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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Alpha-Msh Regulated Cell Signaling In Pancreatic Alpha Cells, Liang Liang Jan 2009

Alpha-Msh Regulated Cell Signaling In Pancreatic Alpha Cells, Liang Liang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Peripheral injection of &alpha-MSH promotes glucagon secretion in POMC knockout mice, suggesting the role of &alpha-MSH in regulation of pancreatic &alpha cells. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the stimulatory effect of &alpha-MSH on mice pancreatic &alpha cell line &alphaTC1-6 cells in cell signaling pathway as well as glucagon secretion. In normal level of glucose, application of &alpha-MSH stimulated L-type Ca2+ current induced Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR) and membrane hyperpolarization. Increase of [cAMP]c was also observed when &alpha-MSH was applied with IBMX. Acute hypoglycemia-induced CICR via N- and L-type Ca2+ channels ...


Amino Acid Residues Implicated In The Interaction Of Melanocortin Ligands And Their Receptors: A Study Of Mc2r Selectivity, Kristopher D. Veo Jan 2009

Amino Acid Residues Implicated In The Interaction Of Melanocortin Ligands And Their Receptors: A Study Of Mc2r Selectivity, Kristopher D. Veo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Melanocortin receptor ligand selectivity has been a question not easily answered. The inability to functionally express melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) has inhibited the study of why MC2R is only stimulated by ACTH, a melanocortin hormone. With the recent discovery of the MC2R accessory protein (MRAP), creating a heterologous system is now feasible. Using a general cell line like CHO-K1 cells, which do not express endogenous MCRs, we were able to create a heterologous expression system and test the selectivity of MC2R using analog variants of ACTH(1-24). Our results indicate an amino acid requirement in the C-terminal portion of ACTH ...


The Evolution Of Opioid/Orphanin Receptors In Chordates, Jazalle Deshaun Mcclendon Jan 2009

The Evolution Of Opioid/Orphanin Receptors In Chordates, Jazalle Deshaun Mcclendon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The interest in the opioid/orphanin gene family stems from functional similarities that these peptides have to the narcotic opium. Opiates have been extensively studied because of their analgesic properties; however, the reason that these plant products can affect the human central nervous system was a mystery until the discovery of opiate-like peptides. The endogenous opioid peptides are well understood today because they have been fully cloned and characterized in several different organisms including lower chordates. On the other hand, the opioid/orphanin receptors have not been fully cloned or characterized in lower chordates; therefore, to better understand the past ...