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Molecular Biology

2011

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Articles 271 - 285 of 285

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang Jan 2011

Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang

Wayne State University Dissertations

For nearly half a century, it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release ...


Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah Jan 2011

Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah

Wayne State University Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimated that 222,520 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer and 157,300 died of lung cancer in 2010 (Jemal et al. 2009, 225-249;Jemal et al. 2011, 69-90). The clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the major lung cancer sub-types, is very poor, which calls for innovative research for finding novel therapeutic targets and agents for better treatment outcome.

Emerging evidences have suggested that a phenomenon called Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), which shares similar molecular characteristics with cancer stem-like cells, contributes to lung cancer treatment failure. In view of the fact ...


Human Trophoblast Survival And Invasion In The Developing Placenta: Autocrine Regulation By Hbegf, Philip Jessmon Jan 2011

Human Trophoblast Survival And Invasion In The Developing Placenta: Autocrine Regulation By Hbegf, Philip Jessmon

Wayne State University Dissertations

HBEGF is a multifunctional protein in early pregnancy that induces cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell differentiation to an invasive phenotype, protects against apoptosis, and is involved in an autocrine signaling mechanism that leads to its own protein synthesis. CTBs exist in a low O2 environment during the first 10 weeks of implantation, during which they invade the decidualized uterine stroma. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways demonstrated that at 20% O2 HBEGF induces an increase in cell migration through the ERK, MAPK14, JNK, or PIK3 pathways downstream of signaling through its ERBB receptors. Also downstream of these four pathways, HBEGF induces ...


Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong Jan 2011

Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong

Wayne State University Dissertations

roX1 is a long non-coding RNA involved in the chromosome-wide gene regulation that occurs during dosage compensation in Drosophila. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster occurs by a global two-fold increase of transcription from the single male X chromosome. This essential process compensates for X chromosome monosomy. The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, containing five proteins, localizes to the male X chromosome and alters chromatin to modify gene expression. roX1 and roX2 RNAs are redundant components of MSL complex that are required for its exclusive X-localization. Recent studies in our lab have revealed a second role of roX RNAs in heterochromatic gene ...


Comparison Of Human Optimized Bacterial Luciferase, Firefly Luciferase, And Green Florescent Protein For Continuous Imaging Of Cell Cultures And Mouse Models., D Close, Re Hahn, S Patterson, Seung Baek, S Ripp, G Sayler Dec 2010

Comparison Of Human Optimized Bacterial Luciferase, Firefly Luciferase, And Green Florescent Protein For Continuous Imaging Of Cell Cultures And Mouse Models., D Close, Re Hahn, S Patterson, Seung Baek, S Ripp, G Sayler

Seung J Baek

No abstract provided.


Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis Is Mediated By Early Growth Response-1, Krüppel-Like Factor 4, And Activating Transcription Factor 3, N Whitlock, J Bahn, S Lee, T Eling, Seung Baek Dec 2010

Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis Is Mediated By Early Growth Response-1, Krüppel-Like Factor 4, And Activating Transcription Factor 3, N Whitlock, J Bahn, S Lee, T Eling, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Resveratrol, a dietary phytoalexin readily available in the diet, is reported to possess antitumorigenic properties in several cancers, including colorectal. However, the underlying mechanism(s) involved is not completely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol treatment on gene modulation in human colorectal cancer cells and identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) as the most highly induced gene after treatment. We confirmed that resveratrol upregulates ATF3 expression, both at the mRNA and protein level, and showed resveratrol involvement in ATF3 transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the ATF3 promoter revealed the importance of early growth response-1 (Egr-1; located ...


Antidiabetic Properties Involved In Insulin Sensitivity Of Abutilon Indicum Sweet Are Mediated By Enhancement Of Adipocyte Differentiation And Activation Of Glut1 Promoter, C 88. Krisanapun, Seong-Ho Lee, P Peungvicha, R Temsiririrkkul, Seung Baek Dec 2010

Antidiabetic Properties Involved In Insulin Sensitivity Of Abutilon Indicum Sweet Are Mediated By Enhancement Of Adipocyte Differentiation And Activation Of Glut1 Promoter, C 88. Krisanapun, Seong-Ho Lee, P Peungvicha, R Temsiririrkkul, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

No abstract provided.


