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Molecular Biology

2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 284

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis Dec 2011

Spt5 Affects The Rate Of Mrna Degradation And Physically Interacts With Ccr4 But Does Not Control Mrna Deadenylation, Yajun Cui, Yueh-Chin Chiang, Palaniswamy Viswanathan, Darren J. Lee, Clyde L. Denis

New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station

The CCR4-NOT complex has been shown to have multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, including that of transcriptional elongation, mRNA transport, and nuclear exosome function, but the primary function of CCR4 and CAF1 is in the deadenylation and degradation of cytoplasmic mRNA. As previous genetic analysis supported an interaction between SPT5, known to be involved in transcriptional elongation, and that of CCR4, the physical association of SPT5 with CCR4 was examined. A two-hybrid screen utilizing the deadenylase domain of CCR4 as a bait identified SPT5 as a potential interacting protein. SPT5 at its physiological concentration was shown to immunoprecipitate CCR4 and ...


A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen Dec 2011

A Review Of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata) Products: Effect Of Processing Techniques, Medicinal Properties And Uses, Donatien Kabore, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani, Bréhima Diawara, Clarise Compaoré, Mamoudou H. Dicko Prof., Mogens Jacobsen

Pr. Mamoudou H. DICKO, PhD

A general literature review including the effect of processing techniques, medicinal value and uses of baobab tree is reported in this manuscript. Baobab tree has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines, fuel, timber, fodder. Every part of the baobab tree is reported to be useful. The seeds, leaves, roots, flowers, fruit pulp and bark of baobab are edible. Baobab leaves are used in the preparation of soup. Seeds are used as a thickening agent in soups, but they can be fermented and used as a flavouring agent or roasted and eaten as snacks. The ...


Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis Dec 2011

Evolution Of Molecular Function In Mammalian Neurons, Chantal Francis

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A common question in neuroscience is what forms the neurological basis of the variety of behaviors in mammals. While many studies have compared mammalian anatomy and evolution, few have investigated the physiologic functions of individual neurons in a comparative manner. Neurons’ ability to modify their features in response to stimuli, known as synaptic plasticity, is fundamental for learning and memory. A key feature of synaptic plasticity involves delivering mRNA to distinct domains where they are locally translated. Regulatory coordination of these events is critical for synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity as defects in these processes can lead to neurological diseases. In ...


Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya Dec 2011

Son Maintains Accurate Splicing For A Subset Of Human Pre-Mrnas, Alok Sharma, Michael P. Markey, Keshia Torres-Munoz, Sapna Varia, Madhavi P. Kadakia, Athanasios Bubulya, Paula A. Bubulya

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Serine-arginine-rich (SR) proteins play a key role in alternative pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotes. We recently showed that a large SR protein called Son has unique repeat motifs that are essential for maintaining the subnuclear organization of pre-mRNA processing factors in nuclear speckles. Motif analysis of Son highlights putative RNA interaction domains that suggest a direct role for Son in pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we used in situ approaches to show that Son localizes to a reporter minigene transcription site, and that RNAi-mediated Son depletion causes exon skipping on reporter transcripts at this transcription site. A genome-wide exon microarray analysis was performed ...


The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim Dec 2011

Definition Of The Landscape Of Chromatin Structure At The Frataxin Gene In Friedreich’S Ataxia, Eunah Kim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is caused by the transcriptional silencing of the frataxin (FXN) gene. FRDA patients have expansion of GAA repeats in intron 1 of the FXN gene in both alleles. A number of studies demonstrated that specific histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) affect either histone modifications at the FXN gene or FXN expression in FRDA cells, indicating that the hyperexpanded GAA repeat may facilitate heterochromatin formation. However, the correlation between chromatin structure and transcription at the FXN gene is currently limited due to a lack of more detailed analysis. Therefore, I analyzed the effects of the hyperexpanded GAA repeats ...


Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran Dec 2011

Conformational Changes In The Extracellular Domain Of Glutamate Receptors, Anu Rambhadran

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The family of membrane protein called glutamate receptors play an important role in the central nervous system in mediating signaling between neurons. Glutamate receptors are involved in the elaborate game that nerve cells play with each other in order to control movement, memory, and learning.

