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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Mitochondrial Dna Analysis By Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography For The Characterization And Separation Of Mixtures In Forensic Samples, Richard Kristinsson Nov 2011

Mitochondrial Dna Analysis By Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography For The Characterization And Separation Of Mixtures In Forensic Samples, Richard Kristinsson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A mixture of different mtDNA molecules in a single sample is a significant obstacle to the successful use of standard methods of mtDNA analysis (i.e., dideoxy dye-terminator sequencing). Forensic analysts often encounter either naturally occurring mixtures (e.g., heteroplasmy) or situational mixtures typically arising from a combination of body fluids from separate individuals. The ability to accurately resolve and interpret these types of samples in a timely and cost efficient manner would substantially increase the power of mtDNA analysis and potentially provide valuable investigative information by allowing its use in cases where the current approach is limited or fails ...


Molecular Modulation Of A-Subunit Visit-Dg Sequence Residue Asp-350 In The Catalytic Sites Of Escherichia Coli Atp Synthase., Sneha R. Jonnalagadda May 2011

Molecular Modulation Of A-Subunit Visit-Dg Sequence Residue Asp-350 In The Catalytic Sites Of Escherichia Coli Atp Synthase., Sneha R. Jonnalagadda

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ATP Synthase is the fundamental means of cellular energy production in animals, plants, and almost all microorganisms. In order to understand the mechanism of ATP catalysis, critical amino acid residues involved in Pi binding have to be identified. The αVISIT-DG sequence at the interface of α/β subunits that contains residues from 345-351 is highly conserved and αAsp-350 has been chosen because of its negative charge side chain and its close proximity (~2.8 Å) to the known phosphate binding residue αArg-376. The mutant's αD350R, αD350Q, αD350A, αR376A/D, and αG351R/A/D were generated by site directed mutagenesis ...


Development Of Molecular And Cellular Imaging Tools To Evaluate Gene And Cell Based Therapeutic Strategies In Vivo, Jixiang Xia Jan 2011

Development Of Molecular And Cellular Imaging Tools To Evaluate Gene And Cell Based Therapeutic Strategies In Vivo, Jixiang Xia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Molecular imaging modalities are important tools to evaluate the efficacy of gene delivery systems and cell-based therapies. Development and application of these modalities will advance our understanding of the mechanism of transgene expression and cell fate and functions. Physical gene transfer methods hold many advantages over viral vectors among gene therapeutic strategies. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of biolistic (“gene gun”) gene targeting to tissues with non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI) methods. Plasmids carrying the firefly luciferase reporter gene were transfected into mouse skin and liver using biolistics, and BLI was measured at various time points after transfer. With optimized DNA ...


Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi Jan 2011

Stable Expression Of Tuberculosis Vaccine Antigen In Lettuce Chloroplasts, Priya Saikumar Lakshmi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is one of the leading reasons of death by an infectious bacterial pathogen. The development of TB vaccines has been recognized as a major public health priority by the World Health Organization. In this study, a potential candidate antigen, ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secretory antigenic target) was fused with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Transplastomic lettuce plants were generated expressing these fusion proteins. Site-specific transgene integration into the chloroplast genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. In transplastomic leaves, expression levels of fusion protein (CTB-ESAT6) varied depending upon ...


Evolutionary Relationships Among Staphylococci And The Prevention Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Colonization, Ryan Paul Lamers Jan 2011

Evolutionary Relationships Among Staphylococci And The Prevention Of Staphylococcus Aureus Nasal Colonization, Ryan Paul Lamers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus is a significant cause of human infection and mortality, worldwide. Currently, there are greater than 60 taxa within Staphylococcus, and nearly all are pathogenic. The collective potential for virulence among species of Staphylococcus heightens the overall clinical significance of this genus and argues for a thorough understanding of the evolutionary relationships among species. Within Staphylococcus, aureus is the most common cause of human infection, where nasal carriage of this bacterium is a known risk factor for autoinfection. The predisposition to infection by nasal carriers of S. aureus, and the ease with which strains are transferred between individuals, suggests that ...


Novel Copper Loaded Core-Shell Silica Nanoparticles With Improved Copper Bioavailability Synthesis, Characterization And Study Of Antibacterial Properties, Pavithra Maniprasad Jan 2011

Novel Copper Loaded Core-Shell Silica Nanoparticles With Improved Copper Bioavailability Synthesis, Characterization And Study Of Antibacterial Properties, Pavithra Maniprasad

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A novel core-shell silica based antimicrobial nanoparticle was synthesized. The Stöber silica shell has been engineered to accommodate copper. Synthesis of the core-shell Cu-silica nanoparticle (C-S CuSiNP) involves preparation of base-hydrolyzed Stöber silica “seed” particles first, followed by the acid-catalyzed seeded growth of the Cu-silica shell layer around the core. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed monodispersed, spherical shaped nanoparticles with smooth surface morphology. Characterization of particle size distribution in solution by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) technique was fairly consistent with the electron microscopy results. Loading of Cu to nanoparticles was confirmed by the SEM-Energy Dispersive X-Ray ...


Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes Jan 2011

Synthesis, Characterization And Antibacterial Activity Of Silver Embedded Silica Nanoparticle/Nanogel Formulation, Roseline Menezes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The antibacterial property of silver (Ag) has been known since ancient time. It is reported in the literature that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exhibit improved antibacterial properties in comparison to silver ions of equivalent metallic Ag concentration. Such improvement in antibacterial activities is due to the high surface area to volume ratio of AgNPs (which facilitates interaction with the bacterial cells), increased release of silver ions and direct intra-cellular uptake of AgNPs leading to localized release of Ag ions. To date, over 300 consumer products containing AgNPs are available in the market and the inventory is rapidly expanding. The antibacterial efficacy ...


Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam Jan 2011

Expression And Functional Evaluation Of Exendin 4 Fused To Cholera Toxin B Subunit In Tobacco Chloroplast To Treat Type 2 Diabetes, Ramya Nityanandam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing around the globe. Glucagon like peptide (GLP-1), a powerful incretin increases insulin secretion in a glucose dependent manner. But GLP-1 is subjected to rapid enzymatic degradation (half-life: 2 min in circulation). The commercially available GLP-1 analog, exenatide has a longer half life with potent insulinotropic effects (about 2.4 hr) which requires cold storage and daily subcutaneous injections. In this study, exendin 4 (EX4), lizard derived GLP-1R agonist, was expressed as cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-fusion protein in chloroplasts of tobacco to facilitate transmucosal delivery in the gut by ...


Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal Jan 2011

Expression Of Trichoderma Reesei Beta]-Mannanase In Tobacco Chloroplasts And Its Utilization In Lignocellulosic Woody Biomass Hydrolysis, Pankaj M. Agrawal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Lignocellulosic ethanol offers a promising alternative to conventional fossil fuels. One among the major limitations in the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is unavailability of efficient and environmentally biomass degrading technologies. Plantbased production of these enzymes on large scale offers a cost effective solution. Cellulases, hemicellulases including mannanases and other accessory enzymes are required for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. β- mannanase catalyzes endo-hydrolysis of the mannan backbone, a major constituent of woody biomass. In this study, man1 gene encoding β-mannanase was isolated from Trichoderma reesei and expressed via the chloroplast genome. PCR and Southern hybridization analysis confirmed the site-specific ...


A Solid Phase Assay For Topoisomerase I Interfacial Poisons And Catalytic Inhibitors, Vidusha Cyril Jan 2011

A Solid Phase Assay For Topoisomerase I Interfacial Poisons And Catalytic Inhibitors, Vidusha Cyril

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We report a mechanism based screening technique to rapidly identify eukaryotic topoisomerase I targeting agents. The method is based on genetic tagging of topoisomerase I to immobilize the enzyme on a solid surface in a microtiter well format. DNA is added to the wells and retained DNA is detected by Picogreen fluorescence. Compounds that result in an increase in Picogreen staining represent potential topoisomerase interfacial poisons while those that reduce fluorescence report catalytic inhibitors; therefore, the solid phase assay represents a „bimodal‟ readout that reveals mechanisms of action. The method has been demonstrated to work with known interfacial poisons and ...


Mechanisms Of Alpha]-Synuclein-Induced Neurodegenertaion In Parkinson's Disease And Stroke, Cherine Belal Jan 2011

Mechanisms Of Alpha]-Synuclein-Induced Neurodegenertaion In Parkinson's Disease And Stroke, Cherine Belal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder affecting one million Americans. Despite its social and economic impact, the pathological cascades that lead to neuron dysfunction and degeneration in PD are poorly understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated as an initiator or contributing factor in neurodegenerative diseases including PD. The ER is an organelle central to protein folding and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Perturbations of these functions result in ER stress and upregulation of ER stress proteins, of which some have been implicated in counteracting ER stress-induced cell death. The mechanisms that lead to ER stress and how ...


Acute Synaptic Activity Causes Differential Mirna Expression In The Drosophila Melanogaster Larval Central Nervous System, Robert Ian Sand Jan 2011

Acute Synaptic Activity Causes Differential Mirna Expression In The Drosophila Melanogaster Larval Central Nervous System, Robert Ian Sand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary goal of this thesis was to determine if spaced synaptic stimulation induced the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the Drosophila melanogaster central nervous system (CNS). Prior to attaining this goal, we needed to identify and validate a spaced stimulation paradigm that could induce the formation of new synaptic growth at a model synapse, the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Both Channelrhodopsin- and high potassium-based stimulation paradigms adapted from (Ataman, et al. 2008) were tested. Once validation of these paradigms was complete, we sought to characterize the miRNA expression profile of the larval CNS by miRNA array. Following attainment ...


Epigenetic Effects Of Benzo(A)Pyrene In Fundulus Heteroclitus And Danio Rerio, Xiefan Fang Jan 2011

Epigenetic Effects Of Benzo(A)Pyrene In Fundulus Heteroclitus And Danio Rerio, Xiefan Fang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms that controls gene expression and is vulnerable to early life environmental toxicant exposures. Our goal was to use two fish models, Fundulus heteroclitus and Danio rerio (zebrafish), to study the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) effects on DNA methylation status and whether the alterations could contribute to BaP-mediated reproductive and developmental toxicities. Initially, we used Fundulus to study BaP effects on glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression throughout development. Fundulus embryos were exposed to waterborne BaP at nominally 10 or 100 μg/L and both GNMT mRNA expression and enzyme activity were measured. Quantitative PCR ...