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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Myosin Xi Is Essential For Tip Growth In Physcomitrella Patens, L Vidali, Gm Burkart, Rc Augustine, E Kerdavid, E Tuzel, M Bezanilla Jan 2010

Myosin Xi Is Essential For Tip Growth In Physcomitrella Patens, L Vidali, Gm Burkart, Rc Augustine, E Kerdavid, E Tuzel, M Bezanilla

Magdalena Bezanilla

Class XI myosins are plant specific and responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. Because of the large number of myosin XI genes in angiosperms, it has been difficult to determine their precise role, particularly with respect to tip growth. The moss Physcomitrella patens provides an ideal system to study myosin XI function. P. patens has only two myosin XI genes, and these genes encode proteins that are 94% identical to each other. To determine their role in tip growth, we used RNA interference to specifically silence each myosin XI gene using 5′ untranslated region sequences. We discovered that the two myosin XI ...


In Vivo Labeling Of A Model Β-Clam Protein With A Fluorescent Amino Acid, Mangayarkarasi Periasamy Jan 2010

In Vivo Labeling Of A Model Β-Clam Protein With A Fluorescent Amino Acid, Mangayarkarasi Periasamy

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Proteins can be labeled with different tags to enable their structural and functional investigations. In addition, labeling proteins at specific sites helps in studying the conformational dynamics of these molecules. A plethora of methods is available to facilitate labeling, choice of which largely depends on the requirements and the anticipated end results. In general, the various labeling methods can be classified into four different classes based on the stage at which labeling is performed, namely post translational labeling, non-ribosomal synthesis, in vitro translation and in vivo translation. Interestingly all these techniques use different unnatural amino acids for this purpose.

Protein ...


Anti-Diabetic Potentials Of Phenolic Enriched Chilean Potato And Select Herbs Of Apiaceae And Lamiaceae Families, Fahad Saleem Jan 2010

Anti-Diabetic Potentials Of Phenolic Enriched Chilean Potato And Select Herbs Of Apiaceae And Lamiaceae Families, Fahad Saleem

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

The incidence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases is increasing at a worrisome rate globally. Diabetes mellitus is known to occur due to high blood glucose levels, caused by defects in insulin levels. Adult on-set type II diabetes, which is closely associated with obesity, is reported to be 90-95% of all diabetic cases and linked to diet and lifestyle factors. A large population of the developed and developing countries is now being effected by this epidemic. Natural sources of phenolic antioxidants and inhibitors of digestive enzymes from food sources have potential for low cost dietary management of type II diabetes ...


Examination Of Promotor Hypermethylation Patterns In Magnetically Enriched Exfoliated Breast Milk Epithelial Cells, Chung M. Wong Jan 2010

Examination Of Promotor Hypermethylation Patterns In Magnetically Enriched Exfoliated Breast Milk Epithelial Cells, Chung M. Wong

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Suppression of genes involved in DNA repair, tumor suppression and detoxification through epigenetic modifications has been implicated in the etiology of cancer. As such analysis of promoter methylation patterns in genes frequently down regulated in breast cancer in non-cancerous subjects may serve as an indicator of breast cancer risk. CpG-island hypermethylation of single genes has been detected in cells isolated from nipple aspirate and ductal lavage, yet both isolation methods yield insufficient cells to complete an extensive analysis on any one donor sample.

As an alternative we have turned to magnetic separation of human mammary epithelial cells from breast milk ...


Probing Local Structural Fluctuations In Myoglobin By Size-Dependent Thiol-Disulfide Exchange, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh, T A. Cutler, J H. Ha Jan 2010

Probing Local Structural Fluctuations In Myoglobin By Size-Dependent Thiol-Disulfide Exchange, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh, T A. Cutler, J H. Ha

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

All proteins undergo local structural fluctuations (LSFs) or breathing motions. These motions are likely to be important for function but are poorly understood. LSFs were initially defined by amide hydrogen exchange (HX) experiments as opening events, which expose a small number of backbone amides to (1)H/(2)H exchange, but whose exchange rates are independent of denaturant concentration. Here, we use size-dependent thiol-disulfide exchange (SX) to characterize LSFs in single cysteine-containing variants of myoglobin (Mb). SX complements HX by providing information on motions that disrupt side chain packing interactions. Most importantly, probe reagents of different sizes and chemical properties ...


On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh Jan 2010

On The Mechanism Of Protein Fold-Switching By A Molecular Sensor, Margaret M. Stratton, S N. Loh

Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Department Faculty Publication Series

Alternate frame folding (AFF) is a mechanism by which conformational change can be engineered into a protein. The protein structure switches from the wild-type fold (N) to a circularly-permuted fold (N'), or vice versa, in response to a signaling event such as ligand binding. Despite the fact that the two native states have similar structures, their interconversion involves folding and unfolding of large parts of the molecule. This rearrangement is reported by fluorescent groups whose relative proximities change as a result of the order-disorder transition. The nature of the conformational change is expected to be similar from protein to protein ...