Neurons achieve this communication by rapidly converting electrical signals into chemical signals and then converting them back into electrical signals. To propagate an electrical impulse, neurons in the brain launch bursts of neurotransmitter molecules like glutamate at the junction between neurons, called the synapse. Glutamate receptors are found lodged in the membranes of the post-synaptic ...


Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin Dec 2011

Gene Expression And Physiological Analyses To Study Metabolic Shifts In Medicago Truncatula Subjected To Biotic Stresses, Michelle Ryan Martin

Theses and Dissertations

Plants are frequently under attack from pests and deploy various defense mechanisms to fight off predators. Many plant defenses are induced following herbivory or pathogen infection. An investment in defense could potentially lead to a diversion of metabolic resources away from primary metabolism, including reduction in plant commitment to photosynthesis. In this thesis, changes in expression levels of representative genes for primary and secondary metabolism were studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Medicago truncatula Gaertner subjected to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua H¨¹bner) damage or Phoma medicaginis Malbr. & Roum. infection. Photosynthetic yield was also measured using chlorophyll fluorescence ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson Dec 2011

Living With Emerging Contaminants: Proteomics Of 4-Nonylphenol Exposed Arrow Goby (Clevelandia Ios), Sarah Emily Johnson

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used in industrial and household products as surfactants. APEs degrade into more toxic ethoxylates, such as 4-nonylphenol (NP), which has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor and enhance the growth of tumor cells. Nonylphenol is wider spread in Pacific estuaries than originally thought. Organisms in Morro Bay, California contain some of the highest concentrations of NP reported, while containing few other contaminants. As a benthic mud-dwelling fish, the arrow goby (Clevelandia ios) may be exposed to high levels of NP due to high contaminant sequestration rates in anaerobic mud. While ecotoxicology suggests that nonylphenol ...


Proteome Based Development Of Novel Affinity Tail For Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography And Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, Neha Tiwari Dec 2011

Proteome Based Development Of Novel Affinity Tail For Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography And Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography, Neha Tiwari

Theses and Dissertations

At industrial scale, reducing the step in purification and recovery is desired; this not only decreases the cost but also increases the yield. Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) and Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) both are not harsh on biological structure or activity of proteins; also both the techniques are economical and therefore a suitable choice at industrial level. This dissertation comprises of three parts. Purpose for the Part I was to identify and characterize Escherichia coli proteins which display affinity towards both IMAC and Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC). Co (II) IMAC was chosen as the primary capture step, followed by ...


Host-Virus Interactions Of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Infection In Cultured Cells, Jeong Yoon Lee Dec 2011

Host-Virus Interactions Of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus Infection In Cultured Cells, Jeong Yoon Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; Gallid herpesvirus 1) causes upper respiratory diseases in mainly chickens and exhibits 90-100% of high morbidity and up to 70% of mortality, resulting in huge economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide.

To study host-ILTV interactions, the changes in genome-wide gene expressions in response to wild-type and vaccine ILTV infections in primary chicken embryo lung cells were investigated using microarray analysis. Results provide crucial insights into host cell pathogenic and immunogenic responses against wild-type and vaccine ILTV infections. Using microarray method and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) bioinformatics tool, 273 and 306 differentially expressed genes were identified ...


In Vitro Selection Of Aptamers Against Avian Influenza Virus H5n1, Jingjing Zhao Dec 2011

In Vitro Selection Of Aptamers Against Avian Influenza Virus H5n1, Jingjing Zhao

Theses and Dissertations

Over $10 billion losses in the poultry industry were caused by avian influenza (AI) so far. Rapid and specific detection of avian influenza virus is urgently needed with the concerns over the outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus and cases of animal and human infection. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind a specific target molecule with good affinity. They show better thermal stability than antibodies. The goal of this research was to select DNA-aptamers as the specific recognition element of AI H5N1virus to be used in detection assays specific for field application. In this study, Systematic ...


The Occurrence Of A Thylakoid-Localized Small Zinc Finger Protein In Land Plants, Yan Lu Nov 2011

The Occurrence Of A Thylakoid-Localized Small Zinc Finger Protein In Land Plants, Yan Lu

Yan Lu

No abstract provided.


