Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 22 of 22

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff May 2018

Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff

Honors Scholar Theses

Computational modeling of cell-cell interactions can grant clues and can answer questions about an experiment, especially for observations about binding interactions and kinetics. This approach was used to investigate an interaction between a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and an engineered protein called Zdark (Zdk). The LOV domain is membrane-bound while Zdk is cytosolic. The LOV domain and Zdk bind strongly in dark (Kd 26.2 nM), and weakly upon exposure to blue light (Kd > 4 μM). Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images are acquired of Zdk, the fluorescent species bound to a mCherry tag, and the loss of fluorescence ...


Using Competition Assays To Quantitatively Model Cooperative Binding By Transcription Factors And Other Ligands., Jacob Peacock, James B Jaynes Nov 2017

Using Competition Assays To Quantitatively Model Cooperative Binding By Transcription Factors And Other Ligands., Jacob Peacock, James B Jaynes

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The affinities of DNA binding proteins for target sites can be used to model the regulation of gene expression. These proteins can bind to DNA cooperatively, strongly impacting their affinity and specificity. However, current methods for measuring cooperativity do not provide the means to accurately predict binding behavior over a wide range of concentrations.

METHODS: We use standard computational and mathematical methods, and develop novel methods as described in Results.

RESULTS: We explore some complexities of cooperative binding, and develop an improved method for relating in vitro measurements to in vivo function, based on ternary complex formation. We derive ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


The Large Terminase Dna Packaging Motor Grips Dna With Its Atpase Domain For Cleavage By The Flexible Nuclease Domain, Brendan J. Hilbert, Janelle A. Hayes, Nicholas P. Stone, Rui-Gang Xu, Brian A. Kelch Apr 2017

The Large Terminase Dna Packaging Motor Grips Dna With Its Atpase Domain For Cleavage By The Flexible Nuclease Domain, Brendan J. Hilbert, Janelle A. Hayes, Nicholas P. Stone, Rui-Gang Xu, Brian A. Kelch

Open Access Articles

Many viruses use a powerful terminase motor to pump their genome inside an empty procapsid shell during virus maturation. The large terminase (TerL) protein contains both enzymatic activities necessary for packaging in such viruses: the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that powers DNA translocation and an endonuclease that cleaves the concatemeric genome at both initiation and completion of genome packaging. However, how TerL binds DNA during translocation and cleavage remains mysterious. Here we investigate DNA binding and cleavage using TerL from the thermophilic phage P74-26. We report the structure of the P74-26 TerL nuclease domain, which allows us to model DNA binding ...


A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder Sep 2015

A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Musashi (MSI) family proteins control cell proliferation and differentiation in many biological systems. They are overexpressed in tumors of several origins, and their expression level correlates with poor prognosis. MSI proteins control gene expression by binding RNA and regulating its translation. They contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains, which recognize a defined sequence element. The relative contribution of each nucleotide to the binding affinity and specificity is unknown. We analyzed the binding specificity of three MSI family RRM domains using a quantitative fluorescence anisotropy assay. We found that the core element driving recognition is the sequence UAG. Nucleotides outside ...


Substrate Envelope-Designed Potent Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors To Avoid Drug Resistance, Madhavi Nalam, Akbar Ali, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Hong Cao, Saima Anjum, Michael Altman, Nese Yilmaz, Bruce Tidor, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Substrate Envelope-Designed Potent Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors To Avoid Drug Resistance, Madhavi Nalam, Akbar Ali, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Hong Cao, Saima Anjum, Michael Altman, Nese Yilmaz, Bruce Tidor, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The rapid evolution of HIV under selective drug pressure has led to multidrug resistant (MDR) strains that evade standard therapies. We designed highly potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) using the substrate envelope model, which confines inhibitors within the consensus volume of natural substrates, providing inhibitors less susceptible to resistance because a mutation affecting such inhibitors will simultaneously affect viral substrate processing. The designed PIs share a common chemical scaffold but utilize various moieties that optimally fill the substrate envelope, as confirmed by crystal structures. The designed PIs retain robust binding to MDR protease variants and display exceptional antiviral potencies against ...


Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters Nov 2014

Nuclear Transport Of Single Molecules: Dwell Times At The Nuclear Pore Complex, Ulrich Kubitscheck, David Grunwald, Andreas Hoekstra, Daniel Rohleder, Thorsten Kues, Jan Peter Siebrasse, Reiner Peters

David Grünwald

The mechanism by which macromolecules are selectively translocated through the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is still essentially unresolved. Single molecule methods can provide unique information on topographic properties and kinetic processes of asynchronous supramolecular assemblies with excellent spatial and time resolution. Here, single-molecule far-field fluorescence microscopy was applied to the NPC of permeabilized cells. The nucleoporin Nup358 could be localized at a distance of 70 nm from POM121-GFP along the NPC axis. Binding sites of NTF2, the transport receptor of RanGDP, were observed in cytoplasmic filaments and central framework, but not nucleoplasmic filaments of the NPC. The dwell times of ...


Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Intranuclear Binding Kinetics And Mobility Of Single Native U1 Snrnp Particles In Living Cells, David Grunwald, Beatrice Spottke, Volker Buschmann, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

Uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U snRNPs) are splicing factors, which are diffusely distributed in the nucleoplasm and also concentrated in nuclear speckles. Fluorescently labeled, native U1 snRNPs were microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells. After nuclear import single U1 snRNPs could be visualized and tracked at a spatial precision of 30 nm at a frame rate of 200 Hz employing a custom-built microscope with single-molecule sensitivity. The single-particle tracks revealed that most U1 snRNPs were bound to specific intranuclear sites, many of those presumably representing pre-mRNA splicing sites. The dissociation kinetics from these sites showed a multiexponential decay ...


Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck Nov 2014

Autonomy And Robustness Of Translocation Through The Nuclear Pore Complex: A Single-Molecule Study, Thomas Dange, David Grunwald, Antje Grunwald, Reiner Peters, Ulrich Kubitscheck

David Grünwald

All molecular traffic between nucleus and cytoplasm occurs via the nuclear pore complex (NPC) within the nuclear envelope. In this study we analyzed the interactions of the nuclear transport receptors kapalpha2, kapbeta1, kapbeta1DeltaN44, and kapbeta2, and the model transport substrate, BSA-NLS, with NPCs to determine binding sites and kinetics using single-molecule microscopy in living cells. Recombinant transport receptors and BSA-NLS were fluorescently labeled by AlexaFluor 488, and microinjected into the cytoplasm of living HeLa cells expressing POM121-GFP as a nuclear pore marker. After bleaching the dominant GFP fluorescence the interactions of the microinjected molecules could be studied using video microscopy ...


Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper Nov 2014

Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 ...


Catalytic Mechanism Of Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Atp Hydrolysis, Timothy J. Herdendorf, Scott W. Nelson Aug 2014

Catalytic Mechanism Of Bacteriophage T4 Rad50 Atp Hydrolysis, Timothy J. Herdendorf, Scott W. Nelson

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Spontaneous double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage, and their improper repair can lead to cellular dysfunction. The Mre11 and Rad50 proteins, a nuclease and an ATPase, respectively, form a well-conserved complex that is involved in the initial processing of DSBs. Here we examine the kinetic and catalytic mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by T4 Rad50 (gp46) in the presence and absence of Mre11 (gp47) and DNA. Single-turnover and pre-steady state kinetics on the wild-type protein indicate that the rate-limiting step for Rad50, the MR complex, and the MR-DNA complex is either chemistry or a ...


Identification Of Molecular Determinants That Shift Co- And Post-Translational N-Glycosylation Kinetics In Type I Transmembrane Peptides: A Dissertation, Heidi L. H. Malaby Apr 2014

Identification Of Molecular Determinants That Shift Co- And Post-Translational N-Glycosylation Kinetics In Type I Transmembrane Peptides: A Dissertation, Heidi L. H. Malaby

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Asparagine (N)-linked glycosylation occurs on 90% of membrane and secretory proteins and drives folding and trafficking along the secretory pathway. The N-glycan can be attached to an N-X-T/S-Y (X,Y ≠ P) consensus site by one of two oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) STT3 enzymatic isoforms either during protein translation (co-translational) or after protein translation has completed (post-translational). While co-translational N-glycosylation is both rapid and efficient, post-translational N-glycosylation occurs on a much slower time scale and, due to competition with protein degradation and forward trafficking, could be detrimental to the success of a peptide heavily reliant on post-translational N-glycosylation. In evidence, mutations ...


Fast Kinetics Of Human Myosin Heavy Chain Contraction In Health And Disease, John C. Deacon Jan 2012

Fast Kinetics Of Human Myosin Heavy Chain Contraction In Health And Disease, John C. Deacon

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The myosin heavy chain composition of human heart and skeletal muscles is dynamic in health and disease and is known to define the maximum velocity and force generated by contracting muscles. The study of the individual isoforms that comprise this diversity has recently been aided by the development of a recombinant expression system capable of producing functional sarcomeric human myosin motors. The eight primary human sarcomeric myosin isoforms are herein shown to differ by between 1.5- and 4.5-fold in their F-actin-activated ATPase activities. Due to the greatly differing contractile environments in which they function it has been anticipated ...


