Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Molecular Biology

Proteomics

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 45

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova May 2019

Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Exosomes can serve as delivery vehicles for advanced therapeutics. The components necessary and sufficient to support exosomal delivery have not been established. Here we connect biochemical composition and activity of exosomes to optimize exosome-mediated delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). This information is used to create effective artificial exosomes. We show that serum-deprived mesenchymal stem cells produce exosomes up to 22-fold more effective at delivering siRNAs to neurons than exosomes derived from control cells. Proteinase treatment of exosomes stops siRNA transfer, indicating that surface proteins on exosomes are involved in trafficking. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses show that exosomes derived in ...


Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados Jan 2019

Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados

Doctoral Dissertations

DNA is the substrate of many cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. These processes are coordinated to maintain genome integrity and ensure accurate duplication of genetic and epigenetic information. Genome-wide studies have provided evidence of the relationship between transcription and DNA replication timing. A global analysis of DNA replication initiation in T. brucei showed that TbORC1 (subunit of the origin recognition complex, ORC) binding sites are located at the boundaries of transcription units. Although recent studies in T. brucei indicate functional links among DNA replication and transcription, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we adapted ...


Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins Jun 2018

Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

This article, which includes novel unpublished data along with commentary and analysis,
focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from
brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas
mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic
analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we
highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus
and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a
canonical brain atlas ...


A Systems Chemical Biology Approach For Dissecting Differential Molecular Mechanisms Of Action Of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors In Lung Cancer, Natalia Junqueira Sumi Jun 2018

A Systems Chemical Biology Approach For Dissecting Differential Molecular Mechanisms Of Action Of Clinical Kinase Inhibitors In Lung Cancer, Natalia Junqueira Sumi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer type and is associated with high mortality rates. The survival rate for lung cancer patients has increased slowly in the last decade mainly as the result of the development of novel targeted and immune therapies. However, non-small cell lung cancer patients lacking known or actionable driver mutations and small cell lung cancer patients with recurrent disease are still in urgent need of new therapies. Drug repurposing is an efficient way to identify new therapies since it uses clinically relevant small molecule drugs. Determination of off-targets of small molecules is a novel approach ...


A Systems Biology Approach For Studying Heterotopic Ossification: Proteomic Analysis Of Clinical Serum And Tissue Samples, Erin Crowgey, Jennifer Wyffels, Patrick Osborn, Thomas Wood, Laura Edsberg Jun 2018

A Systems Biology Approach For Studying Heterotopic Ossification: Proteomic Analysis Of Clinical Serum And Tissue Samples, Erin Crowgey, Jennifer Wyffels, Patrick Osborn, Thomas Wood, Laura Edsberg

Faculty Articles

Heterotopic ossification (HO) refers to the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissue. Although some of the underlying processes of HO have been described, there are currently no clinical tests using validated biomarkers for predicting HO formation. As such, the diagnosis is made radiographically after HO has formed. To identify potential and novel biomarkers for HO, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and high-throughput antibody arrays to produce a semi-quantitative proteomics survey of serum and tissue from subjects with (HO+) and without (HO−) heterotopic ossification. The resulting data were then analyzed using a systems biology approach ...


Determination Of Adamts13 Susceptibility In Type Iia Von Willebrand Disease, Monica Buselli May 2018

Determination Of Adamts13 Susceptibility In Type Iia Von Willebrand Disease, Monica Buselli

Graduate Master's Theses, Capstones, and Culminating Projects

von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is a bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a large glycoprotein that assists in coagulation. Specifically, large vWF multimers in the blood stream are key components in starting the coagulation cascade. vWF is cleaved by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13, regulating the multimers size, which hinders vWF’s ability to function properly. The three main types of vWD —Type I, II, and III— are not well defined, and as a result are all similarly treated with plasma-derived vWF replacement therapy. Plasma-derived vWF is a treatment that does not cure the problem but relieves ...


The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin Apr 2018

The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic liver diseases, which includes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), are consistently among the top 15 leading causes of death in the United States. ALD is characterized by progression from a normal liver to fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), which can lead to cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and liver failure. We have identified a novel role of phosphohistidine signaling, mediated through phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1), in the onset of hepatic steatosis. We have identified PHPT1 as a target of selective oxidation following acute ethanol exposure as well as being downregulated following chronic ethanol exposure. We mapped the oxidative modification site and developed ...


Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim Jan 2018

Influence Of Dietary Ractopamine And Supranutritional Supplementation Of Vitamin E On Proteome Profile Of Postmortem Beef Longissimus Lumborum Muscle, Hyun Mok Kim

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

The effects of dietary ingredients on the proteome profile of postmortem beef longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle were evaluated. In the first experiment, the influence of dietary ractopamine on the whole-muscle proteome of beef LL was examined. Five proteins were differentially abundant between ractopamine-fed (RAC) and non-ractopamine fed (CON) groups. The differentially abundant proteins were over-abundant in RAC and were related to muscle structure development (F-actin-capping protein subunit beta-2 and PDZ and LIM domain protein-3), chaperone (heat shock protein beta-1), oxygen transportation (myoglobin), and glycolysis (L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain). These findings indicated that ractopamine influences the abundance of proteins associated with ...


Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu Jan 2018

Proteogenomic Study Of Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacterium Anabaena Cylindrica, Yeyan Qiu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cyanobacteria are gram-negative photosynthetic bacteria. In some filamentous cyanobacteria such as Anabaena cylindrica, every 10th to 20th vegetative cells can differentiate into nitrogen fixing heterocysts. Heterocyst can induce the neighboring cells developing into spore-like akinetes. The specialized cell functions and resourceful networks have contributed to the prosperity of cyanobacteria for over 2 billion years, but the genetic mechanisms for multi-cellular differentiation are barely known, especially for akinete formation. The heterocysts, akinetes and vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica were isolated for proteomic study. This study identified a total of 1395 proteins, including 664 proteins from akinetes, 751 proteins from ...


Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers Mar 2017

Mass-Spectrometry Based Proteomics Of Age-Related Changes In Murine Microglia, Antwoine Flowers

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The last century has seen a steady increase in the extension of the average lifespan. This has concomitantly produced higher incidences of age-related chronic degenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Age is the single greatest risk factor for the development of not just these degenerative conditions but cancer as well. The aged niche undergoes a number of maladaptive changes that allow underlying conditions to present and progress. Exactly which changes, contribute to the progression of which disease is currently an area of intense study. However, these answers often present therapeutic targets for disease prevention. Age is characterized ...


The Human Heterochromatin Landscape: Genomic Subtypes, Bound Proteins, And Contributions To Cell Identity, Justin S. Becker Jan 2017

The Human Heterochromatin Landscape: Genomic Subtypes, Bound Proteins, And Contributions To Cell Identity, Justin S. Becker

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Large portions of mammalian genomes are packaged into structurally compact heterochromatin, which protects genome integrity and suppresses transcription of lineage-inappropriate genes. Characterization of heterochromatic regions has relied on genomic mapping of associated histone modifications, such as H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, and purification of proteins interacting with these modifications. Heterochromatic regions marked by H3K9me3 have been shown to impede gene activation during reprogramming to pluripotency, and I find that H3K9me3 domains can similarly impede conversion of fibroblasts to hepatocytes. However, both H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 can be found in transcriptionally active chromatin, limiting the accuracy of histone marks alone for identifying heterochromatin domains ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar May 2016

Proteomic Characterization Of Eggshell Membranes And Their Effect On Poultry Physiology And Immunity, Sarbjeet Kaur Makkar

Theses and Dissertations

The use of antibiotics in poultry growth and disease control has led to antibiotics resistant problem in human beings, which is a big concern among consumers. With the necessity for judicious use of antibiotics in poultry production, alternative strategies to improve disease resistance in poultry production are necessary. The research is more inclined towards using the natural products available to grow healthier and antibiotic free meat animals. In the context of exploring natural and sustainable resource of alternative to antibiotics, the biochemical milieu of eggshell membranes (ESM) were analyzed by using mass spectrometry techniques including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization ...