Molecular Basis For Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease, Akbar Ali, Rajintha M. Bandaranayake, Yufeng Cai, Nancy M. King, Madhavi Kolli, Seema Mittal, Jennifer E. Foulkes-Murzycki, Madhavi N. L. Nalam, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Aysegul Ozen, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Kelly Thayer, Celia A. Schiffer Nov 2011

Molecular Basis For Drug Resistance In Hiv-1 Protease, Akbar Ali, Rajintha M. Bandaranayake, Yufeng Cai, Nancy M. King, Madhavi Kolli, Seema Mittal, Jennifer E. Foulkes-Murzycki, Madhavi N. L. Nalam, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Aysegul Ozen, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Kelly Thayer, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 protease is one of the major antiviral targets in the treatment of patients infected with HIV-1. The nine FDA approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors were developed with extensive use of structure-based drug design, thus the atomic details of how the inhibitors bind are well characterized. From this structural understanding the molecular basis for drug resistance in HIV-1 protease can be elucidated. Selected mutations in response to therapy and diversity between clades in HIV-1 protease have altered the shape of the active site, potentially altered the dynamics and even altered the sequence of the cleavage sites in the Gag polyprotein. All ...


Dynamics Of Preferential Substrate Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease: Redefining The Substrate Envelope, Aysegul Ozen, Turkan Haliloglu, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Dynamics Of Preferential Substrate Recognition In Hiv-1 Protease: Redefining The Substrate Envelope, Aysegul Ozen, Turkan Haliloglu, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) permits viral maturation by processing the gag and gag-pro-pol polyproteins. HIV-1 PR inhibitors (PIs) are used in combination antiviral therapy but the emergence of drug resistance has limited their efficacy. The rapid evolution of HIV-1 necessitates consideration of drug resistance in novel drug design. Drug-resistant HIV-1 PR variants no longer inhibited efficiently, continue to hydrolyze the natural viral substrates. Though highly diverse in sequence, the HIV-1 PR substrates bind in a conserved three-dimensional shape we termed the substrate envelope. Earlier, we showed that resistance mutations arise where PIs protrude beyond the substrate ...


Evaluating The Substrate-Envelope Hypothesis: Structural Analysis Of Novel Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors Designed To Be Robust Against Drug Resistance, Madhavi Nalam, Akbar Ali, Michael Altman, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Sripriya Chellappan, Visvaldas Kairys, Aysegul Ozen, Hong Cao, Michael Gilson, Bruce Tidor, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Evaluating The Substrate-Envelope Hypothesis: Structural Analysis Of Novel Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors Designed To Be Robust Against Drug Resistance, Madhavi Nalam, Akbar Ali, Michael Altman, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Sripriya Chellappan, Visvaldas Kairys, Aysegul Ozen, Hong Cao, Michael Gilson, Bruce Tidor, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease selectively alter inhibitor binding without significantly affecting substrate recognition and cleavage. This alteration in molecular recognition led us to develop the substrate-envelope hypothesis which predicts that HIV-1 protease inhibitors that fit within the overlapping consensus volume of the substrates are less likely to be susceptible to drug-resistant mutations, as a mutation impacting such inhibitors would simultaneously impact the processing of substrates. To evaluate this hypothesis, over 130 HIV-1 protease inhibitors were designed and synthesized using three different approaches with and without substrate-envelope constraints. A subset of 16 representative inhibitors with binding affinities to wild-type ...


Promise Of Advances In Simulation Methods For Protein Crystallography: Implicit Solvent Models, Time-Averaging Refinement, And Quantum Mechanical Modeling, Celia Schiffer, Jan Hermans Nov 2011

Promise Of Advances In Simulation Methods For Protein Crystallography: Implicit Solvent Models, Time-Averaging Refinement, And Quantum Mechanical Modeling, Celia Schiffer, Jan Hermans

Celia A. Schiffer

No abstract provided.


Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin Nov 2011

Competition Between Ski And Creb-Binding Protein For Binding To Smad Proteins In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Signaling, Weijun Chen, Suvana Lam, Hema Srinath, Celia Schiffer, William Royer, Kai Lin

Celia A. Schiffer

The family of Smad proteins mediates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in cell growth and differentiation. Smads repress or activate TGF-beta signaling by interacting with corepressors (e.g. Ski) or coactivators (e.g. CREB-binding protein (CBP)), respectively. Specifically, Ski has been shown to interfere with the interaction between Smad3 and CBP. However, it is unclear whether Ski competes with CBP for binding to Smads and whether they can interact with Smad3 at the same binding surface on Smad3. We investigated the interactions among purified constructs of Smad, Ski, and CBP in vitro by size-exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry, and mutational ...


Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Mass Spectrometry Analysis Of Hiv-1 Vif Reveals An Increase In Ordered Structure Upon Oligomerization In Regions Necessary For Viral Infectivity, Jared Auclair, Karin Green, Shivender Shandilya, James Evans, Mohan Somasundaran, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 Vif, an accessory protein in the viral genome, performs an important role in viral pathogenesis by facilitating the degradation of APOBEC3G, an endogenous cellular inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. In this study, intrinsically disordered regions are predicted in HIV-1 Vif using sequence-based algorithms. Intrinsic disorder may explain why traditional structure determination of HIV-1 Vif has been elusive, making structure-based drug design impossible. To characterize HIV-1 Vif's structural topology and to map the domains involved in oligomerization we used chemical cross-linking, proteolysis, and mass spectrometry. Cross-linking showed evidence of monomer, dimer, and trimer species via denaturing gel analysis and an ...


Viral Protease Inhibitors, Jeffrey Anderson, Celia Schiffer, Sook-Kyung Lee, Ronald Swanstrom Nov 2011

Viral Protease Inhibitors, Jeffrey Anderson, Celia Schiffer, Sook-Kyung Lee, Ronald Swanstrom

Celia A. Schiffer

This review provides an overview of the development of viral protease inhibitors as antiviral drugs. We concentrate on HIV-1 protease inhibitors, as these have made the most significant advances in the recent past. Thus, we discuss the biochemistry of HIV-1 protease, inhibitor development, clinical use of inhibitors, and evolution of resistance. Since many different viruses encode essential proteases, it is possible to envision the development of a potent protease inhibitor for other viruses if the processing site sequence and the catalytic mechanism are known. At this time, interest in developing inhibitors is limited to viruses that cause chronic disease, viruses ...


Mutation Patterns And Structural Correlates In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Following Different Protease Inhibitor Treatments, Thomas Wu, Celia Schiffer, Matthew Gonzales, Jonathan Taylor, Rami Kantor, Sunwen Chou, Dennis Israelski, Andrew Zolopa, W. Jeffrey Fessel, Robert Shafer Nov 2011

Mutation Patterns And Structural Correlates In Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease Following Different Protease Inhibitor Treatments, Thomas Wu, Celia Schiffer, Matthew Gonzales, Jonathan Taylor, Rami Kantor, Sunwen Chou, Dennis Israelski, Andrew Zolopa, W. Jeffrey Fessel, Robert Shafer

Celia A. Schiffer

Although many human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons are treated with multiple protease inhibitors in combination or in succession, mutation patterns of protease isolates from these persons have not been characterized. We collected and analyzed 2,244 subtype B HIV-1 isolates from 1,919 persons with different protease inhibitor experiences: 1,004 isolates from untreated persons, 637 isolates from persons who received one protease inhibitor, and 603 isolates from persons receiving two or more protease inhibitors. The median number of protease mutations per isolate increased from 4 in untreated persons to 12 in persons who had received four ...


Curling Of Flap Tips In Hiv-1 Protease As A Mechanism For Substrate Entry And Tolerance Of Drug Resistance, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Curling Of Flap Tips In Hiv-1 Protease As A Mechanism For Substrate Entry And Tolerance Of Drug Resistance, Walter Scott, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is an essential viral protein that is a major drug target in the fight against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Access to the active site of this homodimeric enzyme is gained when two large flaps, one from each monomer, open. The flap movements are therefore central to the function of the enzyme, yet determining how these flaps move at an atomic level has not been experimentally possible.

