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Molecular Biology

DNA

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Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe Feb 2019

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald Apr 2018

An Automated Bayesian Pipeline For Rapid Analysis Of Single-Molecule Binding Data, Carlas Smith, Karina Jouravleva, Maximiliaan Huisman, Samson M. Jolly, Phillip D. Zamore, David Grünwald

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Single-molecule binding assays enable the study of how molecular machines assemble and function. Current algorithms can identify and locate individual molecules, but require tedious manual validation of each spot. Moreover, no solution for high-throughput analysis of single-molecule binding data exists. Here, we describe an automated pipeline to analyze single-molecule data over a wide range of experimental conditions. We benchmarked the pipeline by measuring the binding properties of the well-studied, DNA-guided DNA endonuclease, TtAgo, an Argonaute protein from the Eubacterium Thermus thermophilus. We also used the pipeline to extend our understanding of TtAgo by measuring the protein's binding kinetics at ...


A Novel Method To Analyze Dna Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Caitlin Elizabeth Goodman Jan 2018

A Novel Method To Analyze Dna Breaks And Repair In Human Cells, Caitlin Elizabeth Goodman

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Microsatellites repeat sequences are prone to forming non-canonical DNA structures and mutations. These areas of the genome can undergo expansions and contractions and are responsible for a variety of inherited neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Hairpin structures formed by trinucleotide repeats can lead to replication fork stalling, and fork collapse causing DNA double strand breaks. Various mechanisms are involved in processing microsatellites including mismatch repair, base excision repair, and crossover junction endonuclease cleavage. These processes, which are supposed to protect the genome, could also be the culprits which are causing mutations. In order to test and study this hypothesis, the use ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


Silica Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Dna And Rnai In Cancer Treatment, Michael Aaron Vrolijk Jan 2017

Silica Nanoparticles For The Delivery Of Dna And Rnai In Cancer Treatment, Michael Aaron Vrolijk

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

DNA and interfering RNA (RNAi) – short interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA) – are promising new cancer therapies, especially for drug resistant lines. However, they require a delivery system in vivo to prevent degradation and off target effects. Silica based nanoparticles, both solid and mesoporous, are a promising option due to their biocompatibility, ease of preparation and morphology control, reproducibility, and facile addition of functional groups including targeting ligands.

After a brief introduction to cancer treatment and review of the current nanoparticle treatments undergoing clinical trials, this thesis details the many methods explored over the past ten years to fine-tune ...


Coarse-Grained Simulations Of The Self-Assembly Of Dna-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Charles Wrightsman Armistead Dec 2016

Coarse-Grained Simulations Of The Self-Assembly Of Dna-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Building Blocks, Charles Wrightsman Armistead

Theses and Dissertations

The self-assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) of varying shape, size, and composition for the purpose of constructing useful nanoassemblies with tailored properties remains challenging. Although progress has been made to design anisotropic building blocks that exhibit the required control for the precise placement of various NPs within a defined arrangement, there still exists obstacles in the technology to maximize the programmability in the self-assembly of NP building blocks. Currently, the self-assembly of nanostructures involves much experimental trial and error. Computational modeling is a possible approach that could be utilized to facilitate the purposeful design of the self-assembly of NP building blocks ...


Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed Sep 2016

Specific Binding Affinity Of The Non-Catalytic Domain Of Eukaryotic Like Type Ib Topoisomerase Of Vaccinia Virus, Benjamin R. Reed

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Topoisomerases are ubiquitous proteins that alter supercoiling in double stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription and replication and. vaccinia and the closely related poxvirus variola virus, at 314 amino acids in length, encode the smallest of the type I topoisomerases(TopIB). TopIB is a two domain protein that recognizes the sequence 5’-T/CCCTT, cleaves at the 3’-end and relaxes supercoiling through rotation. The C-terminal domain (CTD) alone contains the catalytic activity and specificity. Deletion of the N-terminal domain results in a greatly reduced rate of relaxation and rapid dissociation. Biochemical data suggests that the N-terminal domain (NTD) is important ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak May 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak

Senior Honors Projects

In the US livestock production industry, improving reproductive efficiency will improve animal welfare and maintain reasonable costs of meat and milk for consumers. In recent research, abnormalities in epigenetic markers in sperm during spermatogenesis, has been linked to male subfertility in many species. Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression, including DNA methylation, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. When this process is disturbed, it can negatively impact semen therefore decreasing its fertility. Through further research on how DNA methylation influences gene expression during spermatogenesis and its impact on sperm quality ...


