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Molecular Biology

2010

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Articles 181 - 207 of 207

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis Jan 2010

Functional Cooperation Of The Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Proteins Bmf And Bim In Vivo, Anette Hubner, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Mercedes Rincon, Richard Flavell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

Bcl2-modifying factor (Bmf) is a member of the BH3-only group of proapoptotic proteins. To test the role of Bmf in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutated Bmf alleles that disrupt Bmf expression, prevent Bmf phosphorylation by the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) on Ser(74), or mimic Bmf phosphorylation on Ser(74). We report that the loss of Bmf causes defects in uterovaginal development, including an imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos. We also show that the phosphorylation of Bmf on Ser(74) can contribute to a moderate increase in levels of Bmf activity. Studies of compound mutants ...


Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano Jan 2010

Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the high-affinity glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance of glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the past years, it has been shown that PKC activation diminishes the activity and promoted phosphorylation of several neurotransmitter transporters including the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters however, its role is unknown for the glycine transporter. To get insights into the role of PKC activation on GlyT1 regulation, we used three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms stably expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE ...


Isolation, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Dnase Iiib From Drosophila Melanogaster, Brenda Cristina Anchondo Jan 2010

Isolation, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Dnase Iiib From Drosophila Melanogaster, Brenda Cristina Anchondo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nucleases are enzymes that breakdown nucleic acids; they are classified by their biochemical properties into different groups (Evans et al., 2003). The ββα-Me finger family of nucleases are enzymes that combine structurally different groups but they are defined by a highly evolutionary conserved active site, a stretch of 22 amino acids composed by a β-hairpin (ββ) and α-helix (α) that anchor a catalytic metal ion (Sokolowska et al, 2009). Within this family is found the DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases. Nucleases that belong to the DNA/RNA non-specific group hydrolyze both ds and ss DNA, as well as RNA at equal ...


The Role Of Sumoylation Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Murilo Tadeu Domingues Bueno Jan 2010

The Role Of Sumoylation Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Murilo Tadeu Domingues Bueno

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) proteins p75 and p52 are transcriptional co-activators that protect cells from stresses through modulation of stress and heat shock-related genes. Besides regulating such genes, LEDGF/p75 is also important in the process of HOX gene expression and leukemia transformation driven by the MLL histone methyl transferase complex. By exploiting a similar mechanism of interaction between LEDGF/p75 and MLL, the HIV-1 viral protein Integrase (IN) associates with LEDGF/p75 in order to execute efficient viral DNA integration. This present work has identified that LEDGF proteins are posttranslationally modified by SUMO-1 and -3. SUMOylation was ...


Evaluating The Role Of Evolutionarily Conserved Regions Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Jose Adrian Garcia Jan 2010

Evaluating The Role Of Evolutionarily Conserved Regions Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Jose Adrian Garcia

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

LEDGF/p75 is an important cellular co-factor for lentiviral integration. LEDGF/p75-deficient cells are markedly resistant to HIV-1 infection and re-expression of the wild type protein rescues infectivity. Although the molecular mechanism of LEDGF/p75 in HIV-1 integration is not yet known, this co-factor activity requires the interaction of LEDGF/p75 with both the host chromatin and viral integrase. In order to evaluate the involvement of other LEDGF/p75 regions in HIV-1 infection we constructed a panel of deletion mutants targeting clusters of charged residues that are evolutionarily conserved and predicted to be post-translationally modified. These mutants were evaluated for ...


Interactions Of The Cellular Sumoylation System With Influenza A Virus And Its Non-Structural Protein Ns1a (Ns1a), Sangita Pal Jan 2010

Interactions Of The Cellular Sumoylation System With Influenza A Virus And Its Non-Structural Protein Ns1a (Ns1a), Sangita Pal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The most important current anti-influenza weapons, vaccination and antiviral drugs, can be rapidly rendered fully ineffective thanks to the virus's high mutational rate, which produces viruses exhibiting new antigenic properties and structural proteins insensitive to the drug's mechanism of action. One attractive alternative is to develop drugs that modulate the activity of cellular systems either required for viral growth or able to neutralize viral growth. Here we demonstrate that the cellular SUMOylation system, a post-translational modification involving the conjugation of the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) to specific protein targets using a Ubiquitin-like enzymatic cascade, interacts closely with influenza ...


