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Molecular Biology

2005

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Articles 1 - 30 of 80

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2011

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller

Howard K. Plummer III

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Improved Peak Detection And Quantification Of Mass Spectrometry Data Acquired From Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption And Ionization By Denoising Spectra With The Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform, Kevin R. Coombes, Spiros Tsavachidis, Jeffrey S. Morris, Keith A. Baggerly, Henry M. Kuerer Dec 2005

Improved Peak Detection And Quantification Of Mass Spectrometry Data Acquired From Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption And Ionization By Denoising Spectra With The Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform, Kevin R. Coombes, Spiros Tsavachidis, Jeffrey S. Morris, Keith A. Baggerly, Henry M. Kuerer

Jeffrey S. Morris

Background: Mass spectrometry, especially surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization (SELDI) is increasingly being used to find disease-related proteomic patterns in complex mixtures of proteins derived from tissue samples or from easily obtained biological fluids such as serum, urine, or nipple aspirate fluid. Questions have been raised about the reproducibility and reliability of peak quantifications using this technology. For example, Yasui and colleagues opted to replace continuous measures of the size of a peak by a simple binary indicator of its presence or absence in their analysis of a set of spectra from prostate cancer patients.

Methods: We collected nipple ...


Pooling Information Across Different Studies And Oligonucleotide Microarray Chip Types To Identify Prognostic Genes For Lung Cancer., Jeffrey S. Morris, Guosheng Yin, Keith A. Baggerly, Chunlei Wu, Li Zhang Dec 2005

Pooling Information Across Different Studies And Oligonucleotide Microarray Chip Types To Identify Prognostic Genes For Lung Cancer., Jeffrey S. Morris, Guosheng Yin, Keith A. Baggerly, Chunlei Wu, Li Zhang

Jeffrey S. Morris

Our goal in this work is to pool information across microarray studies conducted at different institutions using two different versions of Affymetrix chips to identify genes whose expression levels offer information on lung cancer patients’ survival above and beyond the information provided by readily available clinical covariates. We combine information across chip types by identifying “matching probes” present on both chips, and then assembling them into new probesets based on Unigene clusters. This method yields comparable expression level quantifications across chips without sacrificing much precision or significantly altering the relative ordering of the samples. We fit a series of multivariable ...


High Resolution X-Ray And Neutron Crystallographic Studies Of Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase, Brad C. Bennett Dec 2005

High Resolution X-Ray And Neutron Crystallographic Studies Of Escherichia Coli Dihydrofolate Reductase, Brad C. Bennett

Doctoral Dissertations

Dihydrofolate Reductases (DHFRs) have been identified in nearly every proteome and are essential for most biosynthetic pathways involving one-carbon transfer reactions due to their recycling of tetrahydrofolate (THF). They catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF), producing THF. Inhibition of DHFR ultimately depletes cellular pools of THF; causing a reduced supply of thymine nucleotides for DNA synthesis, resulting in genomic instability and cell death. Therefore, DHFRs remain important drug targets in antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic treatments. Despite exhaustive investigation of E. coli chromosomal DHFR, controversy persists over the dynamics of regulatory loops (the Met20, the βF-βG, and the βG-βH) and the ...


How Do Side Chains Orient Globally In Protein Structures?, Aimin Yan, Robert L. Jernigan Nov 2005

How Do Side Chains Orient Globally In Protein Structures?, Aimin Yan, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

An angle Ω is defined to serve as a metric for global side-chain orientations, which reflects the orientation of the side chain relative to the radial vector from the center of the protein to an amino acid. The side-chain orientations of buried residues exhibit characteristically different orientations than do exposed residues, in both monomeric and dimeric structures. Overall, buried side chains point mostly inward, whereas surface side chains tend to point outward from the surface. This difference in behavior also correlates well with the residue hydrophobicity; so a global side-chain orientation can be viewed as a direct structural manifestation of ...


Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller Sep 2005

Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Cigarette smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer throughout the world, with cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) the most numerous. Nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is formed from nicotine, has been demonstrated to cause mutations in genes that affect cell regulation and proliferation. Moreover, NNK has been shown to interact directly with and stimulate beta adrenergic receptor (ADRB) signal transduction pathways. Our goal was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adrb2 from PAC tumors were induced in golden hamsters by the injection of NNK. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of Adrb2 clones ...