The Pcna-Associated Protein Pari Negatively Regulates Homologous Recombination Via The Inhibition Of Dna Repair Synthesis, Peter Burkovics, Lili Dome, Szilvia Juhasz, Veronika Altmannova, Marek Sebesta, Martin Pacesa, Kasper Fugger, Claus Storgaard Sorensen, Marietta Y W T Lee, Lajos Haracska, Lumir Krejci Apr 2016

The Pcna-Associated Protein Pari Negatively Regulates Homologous Recombination Via The Inhibition Of Dna Repair Synthesis, Peter Burkovics, Lili Dome, Szilvia Juhasz, Veronika Altmannova, Marek Sebesta, Martin Pacesa, Kasper Fugger, Claus Storgaard Sorensen, Marietta Y W T Lee, Lajos Haracska, Lumir Krejci

NYMC Faculty Publications

Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator ...


Dna Sequencing Activity, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll Feb 2016

Dna Sequencing Activity, Sarah O'Leary-Driscoll

Sequencing & Genome Mining

This activity is meant to introduce students to basic DNA sequencing techniques. Using a hands-on approach helps them understand the fundamentals of what is happening in the lab, and the questions that accompany the activity can lead to more in depth discussions about sequencing, and the development of the next generation sequencing techniques.


Instability At Trinucleotide Repeat Dnas, Rujuta Yashodhan Gadgil Jan 2016

Instability At Trinucleotide Repeat Dnas, Rujuta Yashodhan Gadgil

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Trinucleotide repeats (TNRs) are sequences prone to formation of non-B DNA structures and mutations; undergo expansions in vivo to cause various inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Hairpin structures formed during DNA replication or repair can cause replication fork stalling and if left unrepaired could cause single or double strand DNA breaks. To test and study this hypothesis we have devised a novel two color marker gene assay to detect DNA breaks at TNRs. By inducing replication stress our results show that TNRs are prone to DNA strand breaks and it is dependent on the repeat tract length. Double strand breaks at structured ...


Aptameric Sensors: In Vitro Selection Of Dna That Binds Bromocresol Purple, Derek B. Miller Jan 2016

Aptameric Sensors: In Vitro Selection Of Dna That Binds Bromocresol Purple, Derek B. Miller

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Aptamers being used as sensors is an emerging field that has capabilities of being tomorrow’s diagnostic tools. As aptameric sensors have become more popular, their visualization systems have been limited. The majority of today’s aptameric sensors require expensive machinery such as a fluorometer in order to visualize results. We propose a system that will cut the need for instrumentation and be detected via the naked eye. With the selection of an aptamer to bind the pH indicating dye bromocresol purple (BCP) this may be achieved. When rendered active, the binding towards BCP will facilitate a color change from ...


A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher Apr 2015

A Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Dna-Binding Protein For A Class Ii Gene In B Cells Is Distinct From Nf-Kappa B, Ellen M. Gravallese, Mark R. Boothby, Cynthia M. Smas, Laurie H. Glimcher

Ellen M. Gravallese

Class II (Ia) major histocompatibility complex molecules are cell surface proteins normally expressed by a limited subset of cells of the immune system. These molecules regulate the activation of T cells and are required for the presentation of antigens and the initiation of immune responses. The expression of Ia in B cells is determined by both the developmental stage of the B cell and by certain external stimuli. It has been demonstrated previously that treatment of B cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in increased surface expression of Ia protein. However, we have confirmed that LPS treatment results in a significant ...


Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher Jan 2015

Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher

Theses and Dissertations

Genetic engineering of microbes has developed rapidly along with our ability to synthesize DNA de novo. Yet, even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. While technological advances have resulted in powerful techniques for in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA, each suffers inherent disadvantages. Here, an ex vivo DNA cloning suite using crude cellular lysates derived from E. coli is demonstrated to amplify and assemble DNA containing small sequence homologies. Further, the advantages of an ex vivo approach are leveraged ...