Chloroplast Phenomics: Systematic Phenotypic Screening Of Chloroplast Protein Mutants In Arabidopsis, Yan Lu, Linda Savage, Robert Last Dec 2010

Chloroplast Phenomics: Systematic Phenotypic Screening Of Chloroplast Protein Mutants In Arabidopsis, Yan Lu, Linda Savage, Robert Last

Yan Lu

No abstract provided.


Proteomic Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedlings Treated With Ethylene, Ruiqiang Chen, Brad Binder, Wesley Garrett, Mark Tucker, Caren Chang, Bret Cooper Dec 2010

Proteomic Responses In Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedlings Treated With Ethylene, Ruiqiang Chen, Brad Binder, Wesley Garrett, Mark Tucker, Caren Chang, Bret Cooper

Brad M. Binder

Ethylene (ET) is a volatile hormone that modulates fruit ripening, plant growth, development and stress responses. Key components of the ET-signaling pathway identified by genetic dissection in Arabidopsis thaliana include five ET receptors, the negative regulator CTR1 and the positive regulator EIN2, all of which localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mechanisms of signaling among these proteins are still unresolved and targets of ET responses are not fully known. So, we used mass spectrometry to identify proteins in microsomal membrane preparations from etiolated A. thaliana seedlings maintained in ambient air or treated with ET for 3 h. We compared 3814 proteins ...


Redirection Of Tryptophan Metabolism In Tobacco By Ectopic Expression Of An Arabidopsis Indolic Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Gene, Heather Nonhebel, Youxi Yuan, Hussein Al-Amier, Michael Pieck, Enne Akor, Arifa Ahamed, Jerry D. Cohen, John L. Celenza, Jennifer Normanly Dec 2010

Redirection Of Tryptophan Metabolism In Tobacco By Ectopic Expression Of An Arabidopsis Indolic Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Gene, Heather Nonhebel, Youxi Yuan, Hussein Al-Amier, Michael Pieck, Enne Akor, Arifa Ahamed, Jerry D. Cohen, John L. Celenza, Jennifer Normanly

Jennifer Normanly

Indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) is a branch point compound of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism in glucosinolate-producing species such as Arabidopsis, serving as a precursor to indole-glucosinolates (IGs), the defense compound camalexin, indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We synthesized [(2)H(5)] and [(13)C(10)(15)N(2)]IAOx and [(13)C(6)], [(2)H(5)] and [2',2'-(2)H(2)]IAN in order to quantify endogenous IAOx and IAN in Arabidopsis and tobacco, a non-IG producing species. We found that side chain-labeled [2',2'-(2)H(2)]IAN overestimated the amount of IAN by 2-fold compared to when [(2)H ...


Coexpressed D1- And D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release In Caenorhabditis Elegans., Andrew T. Allen, Kathryn N. Maher, Khursheed A. Wani, Katherine E. Betts, Daniel Chase Dec 2010

Coexpressed D1- And D2-Like Dopamine Receptors Antagonistically Modulate Acetylcholine Release In Caenorhabditis Elegans., Andrew T. Allen, Kathryn N. Maher, Khursheed A. Wani, Katherine E. Betts, Daniel Chase

Daniel Chase

Dopamine acts through two classes of G protein-coupled receptor (D1-like and D2-like) to modulate neuron activity in the brain. While subtypes of D1- and D2-like receptors are coexpressed in many neurons of the mammalian brain, it is unclear how signaling by these coexpressed receptors interacts to modulate the activity of the neuron in which they are expressed. D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors are also coexpressed in the cholinergic ventral-cord motor neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. To begin to understand how coexpressed dopamine receptors interact to modulate neuron activity, we performed a genetic screen in C. elegans and isolated mutants defective in ...