Rab11 Gtpase-Regulated Membrane Trafficking Is Crucial For Tip-Focused Pollen Tube Growth In Tobacco, B. H. De Graaf, Alice Cheung, T. Andreyeva, K. Levasseur, M. Kieliszewski, H. M. Wu Aug 2005

Rab11 Gtpase-Regulated Membrane Trafficking Is Crucial For Tip-Focused Pollen Tube Growth In Tobacco, B. H. De Graaf, Alice Cheung, T. Andreyeva, K. Levasseur, M. Kieliszewski, H. M. Wu

Alice Cheung

Pollen tube growth is a polarized growth process whereby the tip-growing tubes elongate within the female reproductive tissues to deliver sperm cells to the ovules for fertilization. Efficient and regulated membrane trafficking activity incorporates membrane and deposits cell wall molecules at the tube apex and is believed to underlie rapid and focused growth at the pollen tube tip. Rab GTPases, key regulators of membrane trafficking, are candidates for important roles in regulating pollen tube growth. We show that a green fluorescent protein-tagged Nicotiana tabacum pollen-expressed Rab11b is localized predominantly to an inverted cone-shaped region in the pollen tube tip that ...


Post-Translational Regulation Of Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein By The Ubiquitin/Proteasome Pathway, John Tansey Aug 2005

Post-Translational Regulation Of Adipose Differentiation-Related Protein By The Ubiquitin/Proteasome Pathway, John Tansey

Chemistry Faculty Scholarship

Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) is localized to lipid droplets in most mammalian cells. ADRP, proposed to regulate
fatty acid mobilization and lipid droplet formation, is linked to lipid accumulation in foam cells of human atherosclerotic
lesions. In this report, we show that ADRP protein accumulates in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblastic cells cultured in the
presence of oleic acid but is destabilized when fatty acid sources are removed from culture serum. The latter effect was blocked
by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas inhibitors of other proteolytic processes were ineffective. Pulse-chase experiments
confirmed that ADRP degradation is inhibited by MG132. Conditions that ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Hildegard M. Schuller

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Madhu S Dhar

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Regulatable Gene Expression Systems For Gene Therapy Applications: Progress And Future Challenges, Shyam Goverdhana, Mariana Puntel, Weidong Xiong, Jeffrey Zirger, Carlos Barcia, James Curtin, Eric Soffer, Sonali Mondkar, Gwendalyn King, Jinwei Hu, Marianela Candolfi, Diane Greengold, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Aug 2005

Regulatable Gene Expression Systems For Gene Therapy Applications: Progress And Future Challenges, Shyam Goverdhana, Mariana Puntel, Weidong Xiong, Jeffrey Zirger, Carlos Barcia, James Curtin, Eric Soffer, Sonali Mondkar, Gwendalyn King, Jinwei Hu, Marianela Candolfi, Diane Greengold, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Gene therapy aims to revert diseased phenotypes by the use of both viral and nonviral gene delivery systems. Substantial progress has been made in making gene transfer vehicles more efficient, less toxic, and nonimmunogenic and in allowing long-term transgene expression. One of the key issues in successfully implementing gene therapies in the clinical setting is to be able to regulate gene expression very tightly and consistently as and when it is needed. The regulation ought to be achievable using a compound that should be nontoxic, be able to penetrate into the desired target tissue or organ, and have a half-life ...


Rac Gtpases In Tobacco And Arabidopsis Mediate Auxin-Induced Formation Of Proteolytically Active Nuclear Protein Bodies That Contain Aux/Iaa Proteins, L. Z. Tao, Alice Cheung, C. Nibau, H. M. Wu Jul 2005

Rac Gtpases In Tobacco And Arabidopsis Mediate Auxin-Induced Formation Of Proteolytically Active Nuclear Protein Bodies That Contain Aux/Iaa Proteins, L. Z. Tao, Alice Cheung, C. Nibau, H. M. Wu

Alice Cheung

Auxin signaling relies on ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1)-mediated 26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis of a large family of short-lived transcription regulators, auxin/indole acetic acid (Aux/IAA), resulting in the derepression of auxin-responsive genes. We have shown previously that a subset of Rac GTPases is activated by auxin, and they in turn stimulate auxin-responsive gene expression. We show here that increasing Rac signaling activity promotes Aux/IAA degradation, whereas downregulating that activity results in the reduction of auxin-accelerated Aux/IAA proteolysis. Observations reported here reveal a novel function for these Rac GTPases as regulators for ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis and further ...


Drosophila Wntd Is A Target And An Inhibitor Of The Dorsal/Twist/Snail Network In The Gastrulating Embryo, Atish Ganguly, Jin Jiang, Y. Tony Ip Jul 2005

Drosophila Wntd Is A Target And An Inhibitor Of The Dorsal/Twist/Snail Network In The Gastrulating Embryo, Atish Ganguly, Jin Jiang, Y. Tony Ip

Open Access Articles

The maternal Toll signaling pathway sets up a nuclear gradient of the transcription factor Dorsal in the early Drosophila embryo. Dorsal activates twist and snail, and the Dorsal/Twist/Snail network activates and represses other zygotic genes to form the correct expression patterns along the dorsoventral axis. An essential function of this patterning is to promote ventral cell invagination during mesoderm formation, but how the downstream genes regulate ventral invagination is not known. We show here that wntD is a novel member of the Wnt family. The expression of wntD is activated by Dorsal and Twist, but the expression is ...


