sulfide percolates upward removing oxygen from the overlying sediment.


Notch1 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor In A Model Of K-Ras–Induced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Linda Hanlon, Jacqueline L Avila, Renée M Demarest, Scott Troutman, Megan Allen, Francesca Ratti, Anil K Rustgi, Ben Z Stanger, Fred Radtke, Volkan Adsay, Fenella Long, Anthony J Capobianco, Joseph L Kissil Jun 2010

Notch1 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor In A Model Of K-Ras–Induced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Linda Hanlon, Jacqueline L Avila, Renée M Demarest, Scott Troutman, Megan Allen, Francesca Ratti, Anil K Rustgi, Ben Z Stanger, Fred Radtke, Volkan Adsay, Fenella Long, Anthony J Capobianco, Joseph L Kissil

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

K-ras is the most commonly mutated oncogene in pancreatic cancer and its activation in murine models is sufficient to recapitulate the spectrum of lesions seen in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Recent studies suggest that Notch receptor signaling becomes reactivated in a subset of PDACs, leading to the hypothesis that Notch1 functions as an oncogene in this setting. To determine whether Notch1 is required for K-ras-induced tumorigenesis, we used a mouse model in which an oncogenic allele of K-ras is activated and Notch1 is deleted simultaneously in the pancreas. Unexpectedly, the loss of Notch1 in this model resulted in increased ...


A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee May 2010

A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and the most common non-skin cancer in men in the USA. Considerable advancements in the practice of medicine have allowed a significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease and, in recent years, both incidence and mortality rates have been slightly declining. However, it is still estimated that 1 man in 6 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, and 1 man in 35 will die of the disease.

In order to identify novel strategies and effective therapeutic approaches in the fight against prostate cancer, it ...


Spermine Oxidase (Smo) Activity In Breast Tumor Tissues And Biochemical Analysis Of The Anticancer Spermine Analogues Benspm And Cpenspm, Manuela Cervelli, Gabriella Bellavia, Emiliano Fratini, Roberto Amendola, Fabio Polticelli, Marco Barba, Rodolfo Federico, Fabrizio Signore, Giacomo Gucciardo, Rosalba Grillo, Patrick M. Woster, Robert A. Casero Jr, Paolo Mariottini Jan 2010

Spermine Oxidase (Smo) Activity In Breast Tumor Tissues And Biochemical Analysis Of The Anticancer Spermine Analogues Benspm And Cpenspm, Manuela Cervelli, Gabriella Bellavia, Emiliano Fratini, Roberto Amendola, Fabio Polticelli, Marco Barba, Rodolfo Federico, Fabrizio Signore, Giacomo Gucciardo, Rosalba Grillo, Patrick M. Woster, Robert A. Casero Jr, Paolo Mariottini

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

Polyamine metabolism has a critical role in cell death and proliferation representing a potential target for intervention in breast cancer (BC). This study investigates the expression of spermine oxidase (SMO) and its prognostic significance in BC. Biochemical analysis of Spm analogues BENSpm and CPENSpm, utilized in anticancer therapy, was also carried out to test their property in silico and in vitro on the recombinant SMO enzyme.

Methods

BC tissue samples were analyzed for SMO transcript level and SMO activity. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the significance of the differences in value observed in T and ...


Mechanism Of Catch Force: Tethering Of Thick And Thin Filaments By Twitchin., Thomas M Butler, Marion J Siegman Jan 2010

Mechanism Of Catch Force: Tethering Of Thick And Thin Filaments By Twitchin., Thomas M Butler, Marion J Siegman

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

Catch is a mechanical state occurring in some invertebrate smooth muscles characterized by high force maintenance and resistance to stretch during extremely slow relaxation. During catch, intracellular calcium is near basal concentration and myosin crossbridge cyctng rate is extremely slow. Catch force is relaxed by a protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of sites near the N- and C- temini of the minititin twitchin (approximately 526 kDa). Some catch force maintenance car also occur together with cycling myosin crossbridges at submaximal calcium concentrations, but not when the muscle is maximally activated. Additionally, the link responsible for catch can adjust during shortening of ...


Analysis Of B-Rafv600e Regulated Micrornas And Proteins In Melanoma, Kasey Lyn Couts Jan 2010

Analysis Of B-Rafv600e Regulated Micrornas And Proteins In Melanoma, Kasey Lyn Couts

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

Genome sequencing studies have identified oncogenic B-Raf mutations in over 70% of all sporadic melanomas. The B-RafV600E mutation leads to elevated kinase activity and constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway, which supports a variety of oncogenic functions critical to melanoma formation and progression. Metastatic melanomas are highly resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic treatments, and pharmacological inhibitors of B-RafV600E have been incompletely effective in pre-clinical studies. Understanding the global molecular responses to constitutive MAP kinase signaling in melanomas would allow the development of more effective therapeutics.

Manipulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is emerging as an important molecular mechanism ...