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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Prevalence Of Canine Leishmania Infantum Infection In Western China Detected By Pcr And Serological Tests, Jun-Yun Wang, Yu Ha, Chun-Hua Gao, Yong Wang, Yue-Tao Yang, Hai-Tang Chen Jan 2011

The Prevalence Of Canine Leishmania Infantum Infection In Western China Detected By Pcr And Serological Tests, Jun-Yun Wang, Yu Ha, Chun-Hua Gao, Yong Wang, Yue-Tao Yang, Hai-Tang Chen

Wayne State University Associated BioMed Central Scholarship

Abstract

Background

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China), which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the ...


The Role Of Zip Superfamily Of Metal Transporters In Chronic Diseases, Purification & Characterization Of A Bacterial Zip Transporter: Zupt., Iryna King Jan 2011

The Role Of Zip Superfamily Of Metal Transporters In Chronic Diseases, Purification & Characterization Of A Bacterial Zip Transporter: Zupt., Iryna King

Wayne State University Theses

In mammals zinc is the second most abundant essential trace metal. Since Zn2 is a small, hydrophilic, and a highly charged ion, it cannot be transported across the plasma or intracellular organelle membrane by passive diffusion. Different types of cells require a different constant concentration of zinc at all times. Presence of excess free Zn ions can be toxic to the cell. All cells must have tightly regulated homeostatic mechanisms in order to preserve healthy levels and proper compartmentalization of zinc. This is accomplished through the actions of specialized proteins that facilitate zinc uptake, efflux and compartmentalization. If the ...


Molecular Details Of The Mitochondrial Iron Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway, Swati Rawat Jan 2011

Molecular Details Of The Mitochondrial Iron Sulfur Cluster Assembly Pathway, Swati Rawat

Wayne State University Dissertations

MOLECULAR DETAILS OF THE MITOCHONDRIAL IRON SULFUR CLUSTER ASSEMBLY PATHWAY

Iron-sulfur clusters are an important class of prosthetic group involved in electron transfer, enzyme catalysis, and regulation of gene expression. Their biosynthesis requires complex machinery located within the mitochondrion since free iron and sulfide are extremely toxic to the cell. Defects in this pathway results in several diseases such as Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA), Sideroblastic Anemia and ISCU Myopathy. Therefore molecular details of the biogenesis pathway will provide deep insight in the pathway and treatment options for these diseases. FRDA is caused by deficiency of a single protein called as ...


Amphiregulin (Areg) And Epidermal Growth Factor (Egf): Disparate In Egfr Signaling And Trafficking, Andrea Jacqueline Baillo Jan 2011

Amphiregulin (Areg) And Epidermal Growth Factor (Egf): Disparate In Egfr Signaling And Trafficking, Andrea Jacqueline Baillo

Wayne State University Dissertations

We have previously shown that SUM-149 human breast cancer cells require an AREG/EGFR autocrine loop for cell proliferation. We also demonstrated that AREG can increase EGFR stability and promote EGFR localization to the plasma membrane. In the presented dissertation we successfully knocked-down AREG expression in SUM-149 cells by lenti-viral infection of AREG shRNA. In the absence of AREG expression, SUM-149 cell growth was slowed, but not completely inhibited. Furthermore, cells infected with AREG shRNA constructs showed an increase in EGFR protein expression by western blot. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that following AREG knock-down, EGFR continued to localize to ...


Characterization Of Splicing Mechanisms By Single-Molecule Fluorescence, Krishanthi Sanjeewani Karunatilaka Jan 2011

Characterization Of Splicing Mechanisms By Single-Molecule Fluorescence, Krishanthi Sanjeewani Karunatilaka

Wayne State University Dissertations

Group II introns rank amongst the largest self-splicing ribozymes found in bacteria and organellar genomes of various eukaryotes. Despite the diversity in primary sequences, group II introns posses highly conserved secondary structures consisting of six domains (D1-D6). To perform its function, the large multidomain group II intron RNA must adopt the correctly folded structure. As a result, in vitro splicing of these introns requires high ionic strength and elevated temperatures. In vivo, this process is mainly assisted by protein cofactors. However, the exact mechanism of protein-mediated splicing of group II intron RNA is still not known.

In order to elucidate ...


Identification Of The Role Of The Sal Locus In Streptococcus Pyogenes Virulence During Host-Pathogen Interactions, Phanramphoei Namprachan-Frantz Jan 2011

Identification Of The Role Of The Sal Locus In Streptococcus Pyogenes Virulence During Host-Pathogen Interactions, Phanramphoei Namprachan-Frantz

Wayne State University Dissertations

The pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes is due to its ability to overcome and adapt to the harsh environment created by the host immune response. The focus of this project was the SalKR two-component regulatory system, which facilitates bacterial adaptation by responding to environmental signals during host pathogen-interactions. The first goal of this project was to determine a role in virulence for the SalKR regulatory system. The complete deletion of the salKR genes in the wild type S. pyogenes strain HSC5 produced a highly attenuated mutant in a Zebrafish infection model. The ΔsalKR mutant appeared to lose the ability to survive ...