Single Human Cells Use Transcriptional Mechanisms To Compensate For Differences In Cell Size And Dna Content, Olivia Padovan-Merhar Jan 2015

Single Human Cells Use Transcriptional Mechanisms To Compensate For Differences In Cell Size And Dna Content, Olivia Padovan-Merhar

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human cells are dynamic: they grow, replicate their genetic information (DNA), and divide. Clonal populations of cells can display marked heterogeneity in size, leading to significant variability in the ratio of DNA to cellular volume. Despite this variability, cells must maintain a constant concentration of RNA and protein, produced from DNA, to ensure proper functionality. How do larger cells produce more output from the same amount of DNA? How do cells that have replicated their DNA prior to cellular division produce the same output as before? Using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH), we visualize and count individual RNA ...


Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber Dec 2014

Dna-Guided Establishment Of Canonical Nucleosome Patterns In A Eukaryotic Genome, Leslie Y. Beh, Noam Kaplan, Manuel M. Muller, Tom W. Muir, Laura F. Landweber

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

A conserved hallmark of eukaryotic chromatin architecture is the distinctive array of well-positioned nucleosomes downstream of transcription start sites (TSS). Recent studies indicate that trans-acting factors establish this stereotypical array. Here, we present the first genome-wide in vitro and in vivo nucleosome maps for the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast with previous studies in yeast, we find that the stereotypical nucleosome array is preserved in the in vitro reconstituted map, which is governed only by the DNA sequence preferences of nucleosomes. Remarkably, this average in vitro pattern arises from the presence of subsets of nucleosomes, rather than the whole array ...


Large-Scale Identification Of Chemically Induced Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster., Nele A Haelterman, Lichun Jiang, Yumei Li, Vafa Bayat, Hector Sandoval, Berrak Ugur, Kai Li Tan, Ke Zhang, Danqing Bei, Bo Xiong, Wu-Lin Charng, Theodore Busby, Adeel Jawaid, Gabriela David, Manish Jaiswal, Koen J T Venken, Shinya Yamamoto, Rui Chen, Hugo J Bellen Oct 2014

Large-Scale Identification Of Chemically Induced Mutations In Drosophila Melanogaster., Nele A Haelterman, Lichun Jiang, Yumei Li, Vafa Bayat, Hector Sandoval, Berrak Ugur, Kai Li Tan, Ke Zhang, Danqing Bei, Bo Xiong, Wu-Lin Charng, Theodore Busby, Adeel Jawaid, Gabriela David, Manish Jaiswal, Koen J T Venken, Shinya Yamamoto, Rui Chen, Hugo J Bellen

BCM Faculty Publications

Forward genetic screens using chemical mutagens have been successful in defining the function of thousands of genes in eukaryotic model organisms. The main drawback of this strategy is the time-consuming identification of the molecular lesions causative of the phenotypes of interest. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS), it is now possible to sequence hundreds of strains, but determining which mutations are causative among thousands of polymorphisms remains challenging. We have sequenced 394 mutant strains, generated in a chemical mutagenesis screen, for essential genes on the Drosophila X chromosome and describe strategies to reduce the number of candidate mutations from an average of ...


Helicase-Ssb Interactions In Recombination-Dependent Dna Repair And Replication, Christian Jordan Jan 2014

Helicase-Ssb Interactions In Recombination-Dependent Dna Repair And Replication, Christian Jordan

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Dda, one of three helicases encoded by bacteriophage T4, has been well- characterized biochemically but its biological role remains unclear. It is thought to be involved in origin-dependent replication, recombination-dependent replication, anti- recombination, recombination repair, as well as in replication fork progression past template-bound nucleosomes and RNA polymerase. One of the proteins that most strongly interacts with Dda, Gp32, is the only single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) encoded by T4, is essential for DNA replication, recombination, and repair.

Previous studies have shown that Gp32 is essential for Dda stimulation of replication fork progression. Our studies show that interactions between Dda ...


Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal Nov 2013

Real-Time Qpcr Assay Development For Detection Of Bacillus Thuringiensis And Serratia Marcescens Dna And The Influence Of Complex Microbial Community Dna On Assay Sensitivity, Jonathan Segal

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) assays are an effective technique to detect biological warfare agents and surrogate organisms. In my study, primers were designed to detect chromosomal DNA of biological warfare agent surrogates B. thuringiensis and S. marcescens (representing B. anthracis and Y. pestis, respectively) via real-time qPCR. Species-level specificity of the primers was demonstrated through comparisons with a bacterial strain panel and corroborated by qPCR data. Additionally, the primer efficacy was tested when template DNA was spiked into metagenomic DNA extracted from clinical lung microbiome samples. The results showed that while detection of B. thuringiensis or S ...


Effects Of Beta Amyloid On The Dna Methylation Status Of An In Vitro Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Noor Taher Apr 2013

Effects Of Beta Amyloid On The Dna Methylation Status Of An In Vitro Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Noor Taher

Senior Honors Theses

Available evidence points toward an epigenetic process in Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the research that was done to investigate changes in DNA methylation using an in vitro model of the disease. Although the results indicated no global changes in methylation levels after treating differentiated IMR-32 cells with beta amyloid, there were several regions of the genome that changed their methylation status. Gene ontology studies revealed that these regions are associated with neuronal differentiation and cell fate genes, thus providing a possible model for the contribution of beta amyloid to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. This study provides ...


Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr. Jan 2013

Detection Of Viable Microorganisms Using Propidium Monoazide, Erik J. Mcfarland, Adrian Ponce Dr.

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a molecular tool used to assess viability of microorganisms. Currently, PMA is thought to discern viability through membrane permeability; PMA enters only membrane compromised cells, irreversibly crosslinks to theirDNAand precipitates theDNAout of solution, preventing it from being amplified during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using PMA on a sample of live and dead microorganisms results in only theDNAof living organisms being amplified and identified. Therefore, a comparison ofPCRresults with and without PMA allows one to determine the live fraction and total population, respectively.

Current literature provides conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of the technique. Our research ...


Nucleic Acid Determinants Of Cytosine Deamination By Aid/Apobec Enzymes In Immunity And Epigenetics, Christopher Nabel Jan 2013

Nucleic Acid Determinants Of Cytosine Deamination By Aid/Apobec Enzymes In Immunity And Epigenetics, Christopher Nabel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A multitude of functions have evolved around cytosine within DNA, endowing the base with physiological significance beyond simple information storage. This versatility arises from enzymes that chemically modify cytosine to expand the potential of the genome. Cytosine can be methylated, oxidized, and deaminated to modulate transcription and immunologic diversity. At the crossroads of these modifications sit the AID/APOBEC family deaminases, which accomplish diverse functions ranging from antibody diversification and innate immunity to mRNA editing. In addition, novel roles have been proposed in oncogenesis and DNA demethylation. Behind these established and emerging physiologic activities remain important questions about the substrate ...


Guilty Or Not Guilty: Can Dna Help Prove Guilt Or Innocence?, Suzanne Eckstein Jan 2013

Guilty Or Not Guilty: Can Dna Help Prove Guilt Or Innocence?, Suzanne Eckstein

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Throughout our history, science was always on the front lines for discovery and exploration. Science is used as an investigative tool by the human race to figure out all the mysteries of the universe. The discovery of DNA was tremendous, providing each human being with their own unique genetic identity - no longer would an individual be genetically confused with another. DNA fingerprinting, in particular, has changed the world. In the 1980's the legal system began using DNA fingerprinting to help establish the guilt of an indicted criminal. DNA (besides for fingerprints) is the only way to confirm scientifically if ...


Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor Jan 2010

Meiotic Dna Re-Replication And The Recombination Checkpoint, Nicole Ann Najor

Wayne State University Dissertations

Progression through meiosis occurs through a strict sequence of events, so that one round of DNA replication precedes programmed recombination and two nuclear divisions. Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is required for meiosis, and any disruption in its activity leads to meiotic defects. The Cdk1 inhibitor, Sic1, regulates the G1-S transition in the mitotic cell cycle and the analogous transition in meiosis. We have employed a form of Sic1, Sic1deltaPHA, that is mutated at multiple phosphorylation sites and resistant to degradation. Meiosis specific expression of Sic1deltaPHA disrupts Cdk1 activity and leads to significant accumulation of over replicated DNA ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Due-B, A New Human Dna Replication Protein, Is The Functional Homolog Of S. Cerevisiae Sld3, Jianhong Yao Jan 2009

Due-B, A New Human Dna Replication Protein, Is The Functional Homolog Of S. Cerevisiae Sld3, Jianhong Yao

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

DNA unwinding elements (DUEs) are commonly found at DNA replication origins. The DUE binding protein (DUE-B) is crucial for the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes. The unique 59 amino acid C-terminal part of DUE-B shares nearly 50% similarity with yeast the C-terminus of Sld3. DUE-B plays a key role in eukaryotic DNA replication because it is required for the loading of Cdc45, the MCM helicase activator, on chromatin. Here we show that DUE-B, just like yeast Sld3, binds to Cdc45 and TopBP1 through its C-terminus in Sf9 cells and in vitro. We also show that DUE-B, Cdc45 and TopBP1 ...


Atf4 Is An Oxidative Stress–Inducible, Prodeath Transcription Factor In Neurons In Vitro And In Vivo, Philipp Lange, Juan Chavez, John T. Pinto, Giovanni Coppola, Chiao-Wang Sun, Tim Townes, Rajiv Ratan May 2008

Atf4 Is An Oxidative Stress–Inducible, Prodeath Transcription Factor In Neurons In Vitro And In Vivo, Philipp Lange, Juan Chavez, John T. Pinto, Giovanni Coppola, Chiao-Wang Sun, Tim Townes, Rajiv Ratan

NYMC Faculty Publications

Oxidative stress is pathogenic in neurological diseases, including stroke. The identity of oxidative stress-inducible transcription factors and their role in propagating the death cascade are not well known. In an in vitro model of oxidative stress, the expression of the bZip transcription factor activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) was induced by glutathione depletion and localized to the promoter of a putative death gene in neurons. Germline deletion of ATF4 resulted in a profound reduction in oxidative stress-induced gene expression and resistance to oxidative death. In neurons, ATF4 modulates an early, upstream event in the death pathway, as resistance to oxidative ...


Distinguishing Snrnps ("Snurps") From Smurfs, Thomas Johns Mar 2008

Distinguishing Snrnps ("Snurps") From Smurfs, Thomas Johns

Eukaryon

Our snRNPs go a long way in explaining why a mere 25,000 genes can, after translation, express the multitude of proteins that make life possible, enabling human beings to dominate the top of the food chain.


Mechanism Of High-Mobility Group Protein B Enhancement Of Progesterone Receptor Sequence-Specific Dna Binding, James S. Adelman, Sarah C. Roemer, Mair E.A. Churchill, Dean P. Edwards Jan 2008

Mechanism Of High-Mobility Group Protein B Enhancement Of Progesterone Receptor Sequence-Specific Dna Binding, James S. Adelman, Sarah C. Roemer, Mair E.A. Churchill, Dean P. Edwards

James S. Adelman

The DNA-binding domain (DBD) of progesterone receptor (PR) is bipartite containing a zinc module core that interacts with progesterone response elements (PRE), and a short flexible carboxyl terminal extension (CTE) that interacts with the minor groove flanking the PRE. The chromosomal high-mobility group B proteins (HMGB), defined as DNA architectural proteins capable of bending DNA, also function as auxiliary factors that increase the DNA-binding affinity of PR and other steroid receptors by mechanisms that are not well defined. Here we show that the CTE of PR contains a specific binding site for HMGB that is required for stimulation of PR-PRE ...


A Model Of Dna Knotting And Linking, Erica Flapan, Dorothy Buck Jan 2007

A Model Of Dna Knotting And Linking, Erica Flapan, Dorothy Buck

Pomona Faculty Publications and Research

We present a model of how DNA knots and links are formed as a result of a single recombination event, or multiple rounds of (processive) recombination events, starting with an unknotted, unlinked, or a (2,m)-torus knot or link substrate. Given these substrates, according to our model all DNA products of a single recombination event or processive recombination fall into a single family of knots and links.