RESULTS: In the present study, we observe the flaps of HIV-1 protease completely opening during a 10 ns solvated molecular dynamics simulation starting from ...


Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred Van Gunsteren Nov 2011

Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred Van Gunsteren

Celia A. Schiffer

Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA binding domain of 434 repressor are presented which aim at unraveling the role of solvent in protein denaturation. Four altered solvent models, each mimicking various possible aspects of the addition of a denaturant to the aqueous solvent, were used in the simulations to analyze their effects on the stability of the protein. The solvent was altered by selectively changing the Coulombic interaction between water and protein atoms and between different water molecules. The use of a modified solvent model has the advantage of mimicking the presence of denaturant without having denaturant molecules present in ...


Resilience To Resistance Of Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors: Profile Of Darunavir, Eric Lefebvre, Celia A. Schiffer Nov 2011

Resilience To Resistance Of Hiv-1 Protease Inhibitors: Profile Of Darunavir, Eric Lefebvre, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The current effectiveness of HAART in the management of HIV infection is compromised by the emergence of extensively cross-resistant strains of HIV-1, requiring a significant need for new therapeutic agents. Due to its crucial role in viral maturation and therefore HIV-1 replication and infectivity, the HIV-1 protease continues to be a major development target for antiretroviral therapy. However, new protease inhibitors must have higher thresholds to the development of resistance and cross-resistance. Research has demonstrated that the binding characteristics between a protease inhibitor and the active site of the HIV-1 protease are key factors in the development of resistance. More ...


Structural Analysis Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Crf01_Ae Protease In Complex With The Substrate P1-P6., Rajintha Bandaranayake, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Junko Kakizawa, Wataru Sugiura, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Structural Analysis Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Crf01_Ae Protease In Complex With The Substrate P1-P6., Rajintha Bandaranayake, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Junko Kakizawa, Wataru Sugiura, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

The effect of amino acid variability between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades on structure and the emergence of resistance mutations in HIV-1 protease has become an area of significant interest in recent years. We determined the first crystal structure of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease in complex with the p1-p6 substrate to a resolution of 2.8 A. Hydrogen bonding between the flap hinge and the protease core regions shows significant structural rearrangements in CRF01_AE protease compared to the clade B protease structure.


Investigation Of Protein Unfolding And Stability By Computer Simulation, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, P. Hunenberger, H. Kovacs, A. Mark, Celia Schiffer Nov 2011

Investigation Of Protein Unfolding And Stability By Computer Simulation, Wilfred Van Gunsteren, P. Hunenberger, H. Kovacs, A. Mark, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Structural, dynamic and energetic properties of proteins in solution can be studied in atomic detail by molecular dynamics computer simulation. Protein unfolding can be caused by a variety of driving forces induced in different ways: increased temperature or pressure, change of solvent composition, or protein amino acid mutation. The stability and unfolding of four different proteins (bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, hen egg white lysozyme, the surfactant protein C and the DNA-binding domain of the 434 repressor) have been studied by applying the afore-mentioned driving forces and also to some artificial forces. The results give a picture of protein (in)stability ...


The Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Activity Prevents The Amyloidogenic Cleavage Of Amyloid Precursor Protein And The Formation Of Amyloid Plaques In Vivo, Sonia Mazzitelli, Ping Xu, Isidre Ferrer, Roger J. Davis, Cathy Tournier Nov 2011

The Loss Of C-Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Activity Prevents The Amyloidogenic Cleavage Of Amyloid Precursor Protein And The Formation Of Amyloid Plaques In Vivo, Sonia Mazzitelli, Ping Xu, Isidre Ferrer, Roger J. Davis, Cathy Tournier

Davis Lab Publications

Phosphorylation plays a central role in the dynamic regulation of the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the production of amyloid-beta (Abeta), one of the clinically most important factors that determine the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This has led to the hypothesis that aberrant Abeta production associated with AD results from regulatory defects in signal transduction. However, conflicting findings have raised a debate over the identity of the signaling pathway that controls APP metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) is essential for mediating the apoptotic response of neurons to ...