Effects Of The Loss Of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1 On Steroid Homeostasis, Dendritic Cell Function And Compensatory Mechanisms, Jeffrey Charles Sivils Jan 2010

Effects Of The Loss Of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1 On Steroid Homeostasis, Dendritic Cell Function And Compensatory Mechanisms, Jeffrey Charles Sivils

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters use energy derived from ATP to eliminate a variety of exogenous and endogenous compounds from cells including anti cancer and anti viral drugs, metals steroids, bilirubin, cAMP, cGMP, leukotrienes , prostaglandins. The multi drug resistance associated protein family (MRP/ABBC) has been acknowledged as a major player involved in multi drug resistance (MDR), in which cancers stop responding a wide array of structurally and functionally unrelated chemotherapy drugs. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in adults in the United States. Although there have been great strides made the treatment of cancers ...


The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman Jan 2010

The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Lens Epithelial Derived Growth Factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a chromatin bound protein whose cellular function is not yet clearly known. A role in transcriptional regulation had been previously proposed based on its interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery and on its effects on the expression of genes involved in the cellular response to environmental stresses. To further elucidate the function of LEDGF/p75, we conducted a global and unbiased evaluation of the role of this protein in gene expression. To that aim, we performed a microarray analysis of cellular gene expression in cells that are severely depleted of ...


Prospects And Pits On The Path Of Biomimetics: The Case Of Tooth Enamel, Vuk Uskoković Jan 2010

Prospects And Pits On The Path Of Biomimetics: The Case Of Tooth Enamel, Vuk Uskoković

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This review presents a discourse on challenges in understanding and imitating the process of amelogenesis in vitro on the molecular scale. In light of the analysis of imitation of the growth of dental enamel, it also impends on the prospects and potential drawbacks of the biomimetic approach in general. As the formation of enamel proceeds with the protein matrix guiding the crystal growth, while at the same time conducting its own degradation and removal, it is argued that three aspects of amelogenesis need to be induced in parallel: a) crystal growth; b) protein assembly; c) proteolytic degradation. A particular emphasis ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda Jan 2010

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Probing Local Structural Fluctuations In Myoglobin By Size-Dependent Thiol-Disulfide Exchange, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh, T A. Cutler, J H. Ha Jan 2010

Probing Local Structural Fluctuations In Myoglobin By Size-Dependent Thiol-Disulfide Exchange, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh, T A. Cutler, J H. Ha

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

All proteins undergo local structural fluctuations (LSFs) or breathing motions. These motions are likely to be important for function but are poorly understood. LSFs were initially defined by amide hydrogen exchange (HX) experiments as opening events, which expose a small number of backbone amides to (1)H/(2)H exchange, but whose exchange rates are independent of denaturant concentration. Here, we use size-dependent thiol-disulfide exchange (SX) to characterize LSFs in single cysteine-containing variants of myoglobin (Mb). SX complements HX by providing information on motions that disrupt side chain packing interactions. Most importantly, probe reagents of different sizes and chemical properties ...


On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh Jan 2010

On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Alternate frame folding (AFF) is a mechanism by which conformational change can be engineered into a protein. The protein structure switches from the wild-type fold (N) to a circularly-permuted fold (N'), or vice versa, in response to a signaling event such as ligand binding. Despite the fact that the two native states have similar structures, their interconversion involves folding and unfolding of large parts of the molecule. This rearrangement is reported by fluorescent groups whose relative proximities change as a result of the order-disorder transition. The nature of the conformational change is expected to be similar from protein to protein ...


Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson Jan 2010

Tracking Profiles Of Genomic Instability In Spontaneous Transformation And Tumorigenesis, Lesley Lawrenson

Wayne State University Dissertations

The dominant paradigm for cancer research focuses on the identification of specific genes for cancer causation and for the discovery of therapeutic targets. Alternatively, the current data emphasize the significance of karyotype heterogeneity in cancer progression over specific gene-based causes of cancer. Variability of a magnitude significant to shift cell populations from homogeneous diploid cells to a mosaic of structural and numerical chromosome alterations reflects the characteristic low-fidelity genome transfer of cancer cell populations. This transition marks the departure from micro-evolutionary gene-level change to macro-evolutionary change that facilitates the generation of many unique karyotypes within a cell population. Considering cancer ...


