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Articles 1 - 30 of 111

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly; In Vivo Analysis Of The Methanogenic Suf System, Evan Dunkle Aug 2019

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly; In Vivo Analysis Of The Methanogenic Suf System, Evan Dunkle

LSU Master's Theses

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are among the most ancient and prevalent of all biological cofactors. Their assembly into associated proteins is a tightly regulated process with many organisms employing multiple cluster assembly pathways. Much is known about Fe-S cluster assembly in aerobic organisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) but little is known in regards to cluster assembly in more ancient organisms such as methanogens. Methanogens are members of the domain of Archaea and are defined by their ability to generate methane as a byproduct of their main energy generating pathway. Methanogens also have significantly higher Fe-S cluster content compared to ...


Molecular And Structural Mechanism Of Pan-Genotypic Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibition By Glecaprevir, Jennifer Timm, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Mina Henes, Florian Leidner, Shurong Hou, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer Jul 2019

Molecular And Structural Mechanism Of Pan-Genotypic Hcv Ns3/4a Protease Inhibition By Glecaprevir, Jennifer Timm, Klajdi Kosovrasti, Mina Henes, Florian Leidner, Shurong Hou, Akbar Ali, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Celia A. Schiffer

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), causative agent of chronic viral hepatitis, infects 71 million people worldwide and is divided into seven genotypes and multiple subtypes with sequence identities between 68 to 82%. While older generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) had varying effectiveness against different genotypes, the newest NS3/4A protease inhibitors including glecaprevir (GLE) have pan-genotypic activity. The structural basis for pan-genotypic inhibition and effects of polymorphisms on inhibitor potency were not well known due to lack of crystal structures of GLE-bound NS3/4A or genotypes other than 1. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of NS3/4A from genotypes ...


Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova May 2019

Serum Deprivation Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Exosome Activity And Alters Lipid And Protein Composition, Reka A. Haraszti, Rachael Miller, Michelle L. Dubuke, Andrew H. Coles, Marie C. Didiot, Dimas Echeverria, Matteo Stoppato, Yves Y. Sere, John D. Leszyk, Julia F. Alterman, Bruno M. D. C. Godinho, Matthew R. Hassler, Rachel Wollacott, Yan Wang, Scott A. Shaffer, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Exosomes can serve as delivery vehicles for advanced therapeutics. The components necessary and sufficient to support exosomal delivery have not been established. Here we connect biochemical composition and activity of exosomes to optimize exosome-mediated delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). This information is used to create effective artificial exosomes. We show that serum-deprived mesenchymal stem cells produce exosomes up to 22-fold more effective at delivering siRNAs to neurons than exosomes derived from control cells. Proteinase treatment of exosomes stops siRNA transfer, indicating that surface proteins on exosomes are involved in trafficking. Proteomic and lipidomic analyses show that exosomes derived in ...


Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Synergistic Assembly Of Human Pre-Spliceosomes Across Introns And Exons, Joerg E. Braun, Larry J. Friedman, Jeff Gelles, Melissa J. Moore Jun 2018

Synergistic Assembly Of Human Pre-Spliceosomes Across Introns And Exons, Joerg E. Braun, Larry J. Friedman, Jeff Gelles, Melissa J. Moore

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Most human genes contain multiple introns, necessitating mechanisms to effectively define exons and ensure their proper connection by spliceosomes. Human spliceosome assembly involves both cross-intron and cross-exon interactions, but how these work together is unclear. We examined in human nuclear extracts dynamic interactions of single pre-mRNA molecules with individual fluorescently tagged spliceosomal subcomplexes to investigate how cross-intron and cross-exon processes jointly promote pre-spliceosome assembly. U1 subcomplex bound to the 5' splice site of an intron acts jointly with U1 bound to the 5' splice site of the next intron to dramatically increase the rate and efficiency by which U2 subcomplex ...


