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Articles 1 - 30 of 94

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe Feb 2019

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch Feb 2019

Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch

Open Access Articles

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro May 2018

Genetic Testing And A Real World Case Of Lynch Syndrome, Paige Montanaro

Senior Honors Projects

In recent years, advancements in genetic testing methods have revolutionized the medical field by enhancing the ability to identify persons with an inherited predisposition to cancer. According to the American Society for Clinical Oncology, individuals should undergo genetic testing when he or she meets the following criteria: the individual demonstrates familial history that indicates a predisposition to certain cancers, the test can be adequately interpreted, and the results will aid in the diagnosis, treatment, or management of the patient or additional family members at risk. Genetic testing can be done on samples of hair, skin, blood, amniotic fluid, or other ...


Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine May 2018

Crispr Gene Editing In The Sea Squirt, Ciona Intestinalis, Evelyn Siler, Steven Irvine

Senior Honors Projects

Genetic manipulation has come a long way in the past ten years alone. Scientists have had access to gene editing techniques for decades, but until recently these methods have proven to be expensive and unpredictable. However, thanks to the development of a new, more efficient genome editing strategy called CRISPR/Cas9, more aggressive progress can now be made in genetics research.

CRISPR is not a machine or a physical tool, but rather it is a system that involves introducing a protein into a cell, along with a DNA segment that will attract the protein to a desired location on the ...


The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng Feb 2018

The Trim-Nhl Protein Nhl-2 Is A Novel Co-Factor Of The Csr-1 And Hrde-1 22g-Rna Pathways, Peter R. Boag, Gregory M. Davis, Shikui Tu, Rhys N. Colson, Joshua W. T. Anderson, Menachem J. Gunzburg, Michelle A. Francisco, Debashish Ray, Tuhin Maity, Monica Z. Wu, Quaid D. Morris, Timothy R. Hughes, Jacqueline A. Wilce, University Of Toronto, Zhiping Weng

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Proper regulation of germline gene expression is essential for fertility and maintaining species integrity. In the C. elegans germline, a diverse repertoire of regulatory pathways promote the expression of endogenous germline genes and limit the expression of deleterious transcripts to maintain genome homeostasis. Here we show that the conserved TRIM-NHL protein, NHL-2, plays an essential role in the C. elegans germline, modulating germline chromatin and meiotic chromosome organization. We uncover a role for NHL-2 as a co-factor in both positively (CSR-1) and negatively (HRDE-1) acting germline 22G-small RNA pathways and the somatic nuclear RNAi pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NHL-2 ...


Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey Aug 2017

Genome Wide Association And Next Generation Sequencing Approaches To Map Determinants Of Ascites In Broiler Chickens, Shatovisha Dey

Theses and Dissertations

These studies have investigated different candidate genomic regions for their contributions to ascites in broilers. Ascites syndrome is a manifestation of idiopathic pulmonary arteriole hypertension that concerns the poultry industry worldwide. Investigations have demonstrated the disease to be genetically regulated and to exhibit moderate to high heritabilities. Although previous studies have indicated a few chromosomes to be involved with ascites, no genes have been identified to date with direct links to the disease. This dissertation presents a collection of studies that determine the genomic and genetic interactions for regions on chromosome 2 and 9 for ascites phenotypes in broiler chickens ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes Jan 2015

High-Throughput Screening Of Age-Related Changes In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Neil Copes

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This project was developed to identify novel methods for high-throughput culturing and screening of C. elegans to investigate age-related metabolic changes and to survey the proteomic and metabolomic factors associated with age-related changes. To accomplish these goals we developed a novel way to grow C. elegans in liquid culture in 96-well microplates for several weeks without suffering significant fluid loss due to evaporation and without needing to shake or unseal the plates for aeration. We also developed methods for assaying the total volume of live C. elegans in microplate cultures using a fluorescence microplate reader and for performing RNAi experiments ...


The Role Of Artificial Structures In Facilitating Range Expansion Of The Introduced Barnacle Megabalanus Coccopoma In The Southeastern U.S.A., Alicia M. Reigel Jan 2015

The Role Of Artificial Structures In Facilitating Range Expansion Of The Introduced Barnacle Megabalanus Coccopoma In The Southeastern U.S.A., Alicia M. Reigel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The barnacle Megabalanus coccopoma is a recent invader of the southeastern U.S.A. from the tropical eastern Pacific. In Georgia, M. coccopoma populations along the immediate coastline often suffer extensive mortality during the winter, but population rebuilding is common after these events suggesting that there may be nearby larval sources. I investigated the hypothesis that artificial structures (i.e., buoys, towers), occurring far enough offshore of Georgia for water temperatures to be moderated by the Gulf Stream, provide refuges for breeding adults of M. coccopoma and can serve as the larval source. I investigated this hypothesis by first developing ...