A Specific Regulatory Role For Sgtα On The Maturation And Activation Of Steroid Hormone Receptors, Atanu Paul Jan 2010

A Specific Regulatory Role For Sgtα On The Maturation And Activation Of Steroid Hormone Receptors, Atanu Paul

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. These receptors regulate various physiological functions in higher ordered eukaryotes. In the absence of hormone these receptors form a complex with molecular chaperones such as Hsp90 and Hsp70 and other cochaperones in the cytoplasm. Association with the Hsp90-Hsp70 chaperone machinery leads to the maturation of the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) of the receptors and enables the receptors to bind hormone with high affinity. Upon binding with a specific hormone the receptors are translocated into the nucleus where they initiate transcription of specific genes. Although the involvement ...


Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig Jan 2010

Chloroquine Susceptibility And Reversibility In A Plasmodium Falciparum Genetic Cross, Jigar J. Patel, Drew Thacker, John C. Tan, Perri Pleeter, Lisa Checkley, Joseph M. Gonzales, Bingbing Deng, Paul D. Roepe, Roland A. Cooper, Michael T. Ferdig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT) are major determinants of verapamil (VP)-reversible CQ resistance (CQR). In the presence of mutant PfCRT, additional genes contribute to the wide range of CQ susceptibilities observed. It is not known if these genes influence mechanisms of chemosensitization by CQR reversal agents. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of progeny clones from the HB3 x Dd2 cross, we show that the P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) interacts with the South-East Asia-derived mutant pfcrt haplotype to modulate CQR levels. A novel chromosome 7 locus is predicted to contribute with ...


Characterization Of Arsd: An Arsenic Chaperone For The Arsab As(Iii)-Translocating Atpase, Jianbo Yang Jan 2010

Characterization Of Arsd: An Arsenic Chaperone For The Arsab As(Iii)-Translocating Atpase, Jianbo Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Arsenic is a metalloid toxicant that is widely distributed throughout the earth's crust and causes a variety of health and environment problems. As an adaptation to arsenic-contaminated environments, organisms have developed resistance systems. In bacteria and archaea various ars operons encode ArsAB ATPases that pump the trivalent metalloids As(III) or Sb(III) out of cells. In these operons, an arsD gene is almost always adjacent to the arsA gene, suggesting a related function. ArsA is the catalytic subunit of the pump that hydrolyzes ATP in the presence of arsenite or antimonite. ArsB is a membrane protein which containing ...


Unraveling The Molecular Mechanisms Of Insect Diversity, Steven Michael Hrycaj Jan 2010

Unraveling The Molecular Mechanisms Of Insect Diversity, Steven Michael Hrycaj

Wayne State University Dissertations

ABSTRACT

UNRAVELING THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF INSECT DIVERSITY

by

STEVEN MICHAEL HRYCAJ

April 2010

Advisor: Dr. Aleksandar Popadic´

Major: Biological Sciences

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

While it has long been recognized that the arthropods represent the most diverse animal phylum, the molecular bases defining these large-scale differences in body plans and appendages are only now becoming clear. Specifically, the recent merger between the fields of evolutionary and developmental biology ("evo-devo") have provided several examples illustrating that this extraordinary diversification may be due to evolved variation(s) in the developmental networks that control the formation of these structures. In addition, the ...


Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller Jan 2010

Electroporation-Mediated Delivery Of A Naked Dna Plasmid Expressing Vegf To The Porcine Heart Enhances Protein Expression, W. G. Marshall Jr., B. A. Boone, J. D. Burgos, S. I. Gografe, M. K. Baldwin, M. L. Danielson, M. J. Larson, D. R. Caretto, Y. Cruz, B. Ferraro, L. C. Heller, K. E. Ugen, M. J. Jaroszeski, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy is an attractive method for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, using current strategies, induction of gene expression at therapeutic levels is often inefficient. In this study, we show a novel electroporation (EP) method to enhance the delivery of a plasmid expressing an angiogenic growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), which is a molecule previously documented to stimulate revascularization in coronary artery disease. DNA expression plasmids were delivered in vivo to the porcine heart with or without coadministered EP to determine the potential effect of electrically mediated delivery. The results showed that plasmid delivery through EP significantly ...


Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller Jan 2010

Increased Perfusion And Angiogenesis In A Hindlimb Ischemia Model With Plasmid Fgf-2 Delivered By Noninvasive Electroporation, B. Ferraro, Y. L. Cruz, M. Baldwin, D. Coppola, R. Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Gene therapy approaches delivering fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have shown promise as a potential treatment for increasing blood flow to ischemic limbs. Currently, effective noninvasive techniques to deliver plasmids encoding genes of therapeutic interest, such as FGF-2, are limited. We sought to determine if intradermal injection of plasmid DNA encoding FGF-2 (pFGF) followed by noninvasive cutaneous electroporation (pFGFE+) could increase blood flow and angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia. pFGFE+ or control treatments were administered on postoperative day 0. Compared to injection of pFGF alone (pFGFE-), delivery of pFGFE+ significantly increased FGF-2 expression for 10 days. Further, the ...


Epsvr And Epmeta: Prediction Of Antigenic Epitopes Using Support Vector Regression And Multiple Server Results, Shide Liang, Dandan Zheng, Daron M. Standley, Bo Yao, Martin Zacharias, Chi Zhang Jan 2010

Epsvr And Epmeta: Prediction Of Antigenic Epitopes Using Support Vector Regression And Multiple Server Results, Shide Liang, Dandan Zheng, Daron M. Standley, Bo Yao, Martin Zacharias, Chi Zhang

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Background: Accurate prediction of antigenic epitopes is important for immunologic research and medical applications, but it is still an open problem in bioinformatics. The case for discontinuous epitopes is even worse - currently there are only a few discontinuous epitope prediction servers available, though discontinuous peptides constitute the majority of all B-cell antigenic epitopes. The small number of structures for antigen-antibody complexes limits the development of reliable discontinuous epitope prediction methods and an unbiased benchmark to evaluate developed methods.

Results: In this work, we present two novel server applications for discontinuous epitope prediction: EPSVR and EPMeta, where EPMeta is a meta ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert Kerris, Wuyi Wang, G. Schaller Dec 2009

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Brad Binder, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert Kerris, Wuyi Wang, G. Schaller

Brad M. Binder

Background The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino ...


Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek Dec 2009

Cell Adhesion Property Affected By Cyclooxygenase And Lipoxygenase: Opto-Electric Approach (With Chang Kyoung Choi, Mugdha Sukhthankar, Chul-Ho Kim, Seong-Ho Lee, Anthony English, Kenneth D. Kihm., Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases (LOX) has been linked to many pathophysiological phenotypes, including cell adhesion. However, many current approaches to measure cellular changes are performed only in a fixed-time point. Since cells dynamically move in conjunction with the cell matrix, there is a pressing need for dynamic or time-dependent methods for the investigation of cell properties. In the presented study, we used stable human colorectal cancer cell lines ectopically expressing COX-1, COX-2, and 15LOX-1, to investigate whether expression of COX-1, COX-2, or 15LOX-1 would affect cell adhesion using our opto-electric methodology. In a fixed-time point experiment, only COX-1- ...


Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun Dec 2009

Nsaid-Activated Gene-1 As A Molecular Target For Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis Through A Novel Molecular Mechanism Involving Gsk3beta, C/Ebpbeta And Atf3, Seung Baek, Seong-Ho Lee, Chutwadee Krisanapun

Seung J Baek

Capsaicin, a natural product of the Capsicum species of red peppers, is known to induce apoptosis and suppress growth. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) is a cytokine associated with pro-apoptotic and antitumorigenic property in colorectal and lung cancer. Our data demonstrate that capsaicin leads to induction of apoptosis and up-regulates NAG-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Overexpression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) caused a significant increase of basal and capsaicin-induced NAG-1 promoter activity. We subsequently identified C/EBPbeta binding sites in the NAG-1 promoter responsible for capsaicin-induced NAG-1 transactivation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation ...