Inhibition Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase By A New Class Of Allosteric Effectors, Jun-Young Choe, Scott W. Nelson, Kristen L. Arienti, Frank U. Axe, Tassie L. Collins, Todd K. Jones, Rachel D.A. Kimmich, Michael J. Newman, Karl Norvell, William C. Ripka, Suzanne J. Romano, Kevin M. Short, Deborah H. Slee, Herbert J. Fromm, Richard B. Honzatko Dec 2003

Inhibition Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase By A New Class Of Allosteric Effectors, Jun-Young Choe, Scott W. Nelson, Kristen L. Arienti, Frank U. Axe, Tassie L. Collins, Todd K. Jones, Rachel D.A. Kimmich, Michael J. Newman, Karl Norvell, William C. Ripka, Suzanne J. Romano, Kevin M. Short, Deborah H. Slee, Herbert J. Fromm, Richard B. Honzatko

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

A highly constrained pseudo-tetrapeptide (OC252-324) further defines a new allosteric binding site located near the center of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. In a crystal structure, pairs of inhibitory molecules bind to opposite faces of the enzyme tetramer. Each ligand molecule is in contact with three of four subunits of the tetramer, hydrogen bonding with the side chain of Asp187 and the backbone carbonyl of residue 71, and electrostatically interacting with the backbone carbonyl of residue 51. The ligated complex adopts a quaternary structure between the canonical R- and T-states of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and yet a dynamic loop essential for catalysis ...


Hybrid Tetramers Of Porcine Liver Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Reveal Multiple Pathways Of Allosteric Inhibition, Scott W. Nelson, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm May 2002

Hybrid Tetramers Of Porcine Liver Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Reveal Multiple Pathways Of Allosteric Inhibition, Scott W. Nelson, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is a square planar tetramer of identical subunits, which exhibits cooperative allosteric inhibition of catalysis by AMP. Protocols for in vitrosubunit exchange provide three of five possible hybrid tetramers of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in high purity. The two hybrid types with different subunits in the top and bottom halves of the tetramer co-purify. Hybrid tetramers, formed from subunits unable to bind AMP and subunits with wild-type properties, differ from the wild-type enzyme only in regard to their properties of AMP inhibition. Hybrid tetramers exhibit cooperative, potent, and complete (100%) AMP inhibition if at least one functional AMP binding ...


Tryptophan Fluorescence Reveals The Conformational State Of A Dynamic Loop In Recombinant Porcine Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Cristina Valeria Iancu, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm Sep 2000

Tryptophan Fluorescence Reveals The Conformational State Of A Dynamic Loop In Recombinant Porcine Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Cristina Valeria Iancu, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Wild-type porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) has no tryptophan residues. Hence, the mutation of Try57 to tryptophan places a unique fluorescent probe in the structural element (loop 52−72) putatively responsible for allosteric regulation of catalysis. On the basis of steady-state kinetics, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography, the mutation has little effect on the functional and structural properties of the enzyme. Fluorescence intensity from the Trp57 mutant is maximal in the presence of divalent cations, fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate, which together stabilize an R-state conformation in which loop 52−72 is engaged with the active site. The level of fluorescence ...


Mutations In The Hinge Of A Dynamic Loop Broadly Influence Functional Properties Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm Sep 2000

Mutations In The Hinge Of A Dynamic Loop Broadly Influence Functional Properties Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, Scott W. Nelson, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B. Honzatko, Herbert J. Fromm

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Loop 52–72 of porcine fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase may play a central role in the mechanism of catalysis and allosteric inhibition by AMP. The loop pivots between different conformational states about a hinge located at residues 50 and 51. The insertion of proline separately at positions 50 and 51 reduces k cat by up to 3-fold, with no effect on the K m for fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. TheK a for Mg2+ in the Lys50→ Pro mutant increases ∼15-fold, whereas that for the Ala51 → Pro mutant is unchanged. Although these mutants retain wild-type binding affinity for AMP and ...


The Cγ Subunit Is A Unique Isozyme Of The Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase, Stephen J. Beebe, Paul Salomonsky, Tore Jahnsen, Yixin Li Jan 1992

The Cγ Subunit Is A Unique Isozyme Of The Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase, Stephen J. Beebe, Paul Salomonsky, Tore Jahnsen, Yixin Li

Bioelectrics Publications

There are at least three isozymes (Cα, Cβ, and Cγ) of the mammalian catalytic (C) subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) (Beebe, S., Oyen, O., Sandberg, M., Froysa, A., Hansson, V., and Jahnsen, T. (1990) Mol. Endocrinol. 4, 465-475). To compare the Cγ and Cα isozymes, the respective cDNAs were expressed in permanently transformed Kin-8 PKA-deficient Y1 adrenal cells using the mouse metallothionein promoter. The recombinant C subunits were characterized as immunoreactive, zinc-inducible, cAMP-dependent kinase activities. In contrast to Cα, histone was a better substrate than Leu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Ser-Leu-Gly (Kemptide) for Cγ. Furthermore, Cγ histone kinase activity was not inhibited by the ...