Structure And Mechanism Of Mycobacterial Topoisomerase I, Nan Cao May 2018

Structure And Mechanism Of Mycobacterial Topoisomerase I, Nan Cao

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The enzyme DNA topoisomerase I is an essential enzyme that plays an important role in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination and repair. Mycobacterium tuberculosistopoisomerase I (MtTOP1) is a validated drug target for antituberculosis treatment. Mycobacterial topoisomerase I regulates the topological constraints in chromosomes and helps in maintaining the growth of mycobacteria. The N- terminal domain (NTD) of mycobacterial topoisomerase I contains conserved catalytic domains that along with the active site Tyrosine are involved in cleaving and rejoining a single strand of DNA. Magnesium is required in DNA cleavage activity of type IA topoisomerases ...


Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah May 2018

Regulation Of The Pi3-Kinase/Pten Signaling Pathway By Tgf-Β In Prostate Cancer Cells, Mawiyah Kimbrough-Allah

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Transforming growth factor -β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. It acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. The PI3-kinase pathway has been shown to play integral roles in many cellular processes including cell proliferation, survival, and cell migration in many cell types. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a tumor suppressor gene, inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. In this present study, we investigated possible roles of ...


A Multisession, Undergraduate Molecular Biology Lab Experiment Using Green Fluorescent Protein Including Subcloning And Color Changing Mutagenesis, Nathan S. Winter Apr 2018

A Multisession, Undergraduate Molecular Biology Lab Experiment Using Green Fluorescent Protein Including Subcloning And Color Changing Mutagenesis, Nathan S. Winter

Chemistry Faculty Publications

This paper describes a series of experiments involving handling and manipulating the DNA coding for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) including the subcloning of this gene, and mutating the DNA so that Cyan Fluorescent Protein (CFP) or Blue Fluorescent protein (BFP) are expressed. The primers needed for the PCR based subcloning of GFP are presented, as are those needed to mutate the GFP to either CFP or BFP.


The Role Of Dynamics Within Bama, The Central Component Of The Bam Complex, Pamela Arden Doerner Barbour Jan 2018

The Role Of Dynamics Within Bama, The Central Component Of The Bam Complex, Pamela Arden Doerner Barbour

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations (1986-2018)

BamA is an essential component of the β-­‐barrel assembly machine that folds and inserts outer membrane proteins (OMPs) into the outer membrane of Gram-­‐negative bacteria. BamA is an OMP itself comprised of two domains, a soluble periplasmic N-­‐terminal domain consisting of five polypeptide transport associated (POTRA) repeats and a C-­‐terminal 16-­‐stranded β-­‐barrel domain. The mechanism of BamA is poorly understood but structural data suggests BamA is a dynamic protein with respect to the POTRA domains and barrel. The POTRA domains, numbered 1-5 from the N- to C- termini, can be divided into two sub-domains ...


Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, Kelly A. Limoncelli Dec 2017

Identification Of Factors Involved In 18s Nonfunctional Ribosomal Rna Decay And A Method For Detecting 8-Oxoguanosine By Rna-Seq, Kelly A. Limoncelli

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The translation of mRNA into functional proteins is essential for all life. In eukaryotes, aberrant RNAs containing sequence features that stall or severely slow down ribosomes are subject to translation-dependent quality control. Targets include mRNAs encoding a strong secondary structure (No-Go Decay; NGD) or stretches of positively-charged amino acids (Peptide-dependent Translation Arrest/Ribosome Quality Control; PDTA/RQC), mRNAs lacking an in-frame stop codon (Non-Stop Decay; NSD), or defective 18S rRNAs (18S Nonfunctional rRNA Decay; 18S NRD). Previous work from our lab showed that the S. cerevisiae NGD factors DOM34 and HBS1, and PDTA/RQC factor ASC1, all participate in the ...


Approaching Undergraduate Research With Students Who Are Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Austin U. Gehret, Jessica W. Trussell, Lea V. Michel May 2017

Approaching Undergraduate Research With Students Who Are Deaf And Hard-Of-Hearing, Austin U. Gehret, Jessica W. Trussell, Lea V. Michel

Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities

An undergraduate research experience can provide a unique opportunity for students to learn and grow as scientists; when positive, this experience is often transformative and motivates students to pursue science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) graduate degrees or careers. Conversely, negative research experiences can sour a student’s opinion of research, propagate misconceptions of graduate school, and lead to attrition from STEM fields. Negative research experiences can be equally devastating for faculty mentors and may result in reluctance to mentor future research students. Using a mentoring approach that has traditionally translated to positive research experiences for hearing students may not ...