Regulation Of Sleep And Circadian Rhythms By Metabolic Neuropeptides, Renske Erion Jan 2014

Regulation Of Sleep And Circadian Rhythms By Metabolic Neuropeptides, Renske Erion

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The increasing prevalence of metabolic disease in modern society has accelerated our need to understand factors that may be contributing to its development. Both circadian disruption and sleep deprivation are associated with metabolic dysfunction. Thus, for my dissertation I sought to gain insight into this association by studying the genetic and neural basis of interactions between circadian rhythms, sleep and metabolism. The relative simplicity of fly neuroanatomy and physiology, vast array of available genetic tools, and conservation across many organisms, makes Drosophila melanogaster an ideal model to dissect complex interactions between physiological systems. Through our studies we identified a novel ...


Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess Jan 2014

Characterization Of Microrna Function During Skeletal Myogenesis, Martin G. Guess

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Skeletal muscle is a remarkable organ system that is required for almost all animal life. In vertebrates, skeletal muscle can alter its functional and molecular characteristics in response to pathologic and physiologic stimuli. Additionally, adult muscle retains the ability to regenerate following injury, activating progenitor cells much like the process of muscle formation during embryonic development. Much work has been done to characterize the changes in gene expression that occur during regeneration, and this knowledge has been invaluable in treatment of muscle wasting diseases, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Further expanding the complexity of gene expression changes is the discovery ...


Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla Jan 2014

Linking Molecular, Electrical And Anatomical Properties Of Human Epileptic Brain, Shruti Bagla

Wayne State University Dissertations

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of recurrent unprovoked seizures. It affects almost 1% of the world population. Although there is a wide range of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) available, they only treat the seizure symptoms and do not cure the disease itself. The poor role of AEDs can be attributed to the lack of knowledge of exact mechanisms and networks that produce epileptic activities in the neocortex. At present, the best cure for epilepsy is surgical removal of electrically localized epileptic brain tissue. Surgically removed brain tissue presents an excellent opportunity to discover the molecular and cellular basis of human ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala Dec 2012

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cancer cells evade senescence, apoptosis, and other constraints on proliferation, often via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53). Normal human lung fibroblasts have been shown to enter premature senescence upon exposure to beryllium. In these cells, BeSO4 stabilizes p53 protein, increases p21 gene expression, induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and causes cell proliferation arrest. In the present study, we have investigated whether BeSO4 is able to induce similar effects in cancer cells that have wildtype p53. We have demonstrated that beryllium salt at low concentration can induce molecular changes in the p53 signaling pathway leading to cell ...


Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol Nov 2012

Screening For Melanoma Modifiers Using A Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model, Sharanya Iyengar, Yariv Houvras, Craig J. Ceol

GSBS Student Publications

Genomic studies of human cancers have yielded a wealth of information about genes that are altered in tumors. A challenge arising from these studies is that many genes are altered, and it can be difficult to distinguish genetic alterations that drove tumorigenesis from that those arose incidentally during transformation. To draw this distinction it is beneficial to have an assay that can quantitatively measure the effect of an altered gene on tumor initiation and other processes that enable tumors to persist and disseminate. Here we present a rapid means to screen large numbers of candidate melanoma modifiers in zebrafish using ...


Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller Sep 2012

Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The low complexity of minimotif patterns results in a high false-positive prediction rate, hampering protein function prediction. A multi-filter algorithm, trained and tested on a linear regression model, support vector machine model, and neural network model, using a large dataset of verified minimotifs, vastly improves minimotif prediction accuracy while generating few false positives. An optimal threshold for the best accuracy reaches an overall accuracy above 90%, while a stringent threshold for the best specificity generates less than 1% false positives or even no false positives and still produces more than 90% true positives for the linear regression and neural network ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek Oct 2010

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARgamma/alpha dual agonist and has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects antitumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the antitumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 ...


Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold Nov 2009

Quantifying And Resolving Multiple Vector Transformants In S. Cerevisiae Plasmid Libraries, Thomas C. Scanlon, Elizabeth C. Gray, Karl E. Griswold

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

In addition to providing the molecular machinery for transcription and translation, recombinant microbial expression hosts maintain the critical genotype-phenotype link that is essential for high throughput screening and recovery of proteins encoded by plasmid libraries. It is known that Escherichia coli cells can be simultaneously transformed with multiple unique plasmids and thusly complicate recombinant library screening experiments. As a result of their potential to yield misleading results, bacterial multiple vector transformants have been thoroughly characterized in previous model studies. In contrast to bacterial systems, there is little quantitative information available regarding multiple vector transformants in yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ...