Investigation Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Structural Determinants And Exploitation Of The Host Ubiquitin System, Jillian Nicole Whelan Apr 2016

Investigation Of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Structural Determinants And Exploitation Of The Host Ubiquitin System, Jillian Nicole Whelan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a globally circulating, non-segmented, negative sense (NNS) RNA virus that causes severe lower respiratory infections. This study explored several avenues to ultimately expand upon our understanding of RSV pathogenesis at the protein level. Evaluation of RSV intrinsic protein disorder increased the relatively limited description of the RSV structure-function relationship. Global proteomics analysis provided direction for further hypothesis-driven investigation of host pathways altered by RSV infection, specifically the interaction between the RSV NS2 protein and the host ubiquitin system. NS2 primarily acts to antagonize the innate immune system by targeting STAT2 for proteasomal degradation. The goal ...


Comparative Proteomic Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles From Prostate Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Gloria Polanco Jan 2016

Comparative Proteomic Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles From Prostate Cancer-Derived Cell Lines, Gloria Polanco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading non-cutaneous malignancy and the second deadliest among American men. PCa mortality rates among African American men are much higher than any other ethnic group, and the same is true for men of African ancestry world-wide. There is also a lack of reliable diagnostic markers and effective treatment options. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been observed to play an important role in cancer processes such as promotion of tumor growth and metastasis. They are also a promising source of diagnostic markers. This study addresses these problems by studying the proteome of EVs derived from PCa cells ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Investigation Of App-Dependent Mechanisms In Neurodegeneration, Dale Chaput Nov 2015

Mass Spectrometry-Based Investigation Of App-Dependent Mechanisms In Neurodegeneration, Dale Chaput

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia affecting the elderly, and as the aging population increases the social and economic burden of AD grows substantially. Pathological hallmarks of AD include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), as well as significant neuron loss. Amyloid plaques consist of aggregated amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, which is generated from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in addition to several other peptides. While the processing of APP has been characterized, its primary physiological function and its involvement in AD pathology are poorly understood. Developing ...


Molecular And Phenotypic Studies Validating The Role Of The Ecdysone Receptor In The Human Parasite Brugia Malayi, Amruta Mhashilkar Nov 2015

Molecular And Phenotypic Studies Validating The Role Of The Ecdysone Receptor In The Human Parasite Brugia Malayi, Amruta Mhashilkar

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Filariasis and onchocerciasis are debilitating diseases affecting 120 million people globally. The massive socio-economic impact of these diseases energized the international community to declare a goal of eliminating filariasis 2020. This resulted in a dramatic increase in the efforts to eliminate filariasis and onchocerciasis, employing a strategy of mass drug administration (MDA). However, these programs rely upon the small arsenal of drugs. This leaves these programs vulnerable to failure in the face of developing resistance and local intolerance to the current drug regimens. Thus, new drugs against these infections are critically needed. A homologue of the ecdysone receptor (EcR), a ...


The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin Jan 2015

The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin

Theses and Dissertations

In the presented study, we identified that SRSF3 controls the alternative splicing of CPEB2 and consequently promotes a metastatic phenotype in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC causes thousands of deaths annually, frequently due to a lack of effective treatments and a high rate of metastasis in patients. Alternative splicing has been found to be dysregulated in numerous cancers, while splicing factors such as SRSF3 are variably expressed. In this study we performed a siRNA panel to screen potential splicing factors, then used specific siRNA to study the effect of its knockdown on cellular function. These results showed that SRSF3 ...


Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin Dec 2013

Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin

Masters Theses

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a powerful tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) tool frequently implemented in proteomic studies to provide targeted analysis of proteins and peptides. The selectivity that MRM delivers is so strong that it provides the quadrupole mass spectrometers (QQQ), on which it is commonly employed, with pertinence to proteomic studies that they would otherwise lack for their relatively low resolution. Additionally, this increased level of selectivity is sufficient enough to supplant complicated fractionation techniques, additional dimensions of chromatography, and 24 hour long MS/MS experiments in simplistic biological samples. But there is a deficiency of evidence to ...


Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou Aug 2013

Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen plays essential roles in the growth, development, and homeostasis of a number of tissues, and can also be linked to the growth of breast cancer. The biological activities of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) ERá and ERâ, and also orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In order to identify novel proteins that are involved in ER-mediated actions of estrogen, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic methods to systematically profile global protein expression in responses to E2 (17â-estradiol) stimulation in human breast cancer cell, and identify and characterize cellular novel proteins that are associated with ERs in breast cancer ...


Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham May 2013

Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham

Doctoral Dissertations

Historically, there has been tremendous synergy between biology and analytical technology, such that one drives the development of the other. Over the past two decades, their interrelatedness has catalyzed entirely new experimental approaches and unlocked new types of biological questions, as exemplified by the advancements of the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. MS-based proteomics, which provides a more complete measurement of all the proteins in a cell, has revolutionized a variety of scientific fields, ranging from characterizing proteins expressed by a microorganism to tracking cancer-related biomarkers. Though MS technology has advanced significantly, the analysis of complicated proteomes, such ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods For The Detection And Characterization Of Protein-Tyrosine Nitration, Kent W. Seeley Jan 2013

Mass Spectrometry-Based Methods For The Detection And Characterization Of Protein-Tyrosine Nitration, Kent W. Seeley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a posttranslational modification resulting from oxidative/nitrosative stress that has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. Characterization of PTN is challenging due to several factors including its low abundance in a given proteome, preferential site modification, multiple target site proximity within unique peptide sequences, and analytical method and instrument limitations. Current analytical techniques are insufficiently sensitive to identify endogenous nitration sites without incorporation of either nitrotyrosine or target protein enrichment. However, enrichment proficiency can also be inadequate. Chemical derivatization of the nitro- moiety can be incomplete or result in undesirable byproduct formation ...


Advanced Molecular Biologic Techniques In Toxicologic Disease, Jeanine Ward, Gyongyi Szabo, David Mcmanus, Edward Boyer Oct 2012

Advanced Molecular Biologic Techniques In Toxicologic Disease, Jeanine Ward, Gyongyi Szabo, David Mcmanus, Edward Boyer

Gyongyi Szabo

The advancement of molecular biologic techniques and their capabilities to answer questions pertaining to mechanisms of pathophysiologic events have greatly expanded over the past few years. In particular, these opportunities have provided researchers and clinicians alike the framework from with which to answer clinical questions not amenable for elucidation using previous, more antiquated methods. Utilizing extremely small molecules, namely microRNA, DNA, protein, and nanoparticles, we discuss the background and utility of these approaches to the progressive, practicing physician. Finally, we consider the application of these tools employed as future bedside point of care tests, aiding in the ultimate goal of ...


Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes Apr 2012

Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Analysis Of The Matrix Microenvironment In Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture, Christopher Hughes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The stem cell microenvironment contains soluble factors, support cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that combine to effect cellular behavior. Mass spectrometry based proteomics offers the opportunity to directly assay components of extracellular microenvironments, thereby providing a sensitive means for obtaining insight into the stem cell niche. In this study we present the generation and analysis of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) matrix microenvironments using an MS-based proteomics approach.

One of the primary limitations in the proteomics analysis of hESCs and hiPSCs is the reproducible generation of sufficient cell numbers amenable ...


Integrative Bayesian Analysis Of High-Dimensional Multi-Platform Genomics Data, Wenting Wang, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Jeffrey S. Morris, Bradley M. Broom, Ganiraju C. Manyam, Kim-Anh Do Jan 2012

Integrative Bayesian Analysis Of High-Dimensional Multi-Platform Genomics Data, Wenting Wang, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Jeffrey S. Morris, Bradley M. Broom, Ganiraju C. Manyam, Kim-Anh Do

Jeffrey S. Morris

Motivation: Analyzing data from multi-platform genomics experiments combined with patients’ clinical outcomes helps us understand the complex biological processes that characterize a disease, as well as how these processes relate to the development of the disease. Current integration approaches that treat the data are limited in that they do not consider the fundamental biological relationships that exist among the data from platforms.

Statistical Model: We propose an integrative Bayesian analysis of genomics data (iBAG) framework for identifying important genes/biomarkers that are associated with clinical outcome. This framework uses a hierarchical modeling technique to combine the data obtained from multiple ...


Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson Dec 2011

Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used in industrial and household products as surfactants. APEs degrade into more toxic ethoxylates, such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), which has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor and enhance the growth of tumor cells. Nonylphenol is wider spread in Pacific estuaries than originally thought. Organisms in Morro Bay, California contain some of the highest concentrations of NP reported, while containing few other contaminants. As a benthic mud-dwelling fish, the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios) may be exposed to high levels of NP due to high contaminant sequestration rates in anaerobic mud. While ecotoxicology suggests that nonylphenol ...


The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Heat Stress: Evidence For Differential Thermal Sensitivities, Loredana Serafini Jan 2011

The Proteomic Response Of Sea Squirts (Genus Ciona Congeners) To Heat Stress: Evidence For Differential Thermal Sensitivities, Loredana Serafini

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The sea squirts Ciona intestinalis and C. savignyi have disparate distribution patterns, which may result from differences in their thermal tolerance limits. Because C. intestinalis, an almost cosmopolitan species, has a more widespread distribution, it is thought that it is better adapted to endure a wide range of temperatures. In order to compare the heat stress response between these two congeners, we studied global changes in protein expression, using a proteomics approach. To characterize the response to extreme heat stress, animals of both species were exposed to temperatures of 22°C, 25°C, and 28°C for 6 h, and ...


Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett Aug 2010

Genomic Methods For Studying The Post-Translational Regulation Of Transcription Factors, Logan J. Everett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The spatiotemporal coordination of gene expression is a fundamental process in cellular biology. Gene expression is regulated, in large part, by sequence-specific transcription factors that bind to DNA regions in the proximity of each target gene. Transcription factor activity and specificity are, in turn, regulated post-translationally by protein-modifying enzymes. High-throughput methods exist to probe specific steps of this process, such as protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, but few computational tools exist to integrate this information in a principled, model-oriented manner. In this work, I develop several computational tools for studying the functional implications of transcription factor modification. I establish the first ...


Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson Jun 2010

Growth Hormone Alters Components Related To Differentiation, Metabolism And Milk Synthesis And Secretion In Mac-T Cells, Tasha Lynn Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mammary alveolar cell-T (MAC-T) cell line is able to uniformly differentiate and secrete casein proteins in response to dexamethasone, insulin and prolactin and is extensively used to study bovine mammary epithelial cell function. Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to increase milk protein synthesis both in vivo and in mammary cell models, and induce cytoskeletal rearrangement in 3T3 fibroblast cell line and a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Few studies have focused on identifying the mechanisms involved in differentiated MAC-T cells’ response to GH. We tested the hypothesis that MAC-T cells would respond directly to GH and that ...


Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan May 2010

Functional Analysis Of Chromodomain Helicase Dna Binding Protein 2(Chd2) Mediated Genomic Stability, Sangeetha Rajagopalan

Doctoral Dissertations

Histone modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes play an important regulatory role in chromatin dynamics that dictate the interaction of regulatory factors involved in processes such as DNA replication, recombination, repair and transcription, with DNA template. The CHD (Chromodomain Helicase DNA Binding Protein) family of proteins is known to be involved in the regulation of gene expression, recombination and chromatin remodeling via their chromatin specific interactions and activities. Phenotypic analysis of the Chd2 mutant mouse model developed by our laboratory indicates that the Chd2 protein plays a critical role in tumor suppression as the heterozygous mutant mice develop spontaneous lymphomas ...


Comparison Of Immune Correlates, Age Related Changes And Proteomic Profiling Of Healthy Individuals Receiving Influenza Vaccines, Gaurav Basu Apr 2009

Comparison Of Immune Correlates, Age Related Changes And Proteomic Profiling Of Healthy Individuals Receiving Influenza Vaccines, Gaurav Basu

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The burden of influenza related infections is substantial, both in terms of illness, lives lost and economic impact on society. The degree of impact of influenza related infections is much higher in the elderly population where it is a leading cause of catastrophic disability; greatly affecting the quality of life of elderly persons above 65 years of age. Vaccination is the mainstay for control and prevention of influenza infections. There are two vaccine formulations that are licensed for use at present. The inactivated influenza vaccines (TIIV) which have been used for 60 years in all age groups and the new ...