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Articles 1 - 5 of 5

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Retrocyclin, A Potent Hiv-1 Entry Inhibitor, Nitya Venkataraman Jan 2009

Retrocyclin, A Potent Hiv-1 Entry Inhibitor, Nitya Venkataraman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Human immununodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the leading cause of death due to viral infections worldwide. In the absence of an effective vaccine or consistent male condom use, there is a clear need for female-controlled preventatives such as topical vaginal microbicides. Recent attention has been focused on developing natural antimicrobial peptides, as anti-retroviral microbicides. Increasing evidence suggests that cationic antimicrobial peptides such as defensins are effective HIV-1 inhibitors. Human alpha- and beta-defensins contribute substantially to innate immune defenses against microbial and viral infections. Certain nonhuman primates also produce theta-defensins – 18 residue cyclic peptides that are potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Multiple ...


Microscopic Analysis Of Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Distribution, Terminal Morphology, And Interaction In Whole-Mount Atria, Scott Harden Jan 2009

Microscopic Analysis Of Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Distribution, Terminal Morphology, And Interaction In Whole-Mount Atria, Scott Harden

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PSNS) branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervate the heart, exerting excitatory and inhibitory influences (respectively) over cardiac functions (heart rate, AV conduction velocity, and contractility). However, the distribution and structure of SNS and PSNS innervation has not yet been well studied. Detailed characterization of the distributional organization and structural morphology of the SNS and PSNS in normal states is essential to the study of pathological autonomic remodeling. The present study utilized double immunohistochemical labeling techniques to examine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive (IR) SNS and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) IR PSNS axons and terminal ...


Reelin Signaling Promotes Radial Glia Maturation And Neurogenesis, Serene Keilani Jan 2009

Reelin Signaling Promotes Radial Glia Maturation And Neurogenesis, Serene Keilani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The end of neurogenesis in the human brain is marked by the transformation of the neural progenitors, the radial glial cells, into astrocytes. This event coincides with the reduction of Reelin expression, a glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A recent study showed that the dentate gyrus of the adult reeler mice, with homozygous mutation in the RELIN gene, have reduced neurogenesis relative to the wild type. Based on the above findings, our first hypothesis states that Reelin expression is important for the formation of radial glia and the generation of neurons from the neural ...


Vesicle Targeting In Plasmodium Falciparum: The Identification And Molecular Characterization Of Plasmodium Falciparum Family Of Of Snare Proteins, Lawrence Sumanjah Ayong Jan 2009

Vesicle Targeting In Plasmodium Falciparum: The Identification And Molecular Characterization Of Plasmodium Falciparum Family Of Of Snare Proteins, Lawrence Sumanjah Ayong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Proteins of the SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) super-family have been characterized as playing an essential role in vesicle targeting and fusion in all eukaryotes. The intracellular malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits an unusual endomembrane system that is characterized by an unstacked Golgi apparatus, a developmentally induced apical complex, and various organellar structures of parasite origin in the infected host cells. How malaria parasites target nuclear-encoded proteins to these novel compartments is a central question in Plasmodium cell biology. Ultrastructural studies elsewhere have implicated the participation of specialized vesicular elements in transport of virulence proteins, including various ...


Mcp-1 And App Involvement Of Glial Differentiation And Migration Of Neuroprogenitor Cells, Emmanuel Vrotsos Jan 2009

Mcp-1 And App Involvement Of Glial Differentiation And Migration Of Neuroprogenitor Cells, Emmanuel Vrotsos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neuroprogenitor cells are an important resource because of their potential to replace damaged cells in the brain caused by trauma and disease. It is of great importance to better understand which factors influence the differentiation and migration of these cells. Previously it has been reported that neuroprogenitor cells undergoing apoptotic stress have increased levels of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and increased APP expression results in glial differentiation. APP activity was also shown to be required for staurosporine induced glial differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that is expressed during inflammatory. The binding of MCP-1 to ...