The Effects Of Mercury Exposure On The Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 Gene Of Larval Dragonflies, Megan C. Little May 2017

The Effects Of Mercury Exposure On The Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 Gene Of Larval Dragonflies, Megan C. Little

Honors College

Mercury is an environmental pollutant; its most toxic form is methylmercury. Once mercury is converted to methylmercury in a body of water it is able to bioaccumulate in organisms and biomagnify up the food chain. Mercury is able to cause DNA damage through the generation of free radicals and binding to sulfhydryl groups of cysteines in zinc finger DNA binding domains, inhibiting DNA repair machinery. In this study the potential mutagenic effects of mercury were investigated on larval dragonflies (Odonta: Anisoptera) collected from national parks across the United States. Since mercury is a known mutagen it was hypothesized that the ...


Investigation Of Media Effects On Sinorhizobium Meliloti Glucose Minus, Roxana Apostol Jan 2017

Investigation Of Media Effects On Sinorhizobium Meliloti Glucose Minus, Roxana Apostol

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Although nitrogen fertilizers have certain benefits, the over application of such compounds often results in damages to the ecosystem. In this project, we focus our study on Sinorhizobiom meliloti, a species that lives in symbiosis with alfalfa plants, and through its nitrogen fixation capabilities, restores nitrogen levels in the soil. In our study we aim to gain a better understanding of the carbon metabolism in S. meliloti, mainly by looking at growth patterns in the presence of different carbon sources. Our research picked up on Erik Arvey’s discoveries which pointed out that sucrose inhibits growth of certain glucose minus ...


Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre Feb 2016

Clinical Light Exposure, Photoreceptor Degeneration, And Ap-1 Activation: A Cell Death Or Cell Survival Signal In The Rhodopsin Mutant Retina?, Danian Gu, William Beltran, Zexiao Li, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. The T4R RHO mutant dog retina shows retinal degeneration with exposures to light comparable to those used in clinical eye examinations of patients. To define the molecular mechanisms of the degeneration, AP-1 DNA-binding activity, composition, posttranslational modification of the protein complex, and modulation of ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were examined in light-exposed mutant retinas. METHODS. Dark-adapted retinas were exposed to short-duration light flashes from a retinal camera used clinically for retinal photography and were collected at different time points after exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), supershift EMSA, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to examine AP-1 signaling ...


Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina E. Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah J. Lindauer, Robert F. Mullins, Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Bruce H. Grahn, Edwin M. Stone, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre Feb 2016

Bestrophin Gene Mutations Cause Canine Multifocal Retinopathy: A Novel Animal Model For Best Disease, Karina E. Guziewicz, Barbara Zangerl, Sarah J. Lindauer, Robert F. Mullins, Lynne S. Sandmeyer, Bruce H. Grahn, Edwin M. Stone, Gregory M. Acland, Gustavo D. Aguirre

Gustavo D. Aguirre, VMD, PhD

PURPOSE. Canine multifocal retinopathy (cmr) is an autosomal recessive disorder of multiple dog breeds. The disease shares a number of clinical and pathologic similarities with Best macular dystrophy (BMD), and cmr is proposed as a new large animal model for Best disease. METHODS. cmr was characterized by ophthalmoscopy and histopathology and compared with BMD-affected patients. BEST1 (alias VMD2), the bestrophin gene causally associated with BMD, was evaluated in the dog. Canine ortholog cDNA sequence was cloned and verified using RPE/choroid 5′- and 3′-RACE. Expression of the canine gene transcripts and protein was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting ...