Palmitoylation And The Yeast Casein Kinase Yck2, Irene Papanayotou Jan 2011

Palmitoylation And The Yeast Casein Kinase Yck2, Irene Papanayotou

Wayne State University Dissertations

Palmitoylation is a post-translational lipid modification that allows proteins to interact with membranes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the casein kinase Yck2 is palmitoylated twice at its two C-terminal palmitoyl-accepting cysteine residues, by the palmitoyl-transferring enzyme Akr1. Once palmitoylated, Yck2 traffics through the well characterized secretory pathway to the plasma membrane where it participates in many cellular functions, including bud morphogenesis, cytokinesis, nutrient sensing, and receptor internalization. While the hydrophilic Yck2 is presumably synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes, it gains access to the membrane system by interaction with the six transmembrane-spanning Golgi-localized Akr1. Since palmitoylation occurs at membranes and the palmitoyl-transferases ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang Jan 2011

Molecular Mechanisms Of Snare Assembly And Expulsion Of Intravesicular Contents In Cell Secretion, Leah Jiyoung Zhang

Wayne State University Dissertations

For nearly half a century, it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release ...


Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah Jan 2011

Hedgehog Signaling: A Potential Therapeutic Target For Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ma'in Yehya Maitah

Wayne State University Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimated that 222,520 Americans were diagnosed with lung cancer and 157,300 died of lung cancer in 2010 (Jemal et al. 2009, 225-249;Jemal et al. 2011, 69-90). The clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the major lung cancer sub-types, is very poor, which calls for innovative research for finding novel therapeutic targets and agents for better treatment outcome.

Emerging evidences have suggested that a phenomenon called Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), which shares similar molecular characteristics with cancer stem-like cells, contributes to lung cancer treatment failure. In view of the fact ...


Human Trophoblast Survival And Invasion In The Developing Placenta: Autocrine Regulation By Hbegf, Philip Jessmon Jan 2011

Human Trophoblast Survival And Invasion In The Developing Placenta: Autocrine Regulation By Hbegf, Philip Jessmon

Wayne State University Dissertations

HBEGF is a multifunctional protein in early pregnancy that induces cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell differentiation to an invasive phenotype, protects against apoptosis, and is involved in an autocrine signaling mechanism that leads to its own protein synthesis. CTBs exist in a low O2 environment during the first 10 weeks of implantation, during which they invade the decidualized uterine stroma. Inhibitors of intracellular signaling pathways demonstrated that at 20% O2 HBEGF induces an increase in cell migration through the ERK, MAPK14, JNK, or PIK3 pathways downstream of signaling through its ERBB receptors. Also downstream of these four pathways, HBEGF induces ...


Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong Jan 2011

Rox1 Function In Dosage Compensation: Structural / Functional Analysis Of A Non-Coding Rna, Ying Kong

Wayne State University Dissertations

roX1 is a long non-coding RNA involved in the chromosome-wide gene regulation that occurs during dosage compensation in Drosophila. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster occurs by a global two-fold increase of transcription from the single male X chromosome. This essential process compensates for X chromosome monosomy. The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, containing five proteins, localizes to the male X chromosome and alters chromatin to modify gene expression. roX1 and roX2 RNAs are redundant components of MSL complex that are required for its exclusive X-localization. Recent studies in our lab have revealed a second role of roX RNAs in heterochromatic gene ...


Cardiac Calsequestrin Phosphorylation And Trafficking In The Mammalian Cardiomyocyte, Timothy Mcfarland Jan 2011

Cardiac Calsequestrin Phosphorylation And Trafficking In The Mammalian Cardiomyocyte, Timothy Mcfarland

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cardiac CSQ (CSQ2) is a multifaceted protein, capable of binding significant quantities of Ca2+ and altering ryanodine receptor activity at the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Little is known about the trafficking of CSQ2 from its unknown site of biosynthesis, which appears to be of importance as its structure changes in a trafficking-dependent manner in various types of heart failure. Through the use of multiple antibodies specific to classic rough ER markers, and with the creation of CSQ-DsRed tetramer fusion protein, we were able to establish a juxtanuclear localization of rough ER in cardiomyocytes. Using fluorescence confocal microscopy, the translocon complex ...


The Role Of The Sparc Acidic Domain And Egf-Like Module In Glioma Migration, Invasion, And Signaling, Heather M. Mcclung Jan 2011

The Role Of The Sparc Acidic Domain And Egf-Like Module In Glioma Migration, Invasion, And Signaling, Heather M. Mcclung

Wayne State University Dissertations

THE ROLE OF THE SPARC ACIDIC DOMAIN AND EGF-LIKE MODULE IN GLIOMA MIGRATION, INVASION, AND SIGNALING

HEATHER M. MCCLUNG

Advisor: Sandra A. Rempel, Ph.D.

Major: Pharmacology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

We have previously shown that Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (SPARC) is upregulated in all astrocytoma grades and increases tumor cell migration and invasion. It is thought that different domains within the protein may regulate SPARC functions, suggesting domain-specific targeting to inhibit invasion. To enhance our understanding of SPARC-mediated invasion, we first confirm, at the protein level, our previous cDNA array results, that SPARC increases expression of ...


Frazzled And Abelson Interact To Regulate The Actin Cytoskeleton In Drosophila, Bridget Elsa Varughese Jan 2011

Frazzled And Abelson Interact To Regulate The Actin Cytoskeleton In Drosophila, Bridget Elsa Varughese

Wayne State University Dissertations

Guidance receptors such as Frazzled affect cell shape and motility by directly or indirectly modulating the cytoskeleton. Fra is particularly needed for the formation of the posterior commissures in a developing Drosophila embryo. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, Abelson Kinase (Abl) enhances the loss of commissures observed in fra mutant. Abl physically interacts with Frazzled to help guide commissural axons across the midline. Furthermore, the loss of commissural axons is only seen when the actin dynamics are perturbed. Abl is also known to regulate actin-dependent processes underlying formation of filopodia, microspikes and membrane ruffles. So, we established a Drosophila S2 cell ...