Dopamine Controls Locomotion By Modulating The Activity Of The Cholinergic Motor Neurons In C. Elegans, Andrew T. Allen Jan 2009

Dopamine Controls Locomotion By Modulating The Activity Of The Cholinergic Motor Neurons In C. Elegans, Andrew T. Allen

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, where it plays a regulatory role in the coordination of movement and cognition by acting through two classes of G protein-coupled receptors to modulate synaptic activity. In addition, it has been shown these two receptor classes can exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects on neurotransmission. However, while the pharmacology of the mammalian dopamine receptors have been characterized in some detail, less is known about the molecular pathways that act downstream of the receptors. As in mammals, the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses two classes of dopamine receptors to control neural activity and thus ...


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek Aug 2008

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Ligand Mcc-555 Suppresses Intestinal Polyps In Apcmin/+ Mice Via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Dependent Pathways, K Yamaguchi, Maria Cekanova, Michael Mcentee, J Yoon, S Fischer, I Renes, I Van Seungnigen, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARgamma/alpha dual agonist and has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects antitumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the antitumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 ...


Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Interleukin-1beta-Induced Muc5ac Gene Expression And Muc5ac Secretion In Normal Human Nasal Epithelial Cells, H Kim, S Park, S Park, U Moon, B Lee, S Yoon, J Lee, Seung Baek, J Yoon Jul 2008

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Interleukin-1beta-Induced Muc5ac Gene Expression And Muc5ac Secretion In Normal Human Nasal Epithelial Cells, H Kim, S Park, S Park, U Moon, B Lee, S Yoon, J Lee, Seung Baek, J Yoon

Seung J Baek

It has been reported that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) induces mucus hypersecretion in normal human nasal epithelial (NHNE) cells and that the MAP kinase pathway may be an important signal pathway in IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) polyphenols are potent anti-inflammatory agents and have been shown to inhibit inflammation in tumor cell lines and cultured respiratory epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol, on IL-1beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression and secretion in NHNE cells. After cells had been treated with IL-1beta (10 ng/ml) and pretreated with EGCG ...


Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu Jan 2008

Mechanisms Of Bes1-Regulated Gene Expression Downstream Of Brassinosteroid Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Xiaofei Yu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Brassinosteroids (BRs), the plant steroid hormones, play an important role in mediating plant responses to developmental and environmental cues. BRs signal through a membrane receptor BRI1 and a GSK3 kinase BIN2 to control the activity of BES1/BZR1 family transcription factors. To understand how BES1 regulates gene expression, I looked into both trans-acting protein factors and cis-acting DNA elements that affect BES1 functions, by yeast genetic screen and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip), respectively. We identified 1609 BES1 direct target genes and discovered conserved DNA motifs in BES1 binding regions. We also showed that BES1 target genes were ...


Genesis Of Gene Structures And Computational Analysis Of U12-Type Introns, Matthew Devin Wilkerson Jan 2007

Genesis Of Gene Structures And Computational Analysis Of U12-Type Introns, Matthew Devin Wilkerson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Accurate and prompt gene structure annotation is a necessity for the utilization of genomic sequence data and large scale biological research. As the number of genomes being sequenced rapidly increases, there is a need for immediate gene structure annotation, which is distinct from the whole genome annotation that is conducted at the completion of sequencing. In completely sequenced genomes, inaccuracies in gene structure annotations can make subsequent analysis problematic. For instance, the incorrect assignment of exons to a gene can change the protein coded by the gene, which would have effects on the functional and evolutionary descriptions of the gene ...


Map Based Candidate Gene Cloning And Functional Analysis Of Genes Involved In Vlcfas Synthesis, Li Fan Jan 2007

Map Based Candidate Gene Cloning And Functional Analysis Of Genes Involved In Vlcfas Synthesis, Li Fan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

VLCFAs are biosynthesized by an endoplasmic reticulum associated enzyme system, referred to as fatty acid elongase. Fatty acid elongase generates VLCFAs by elongating 18C fatty acids. The enzymatic machinery of fatty acid elongation is believed to be composed of 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase, and enoyl-CoA reductase. However, the insoluble nature of the fatty acid elongase system has hampered efforts to purify the system and to identify the genes that encode the component proteins. In the current study a candidate gene cloning approach was used to demonstrate that the previously defined gl26 gene of maize encodes a predicted enoyl-CoA ...