The Transition From Closed To Open Conformation Of Treponema Pallidum Outer Membrane-Associated Lipoprotein Tp0453 Involves Membrane Sensing And Integration By Two Amphipathic Helices, Amit Luthra, Guangyu Zhu, Daniel C. Desrosiers, Christian H. Eggers, Vishwaroop Mulay, Arvind Anand, Fiona A. Mcarthur, Fabian B. Romano, Melissa J. Caimano, Alejandro P. Heuck, Michael G. Malkowski, Justin D. Radolf Dec 2010

The Transition From Closed To Open Conformation Of Treponema Pallidum Outer Membrane-Associated Lipoprotein Tp0453 Involves Membrane Sensing And Integration By Two Amphipathic Helices, Amit Luthra, Guangyu Zhu, Daniel C. Desrosiers, Christian H. Eggers, Vishwaroop Mulay, Arvind Anand, Fiona A. Mcarthur, Fabian B. Romano, Melissa J. Caimano, Alejandro P. Heuck, Michael G. Malkowski, Justin D. Radolf

Alejandro P. Heuck

The molecular architecture and composition of the outer membrane (OM) of Treponema pallidum (Tp), the noncultivable agent of venereal syphilis, differ considerably from those of typical Gram-negative bacteria. Several years ago we described TP0453, the only lipoprotein associated with the inner leaflet of the Tp OM. Whereas polypeptides of other treponemal lipoproteins are hydrophilic, non-lipidated TP0453 can integrate into membranes, a property attributed to its multiple amphipathic helices (AHs). Furthermore, membrane integration of the TP0453 polypeptide was found to increase membrane permeability, suggesting the molecule functions in a porin-like manner. To better understand the mechanism of membrane integration of TP0453 ...


Efficient Isolation Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type Iii Secretion Translocators And Assembly Of Heteromeric Transmembrane Pores In Model Membranes, Fabian B. Romano, Kyle C. Rossi, Christos G. Sava, Andreas Holzenburg, Eugenia M. Clerico, Alejandro P. Heuck Dec 2010

Efficient Isolation Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Type Iii Secretion Translocators And Assembly Of Heteromeric Transmembrane Pores In Model Membranes, Fabian B. Romano, Kyle C. Rossi, Christos G. Sava, Andreas Holzenburg, Eugenia M. Clerico, Alejandro P. Heuck

Alejandro P. Heuck

Translocation of bacterial toxins or effectors into host cells using the type III secretion (T3S) system is a conserved mechanism shared by many Gram-negative pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa injects different proteins across the plasma membrane of target cells, altering the normal metabolism of the host. Protein translocation presumably occurs through a proteinaceous transmembrane pore formed by two T3S secreted protein translocators, PopB and PopD. Unfolded translocators are secreted through the T3S needle prior to insertion into the target membrane. Purified PopB and PopD form pores in model membranes. However, their tendency to form heterogeneous aggregates in solution had hampered the analysis ...


Segmental Isotopic Labeling Of The Hsp70 Molecular Chaperone Dnak Using Expressed Protein Ligation, Eugenia M. Clerico, Anastasia Zhuravleva, Robert G. Smock, Lila Gierasch Dec 2010

Segmental Isotopic Labeling Of The Hsp70 Molecular Chaperone Dnak Using Expressed Protein Ligation, Eugenia M. Clerico, Anastasia Zhuravleva, Robert G. Smock, Lila Gierasch

Lila Gierasch

Introducing biophysical labels into specific regions of large and dynamic multidomain proteins greatly facilitates mechanistic analysis. Ligation of expressed domains that are labeled in a desired manner before assembly of the intact molecular machine provides such a strategy. We have elaborated an experimental route using expressed protein ligation (EPL) to create an Hsp70 molecular chaperone (in this case the E. coli Hsp70, DnaK) where only one of the two constituent domains was labeled, in this case with NMR active isotopes, allowing visualization of the single domain in the context of the two domain protein. Several technical obstacles were overcome, including ...


Small Rnas Prevent Transcription-Coupled Erosion Of Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Raymond Enke, Z. Dong, J. Bender Dec 2010

Small Rnas Prevent Transcription-Coupled Erosion Of Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Raymond Enke, Z. Dong, J. Bender

Ray Enke Ph.D.

No abstract provided.