Novel Insight Into The Role Of Lxrα In Metabolic Regulation Via Dna Binding As A Heterodimer With Pparα And As A Homodimer, Andrea M. Klingler Jan 2016

Novel Insight Into The Role Of Lxrα In Metabolic Regulation Via Dna Binding As A Heterodimer With Pparα And As A Homodimer, Andrea M. Klingler

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Liver X receptor a (LXRa) plays a critical role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis within a cell through tight transcriptional regulation of genes involved in metabolism of lipids, glucose, and cholesterol. Although LXRa has been established to function as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor a (RXRa), recent studies have determined that LXRa also interacts directly with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa). However, little is known regarding the functionality of this heterodimer, if any exists at all. This study determined that a heterodimer of PPARa and LXRa is capable of binding to candidate response elements in vitro with ...


Characterization And Structure Of A Zn2+ And [2fe-2s]-Containing Copper Chaperone From Archaeoglobus Fulgidus, Matthew Sazinsky, Benjamin Lemoine, Maria Orofino, Roman Davydov, Krisztina Bencze, Timothy Stemmler, Brian Hoffman, José Argüello, Amy Rosenzweig Dec 2015

Characterization And Structure Of A Zn2+ And [2fe-2s]-Containing Copper Chaperone From Archaeoglobus Fulgidus, Matthew Sazinsky, Benjamin Lemoine, Maria Orofino, Roman Davydov, Krisztina Bencze, Timothy Stemmler, Brian Hoffman, José Argüello, Amy Rosenzweig

José M. Argüello

Bacterial CopZ proteins deliver copper to P1B-type Cu+-ATPases that are homologous to the human Wilson and Menkes disease proteins. The genome of the hyperthermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus encodes a putative CopZ copper chaperone that contains an unusual cysteine rich N-terminal domain of 130 amino acids in addition to a C-terminal copper-binding domain with a conserved CXXC motif. The N-terminal domain (CopZ-NT) is homologous to proteins found only in extremophiles and is the only such protein that is fused to a copper chaperone. Surprisingly, optical, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic data indicate the presence of a [2Fe-2S] cluster in ...


Differences In Fecal Metabolite Profiles From Geographically Distinct Populations Of Adolescents, Jessica Moncivaiz Jan 2015

Differences In Fecal Metabolite Profiles From Geographically Distinct Populations Of Adolescents, Jessica Moncivaiz

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract have a variety of functions within the human body. They participate in protection of the host from pathogens, aid in immune system development and regulation, and carry out a variety of metabolic functions. This study focuses on the ability of gut microbiota to create metabolites through the degradation of food products. Using 1H NMR on fecal water extracts, I compared the metabolite profiles of two geographically distinct cohorts: healthy adolescents from Egypt (n=28) and healthy adolescents from the United States (n=14). Multivariate statistical analyses of binned NMR data confirmed that samples separated into ...


Autoinhibition Of Bacteriophage T4 Mre11 By Its C-Terminal Domain, Yang Gao, Scott Nelson Sep 2014

Autoinhibition Of Bacteriophage T4 Mre11 By Its C-Terminal Domain, Yang Gao, Scott Nelson

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Mre11 and Rad50 form a stable complex (MR) and work cooperatively in repairing DNA double strand breaks. In the bacteriophage T4, Rad50 (gene product 46) enhances the nuclease activity of Mre11 (gene product 47), and Mre11 and DNA in combination stimulate the ATPase activity of Rad50. The structural basis for the cross-activation of the MR complex has been elusive. Various crystal structures of the MR complex display limited protein-protein interfaces that mainly exist between the C terminus of Mre11 and the coiled-coil domain of Rad50. To test the role of the C-terminal Rad50 binding domain (RBD) in Mre11 activation, we ...


Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman Nov 2013

Gene Expression Studies For The Analysis Of Domoic Acid Production In The Marine Diatom Pseudo-Nitzschia Multiseries, Katie Boissonneault, Brooks M. Henningsen, Stephen S. Bates, Deborah L. Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A. Hogan, David E. Housman

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions.


Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham May 2013

Development And Application Of Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics To Generate And Navigate The Proteomes Of The Genus Populus, Paul Edward Abraham

Doctoral Dissertations

Historically, there has been tremendous synergy between biology and analytical technology, such that one drives the development of the other. Over the past two decades, their interrelatedness has catalyzed entirely new experimental approaches and unlocked new types of biological questions, as exemplified by the advancements of the field of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. MS-based proteomics, which provides a more complete measurement of all the proteins in a cell, has revolutionized a variety of scientific fields, ranging from characterizing proteins expressed by a microorganism to tracking cancer-related biomarkers. Though MS technology has advanced significantly, the analysis of complicated proteomes, such ...


Helix Turn Helix Domain, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Helix Turn Helix Domain, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

Helix turn helix domain #3V1A. The helix-turn helix is a DNA-binding domain. The two alpha helices are the reading or recognition helices, which bind in a groove in the DNA and recognize specific gene regulatory sequences in the DNA.


Ig Domain, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Ig Domain, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

Ig domain #2CKN. This particular domain is named for the first protein in which it was found, the immunoglobulin. An immunoglobulin is a antibody. Antibodies are generated by our immune system to recognize the specific size, shape and charge of pathogens. This domain is also found on the extracellular portion of many receptors including the interleukin-1 family of receptors.


Sh3 Domain, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Sh3 Domain, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

SH3 domain #1NEB. Src-homology 3 (SH3) domains bind to Pro-rich peptides that form a left-handed poly-Pro type II helix, with the minimal consensus Pro-X-X-Pro. Each Pro is usually preceeded by an aliphatic residue. Each in the aliphatic-Pro pair binds to a hydrophobic pocket on the SH3 domain.


Sh2 Domain, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Sh2 Domain, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

SH2 domain #1BFJ. Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains are modules of ~100 amino acids that bind to specific phospho tyrosine (pY) containing peptide motifs. Conventional SH2 domains have a conserved pocket that recognizes pY, and a more variable pocket that binds 3-6 residues C-terminal to the pY and confers specificity.


Ring Domain, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Ring Domain, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

Ring domain #1CHC. The RING finger is a specialized type of Zn finger consisting of 40–60 residues that binds two atoms of zinc, and is involved in mediating protein—protein interactions. Many zinc fingers bind nucleic acids. The presence of a RING finger domain is a characteristic of RING-class E3 ubiquitin protein ligases capable of transferring ubiquitin from an E2 enzyme to a substrate protein.


Beta Barrel, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Beta Barrel, David J. Hall

Protein Domains

Beta barrel (cyan fluorescent protein) #4AR7. This fluorescent protein is a variation of green fluorescent protein from a jellyfish and is the only domain that is a complete protein. The protein is routinely used to visualize a variety of biological processes. The beta barrel domain is a beta sheet wrapped around the fluorescent active site to provide structure.


Phi X 174, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Phi X 174, David J. Hall

Infectious Pathogens

Phi X 174 database number # 1CD3. Phi X 174 is a virus that infects bacteria and was the first DNA-based genome to be sequenced in 1977. This bacteriophage has a [+] circular single-stranded DNA genome. The assembly of the capsid has been successfully done in vitro and is the focus of many studies on self-assembly, drug delivery and nanotechnology.


Human Papilloma Virus 16, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Human Papilloma Virus 16, David J. Hall

Infectious Pathogens

Human Papilloma virus 16, database# 1DZL Infection by most papillomaviruses is either asymptomatic or causes small benign tumors, known as papillomas or warts (e.g. human papillomavirus HPV6 or HPV11). Papillomas caused by some types, however, such as human papillomaviruses 16 and 18, carry a risk of becoming cancerous. Human papilloma virus is a non-enveloped, double stranded, circular DNA virus.


Dengue Virus, David J. Hall Jan 2013

Dengue Virus, David J. Hall

Infectious Pathogens

Dengue virus, database # 1THD Dengue fever, is an infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by mosquito. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue is a positive strand RNA virus that is part of the flavivirus family. Dengue is an enveloped virus meaning it has a nucleocapsid protecting the RNA and the nucleocapsid is surrounded by lipids (hence the name enveloped).