A Potential Proliferative Gene, Nudt6, Is Down-Regulated By Green Tea Catechins At The Posttranscriptional Level, Seung Baek, Mugdha Sukthankar, Ck Choi, A English, Js Kim Dec 2009

A Potential Proliferative Gene, Nudt6, Is Down-Regulated By Green Tea Catechins At The Posttranscriptional Level, Seung Baek, Mugdha Sukthankar, Ck Choi, A English, Js Kim

Seung J Baek

The main aims of this study were to elucidate the effect of green tea catechins on Nudix-type motif 6 (NUDT6) suppression and to characterize NUDT6's biological activity. Our microarray data showed that the green tea component epicatechin-3-gallate suppressed NUDT6 expression, and this was confirmed by RT-PCR. Subsequently, the use of different catechins showed that the effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was stronger than that of other catechins. At the posttranscriptional level, EGCG decreased the RNA stability of NUDT6, indicating it as a potential mechanism of NUDT6 suppression. Further cloning of the 3' untranslated region of human NUDT6 mRNA resulted in ...


In Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Alcoholic Stem Extract Of Coscinium Fenestratum In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, P Rojsanga, M Sukthankar, C Krisanapun, W Gritsanapan, D Lawson, Seung Baek Dec 2009

In Vitro Anti-Proliferative Activity Of Alcoholic Stem Extract Of Coscinium Fenestratum In Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, P Rojsanga, M Sukthankar, C Krisanapun, W Gritsanapan, D Lawson, Seung Baek

Seung J Baek

Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. is traditionally used for the treatment of cancer, arthritis and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms by which this plant shows beneficial effects. An 80% ethanolic extract of C. fenestratum (80ET) was separated by its polarity into dichloromethane (DCM) and aqueous fractions (WF), and the anti-proliferative effects of 80ET, DCM and WF were investigated. Berberine, one of the major components of C. fenestratum, was used as a control. The 80ET, DCM, WF and berberine showed anti-proliferative activity as assessed by cell growth assay. Subsequently, the pro-apoptotic proteins NAG-1 and ...


The 1.9 Å Structure Of Human Α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase The Molecular Basis Of Schindler And Kanzaki Diseases, Nathaniel E. Clark, Scott Garman Dec 2009

The 1.9 Å Structure Of Human Α-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase The Molecular Basis Of Schindler And Kanzaki Diseases, Nathaniel E. Clark, Scott Garman

Scott Garman

alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGAL; E.C. 3.2.1.49) is a lysosomal exoglycosidase that cleaves terminal alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from glycopeptides and glycolipids. In humans, a deficiency of alpha-NAGAL activity results in the lysosomal storage disorders Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease. To better understand the molecular defects in the diseases, we determined the crystal structure of human alpha-NAGAL after expressing wild-type and glycosylation-deficient glycoproteins in recombinant insect cell expression systems. We measured the enzymatic parameters of our purified wild-type and mutant enzymes, establishing their enzymatic equivalence. To investigate the binding specificity and catalytic mechanism of the human alpha-NAGAL enzyme, we determined three ...


Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss Iii, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller Dec 2009

Ethylene Receptors Function As Components Of High-Molecular-Mass Protein Complexes In Arabidopsis, Yi-Feng Chen, Zhiyong Gao, Robert J. Kerriss Iii, Wuyi Wang, Brad M. Binder, G. Eric Schaller

Brad M. Binder

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived in Arabidopsis thaliana by a five-member receptor family composed of ETR1, ERS1, ETR2, ERS2, and EIN4. Methodology/Principal Findings Gel-filtration analysis of ethylene receptors solubilized from Arabidopsis membranes demonstrates that the receptors exist as components of high-molecular-mass protein complexes. The ERS1 protein complex exhibits an ethylene-induced change in size consistent with ligand-mediated nucleation of protein-protein interactions. Deletion analysis supports the participation of multiple domains from ETR1 in formation of the protein complex, and also demonstrates that targeting to and retention of ETR1 at the endoplasmic reticulum only requires the first 147 amino acids ...