Genome Rearrangement At Reversed-Ends Ds Element In Arabidopsis, Lakshminarasimhan Krishnaswamy Jan 2007

Genome Rearrangement At Reversed-Ends Ds Element In Arabidopsis, Lakshminarasimhan Krishnaswamy

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In course of McClintock's study on radiation induced chromosome breakage, she observed frequent chromosome break generated at a specific locus on chromosome 9. The precision of frequent breaks at this particular locus led to the discovery of Ac/Ds elements. In recent years, molecular characterization of Ac/Ds induced chromosome breaks reveal that when multiple transposon ends are in proximity, the transposase could recognize non-canonical transposon ends resulting in various kinds of chromosomal rearrangements including deletion, inversion, translocation, duplication and, sometimes, chromosome breaks. Previous studies in our lab show that in the maize P1-rr11 allele of the P1 gene ...


The Role Of The Integrase C-Terminus In Replication And Targeted Integration Of The Yeast Retrotransposon Ty5, Troy Leon Brady Jan 2007

The Role Of The Integrase C-Terminus In Replication And Targeted Integration Of The Yeast Retrotransposon Ty5, Troy Leon Brady

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Mobile genetic elements have the inherent potential to shape the genomes of their hosts. The retroelements, which include the retrotransposons and retroviruses, are a particularly abundant class of mobile elements. The site of retroelement insertion in the host genome is largely determined by the element-encoded protein integrase (IN). Research presented here addresses three aspects of IN from the retrotransposon Ty5: the function of a conserved domain (GKGY) in the IN C-terminus, the role of IN post-translational modification in targeted integration, and the origin of the Ty5 targeting mechanism.;Sequence analysis of a conserved domain (GKGY) found in the C-termini of ...


Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe Sep 2006

Erv26p Directs Pro-Alkaline Phosphatase Into Endoplasmic Reticulum–Derived Coat Protein Complex Ii Transport Vesicles, Catherine A. Bue, Christine M. Bentivoglio, Charles Barlowe

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Secretory proteins are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transport vesicles formed by the coat protein complex II (COPII). We detected Erv26p as an integral membrane protein that was efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and cycled between the ER and Golgi compartments. The erv26Δ mutant displayed a selective secretory defect in which the pro-form of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase (pro-ALP) accumulated in the ER, whereas other secretory proteins were transported at wild-type rates. In vitro budding experiments demonstrated that Erv26p was directly required for packaging of pro-ALP into COPII vesicles. Moreover, Erv26p was detected in a specific complex with pro-ALP ...


Agswe1p Regulates Mitosis In Response To Morphogenesis And Nutrients In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Cells, Hanspeter Helfer, Amy S. Gladfelter Aug 2006

Agswe1p Regulates Mitosis In Response To Morphogenesis And Nutrients In Multinucleated Ashbya Gossypii Cells, Hanspeter Helfer, Amy S. Gladfelter

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Nuclei in the filamentous, multinucleated fungus Ashbya gossypii divide asynchronously. We have investigated what internal and external signals spatially direct mitosis within these hyphal cells. Mitoses are most common near cortical septin rings found at growing tips and branchpoints. In septin mutants, mitoses are no longer concentrated at branchpoints, suggesting that the septin rings function to locally promote mitosis near new branches. Similarly, cells lacking AgSwe1p kinase (a Wee1 homologue), AgHsl1p (a Nim1-related kinase), and AgMih1p phosphatase (the Cdc25 homologue that likely counteracts AgSwe1p activity) also have mitoses distributed randomly in the hyphae as opposed to at branchpoints. Surprisingly, however ...


Repair Of Endonuclease- And Transposon-Induced Dna Double Strand Breaks By Host Factors In Arabidopsis , Zhuying Li Jan 2006

Repair Of Endonuclease- And Transposon-Induced Dna Double Strand Breaks By Host Factors In Arabidopsis , Zhuying Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The maize Ac/Ds transposable elements are members of the hAT transposon family. Ac/Ds transpose in diverse species and via a mechanism similar to that involved in V(D)J recombination. Here, we studied the repair of Ds transposition-induced hairpins by host factors in Arabidopsis. The results indicate that AtKu could position hairpin-opening to sites close to the hairpin apex. In the absence of AtMre11 or AtKu70, repair junctions have a higher frequency of small deletions (3-10bp) and larger deletions (11-50bp), respectively. Comparison of the repair of I-SceI- and Ds-induced DSB indicates that Ac transposase could influence Ds-induced DSB ...