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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Ganglioside-Cytokine Interaction In The Induction Of Primary Brain Cell Death, John Charles Gorbet Jan 2010

Ganglioside-Cytokine Interaction In The Induction Of Primary Brain Cell Death, John Charles Gorbet

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Gangliosides have been implicated in multiple pathologies affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and recent research has implicated them in playing an active role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Empirical studies and theoretical considerations have suggested the possibility of interactions between gangliosides, like GD3, and pro-inflammatory cytokines present in the nervous system. This study sought to investigate the possibility that either individual gangliosides acting alone or complexed with other species interact with the known immune response factor TNF&alpha to initiate or facilitate cell death in the CNS. I examined the cellular viability and gene expression in primary brain ...


Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano Jan 2010

Phosphorylation Of The Glycine Transporter 1, Javier Vargas Medrano

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the high-affinity glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance of glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the past years, it has been shown that PKC activation diminishes the activity and promoted phosphorylation of several neurotransmitter transporters including the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine transporters however, its role is unknown for the glycine transporter. To get insights into the role of PKC activation on GlyT1 regulation, we used three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms stably expressed in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE ...


Isolation, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Dnase Iiib From Drosophila Melanogaster, Brenda Cristina Anchondo Jan 2010

Isolation, Characterization And Molecular Cloning Of Dnase Iiib From Drosophila Melanogaster, Brenda Cristina Anchondo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Nucleases are enzymes that breakdown nucleic acids; they are classified by their biochemical properties into different groups (Evans et al., 2003). The ββα-Me finger family of nucleases are enzymes that combine structurally different groups but they are defined by a highly evolutionary conserved active site, a stretch of 22 amino acids composed by a β-hairpin (ββ) and α-helix (α) that anchor a catalytic metal ion (Sokolowska et al, 2009). Within this family is found the DNA/RNA non-specific nucleases. Nucleases that belong to the DNA/RNA non-specific group hydrolyze both ds and ss DNA, as well as RNA at equal ...


The Role Of Sumoylation Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Murilo Tadeu Domingues Bueno Jan 2010

The Role Of Sumoylation Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Murilo Tadeu Domingues Bueno

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) proteins p75 and p52 are transcriptional co-activators that protect cells from stresses through modulation of stress and heat shock-related genes. Besides regulating such genes, LEDGF/p75 is also important in the process of HOX gene expression and leukemia transformation driven by the MLL histone methyl transferase complex. By exploiting a similar mechanism of interaction between LEDGF/p75 and MLL, the HIV-1 viral protein Integrase (IN) associates with LEDGF/p75 in order to execute efficient viral DNA integration. This present work has identified that LEDGF proteins are posttranslationally modified by SUMO-1 and -3. SUMOylation was ...


Evaluating The Role Of Evolutionarily Conserved Regions Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Jose Adrian Garcia Jan 2010

Evaluating The Role Of Evolutionarily Conserved Regions Of Ledgf/P75 In Hiv-1 Infection, Jose Adrian Garcia

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

LEDGF/p75 is an important cellular co-factor for lentiviral integration. LEDGF/p75-deficient cells are markedly resistant to HIV-1 infection and re-expression of the wild type protein rescues infectivity. Although the molecular mechanism of LEDGF/p75 in HIV-1 integration is not yet known, this co-factor activity requires the interaction of LEDGF/p75 with both the host chromatin and viral integrase. In order to evaluate the involvement of other LEDGF/p75 regions in HIV-1 infection we constructed a panel of deletion mutants targeting clusters of charged residues that are evolutionarily conserved and predicted to be post-translationally modified. These mutants were evaluated for ...


Interactions Of The Cellular Sumoylation System With Influenza A Virus And Its Non-Structural Protein Ns1a (Ns1a), Sangita Pal Jan 2010

Interactions Of The Cellular Sumoylation System With Influenza A Virus And Its Non-Structural Protein Ns1a (Ns1a), Sangita Pal

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The most important current anti-influenza weapons, vaccination and antiviral drugs, can be rapidly rendered fully ineffective thanks to the virus's high mutational rate, which produces viruses exhibiting new antigenic properties and structural proteins insensitive to the drug's mechanism of action. One attractive alternative is to develop drugs that modulate the activity of cellular systems either required for viral growth or able to neutralize viral growth. Here we demonstrate that the cellular SUMOylation system, a post-translational modification involving the conjugation of the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) to specific protein targets using a Ubiquitin-like enzymatic cascade, interacts closely with influenza ...


A Specific Regulatory Role For Sgtα On The Maturation And Activation Of Steroid Hormone Receptors, Atanu Paul Jan 2010

A Specific Regulatory Role For Sgtα On The Maturation And Activation Of Steroid Hormone Receptors, Atanu Paul

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. These receptors regulate various physiological functions in higher ordered eukaryotes. In the absence of hormone these receptors form a complex with molecular chaperones such as Hsp90 and Hsp70 and other cochaperones in the cytoplasm. Association with the Hsp90-Hsp70 chaperone machinery leads to the maturation of the Ligand Binding Domain (LBD) of the receptors and enables the receptors to bind hormone with high affinity. Upon binding with a specific hormone the receptors are translocated into the nucleus where they initiate transcription of specific genes. Although the involvement ...


Effects Of The Loss Of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1 On Steroid Homeostasis, Dendritic Cell Function And Compensatory Mechanisms, Jeffrey Charles Sivils Jan 2010

Effects Of The Loss Of Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 1 On Steroid Homeostasis, Dendritic Cell Function And Compensatory Mechanisms, Jeffrey Charles Sivils

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters use energy derived from ATP to eliminate a variety of exogenous and endogenous compounds from cells including anti cancer and anti viral drugs, metals steroids, bilirubin, cAMP, cGMP, leukotrienes , prostaglandins. The multi drug resistance associated protein family (MRP/ABBC) has been acknowledged as a major player involved in multi drug resistance (MDR), in which cancers stop responding a wide array of structurally and functionally unrelated chemotherapy drugs. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in adults in the United States. Although there have been great strides made the treatment of cancers ...


The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman Jan 2010

The Role Of Ledgf/P75 In Transcriptional Regulation, Jeffrey Ryan Kugelman

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The Lens Epithelial Derived Growth Factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) is a chromatin bound protein whose cellular function is not yet clearly known. A role in transcriptional regulation had been previously proposed based on its interaction with the basal transcriptional machinery and on its effects on the expression of genes involved in the cellular response to environmental stresses. To further elucidate the function of LEDGF/p75, we conducted a global and unbiased evaluation of the role of this protein in gene expression. To that aim, we performed a microarray analysis of cellular gene expression in cells that are severely depleted of ...