Cell Surface-Binding Sites For Progesterone Mediate Calcium Uptake In Human Sperm, Peter F. Blackmore, Joseph Neulan, Frank Lattanzio, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 1991

Cell Surface-Binding Sites For Progesterone Mediate Calcium Uptake In Human Sperm, Peter F. Blackmore, Joseph Neulan, Frank Lattanzio, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Recent studies (e.g. Blackmore, P. F., Beebe, S. J., Danforth, D. R., and Alexander, N.) (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1376-1380) have shown that in human sperm, progesterone produces a rapid increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and an induction of the acrosome reaction (e.g. Osman, R. A., Andria, M. L., Jones, A. D., and Meizel, S. (1989) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 160, 828-833). In this study, the location of progesterone receptors on the cell surface of human sperm was identified using progesterone immobilized on bovine serum albumin (BSA) (progesterone 3-(O-carboxymethyl)oxime:BSA) as well as ...


Discriminative Insulin Antagonism Of Stimulatory Effects Of Various Camp Analogs On Adipocyte Lipolysis And Hepatocyte Glycogenolysis, Stephen J. Beebe, J. Bruce Redmon, Peter F. Blackmore, Jackie D. Corbin Jan 1985

Discriminative Insulin Antagonism Of Stimulatory Effects Of Various Camp Analogs On Adipocyte Lipolysis And Hepatocyte Glycogenolysis, Stephen J. Beebe, J. Bruce Redmon, Peter F. Blackmore, Jackie D. Corbin

Bioelectrics Publications

Although insulin effectively blocked hormone-stimulated glycerol output in adipocytes or phosphorylase activation in hepatocytes, the inhibitory effect of insulin on cAMP analog-stimulated cells depended on the cAMP analog used. Of the 20 analogs tested in adipocytes and 13 tested in hepatocytes, the effects of about half of them were effectively blocked by insulin, whereas the effects of many of them were not inhibited at all. In order to approach the explanation for this discriminative insulin action, the inhibitory effects of insulin on the responses to the analogs in the intact cells were correlated with the in vitro cAMP analog specificity ...


Purification And Characterization Of A Camp- And Ca2+-Calmodulin-Independent Glycogen Synthase Kinase From Porcine Renal Cortex, Stephen J. Beebe, Erwin M. Reimann, Keith K. Schlender Feb 1984

Purification And Characterization Of A Camp- And Ca2+-Calmodulin-Independent Glycogen Synthase Kinase From Porcine Renal Cortex, Stephen J. Beebe, Erwin M. Reimann, Keith K. Schlender

Bioelectrics Publications

We recently reported the partial purification of a cAMP-independent and Ca2+-calmodulin-independent glycogen synthase kinase from porcine renal cortex (Schlender, K. K., Beebe, S. J., and Reimann, E. M. (1981) Cold Spring Harbor Conf. Cell Proliferation, 389-400). Subsequent purification indicated that the enzyme preparation consisted of at least three forms of glycogen synthase kinase which could be resolved by ATP gradient elution from aminoethylphosphate-agarose (AEP-agarose). The predominant form of glycogen synthase kinase, which eluted from AEP-agarose between 2 and 6 mM ATP, was purified approximately 800-fold and is designated GSK-A1. It had a molecular weight of 45,000-50,000 ...


Two Classes Of Camp Analogs Which Are Selective For The Two Different Camp-Binding Sites Of Type Ii Protein Kinase Demonstrate Synergism When Added Together To Intact Adipocytes, Stephen J. Beebe, Rob Holloway, Stephen R. Rannels, Jackie D. Corbin Jan 1984

Two Classes Of Camp Analogs Which Are Selective For The Two Different Camp-Binding Sites Of Type Ii Protein Kinase Demonstrate Synergism When Added Together To Intact Adipocytes, Stephen J. Beebe, Rob Holloway, Stephen R. Rannels, Jackie D. Corbin

Bioelectrics Publications

Twenty-five cyclic nucleotide analogs were tested individually to act as lipolytic agents and to activate adipocyte protein kinase. The lipolytic potency of individual analogs correlated better with their K(a) for protein kinase and their lipophilicity rather than with either parameters alone. Some of the most potent lipolytic analogs had high I50 values for the particulate low K(m) cAMP phosphodiesterase suggesting that their effect was not due to raising endogenous cAMP levels through inhibition of phosphodiesterase. The most potent lipolytic analogs contained a thio moiety at the C-8 or C-6 position. These analogs exhibited concave upward dose-response curves. At ...