Nnk-Induced Hamster Lung Adenocarcinomas Over-Express Beta2-Adrenergic And Egfr Signaling Pathways, Hildegard Schuller, Maria Cekanova Jun 2005

Nnk-Induced Hamster Lung Adenocarcinomas Over-Express Beta2-Adrenergic And Egfr Signaling Pathways, Hildegard Schuller, Maria Cekanova

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) is the most common type of human lung cancer. A diagnosis of PAC, history of non-smoking and presence of mutations in the EGFR are predictive factors for responsiveness of lung cancer to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Unfortunately, less than 50% of PAC cases demonstrate this mutation-based responsiveness. Our immunohistochemical analysis of NNK-induced PAC in hamsters demonstrates the simultaneous over-expression of a beta2-adrenergic receptor pathway, including PKA, cAMP, CREB and phosphorylated CREB and of an EGFR pathway, including over-expression of EGFR-specific phosphorylated tyrosine kinase, Raf-1 and ERK1/2 and their phosphorylated forms. These findings implicate, for the first ...


The Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Anna Oliva, Adan Rosebrock, Francisco Ferrezuelo, Haiying Chen, Saumyadipta Pyne, Steve Skiena, Bruce Futcher, Janet Leatherwood Jun 2005

The Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Anna Oliva, Adan Rosebrock, Francisco Ferrezuelo, Haiying Chen, Saumyadipta Pyne, Steve Skiena, Bruce Futcher, Janet Leatherwood

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology Faculty Publications

Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The ...


A Revised Nomenclature For Mammalian Acyl-Coa Thioesterases/Hydrolases, Mary Hunt, Junji Yamada, Lois Maltais, Mathew Wright, Ernesto Podesta, Stefan Alexson Jun 2005

A Revised Nomenclature For Mammalian Acyl-Coa Thioesterases/Hydrolases, Mary Hunt, Junji Yamada, Lois Maltais, Mathew Wright, Ernesto Podesta, Stefan Alexson

Articles

Acyl-CoA thioesterases, also known as acyl-CoA hydrolases, are a group of enzymes that hydrolyze CoA esters such as acyl-CoAs (saturated, unsaturated, branched chain), bile acid-CoAs, CoA esters of prostaglandins etc, to the corresponding free acid and coenzyme A. There is however significant confusion regarding the nomenclature of these genes. In agreement with the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) and the Mouse Genomic Nomenclature Committee (MGNC), a revised nomenclature for mammalian acyl-CoA thioesterases/hydrolases has been suggested for the 12 member family. The family root symbol is ACOT, with human genes named ACOT1-12, and rat and mouse named Acot1-12. Several of ...


A Critical Role For Kalirin In Ngf Signaling Through Trka, Kausik Chakrabarti, Rong Lin, Noraisha I. Schiller, Yanping Wang, David Koubi, Ying-Xin Fan, Brian B. Rudkin, Gibbes R. Johnson, Martin R. Schiller Jun 2005

A Critical Role For Kalirin In Ngf Signaling Through Trka, Kausik Chakrabarti, Rong Lin, Noraisha I. Schiller, Yanping Wang, David Koubi, Ying-Xin Fan, Brian B. Rudkin, Gibbes R. Johnson, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Kalirin is a multidomain guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rho proteins, inducing cytoskeletal rearrangement in neurons. Although much is known about the effects of Kalirin on Rho GTPases and neuronal morphology, little is known about the association of Kalirin with the receptor/signaling systems that affect neuronal morphology. Our experiments demonstrate that Kalirin binds to and colocalizes with the TrkA neurotrophin receptor in neurons. In PC12 cells, inhibition of Kalirin expression using antisense RNA decreased nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced TrkA autophosphorylation and process extension. Kalirin overexpression potentiated neurotrophin-stimulated TrkA autophosphorylation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells at ...


Prediction Of Protein Secondary Structure By Mining Structural Fragment Database, Haitao Cheng, Taner Z. Sen, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Dimitris Margaritis, Robert L. Jernigan May 2005

Prediction Of Protein Secondary Structure By Mining Structural Fragment Database, Haitao Cheng, Taner Z. Sen, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Dimitris Margaritis, Robert L. Jernigan

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

A new method for predicting protein secondary structure from amino acid sequence has been developed. The method is based on multiple sequence alignment of the query sequence with all other sequences with known structure from the protein data bank (PDB) by using BLAST. The fragments of the alignments belonging to proteins from the PBD are then used for further analysis. We have studied various schemes of assigning weights for matching segments and calculated normalized scores to predict one of the three secondary structures: α-helix, β-sheet, or coil. We applied several artificial intelligence techniques: decision trees (DT), neural networks (NN) and ...


Dimeric Seca Is Essential For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver May 2005

Dimeric Seca Is Essential For Protein Translocation, Don Oliver

Division III Faculty Publications

SecA facilitates bacterial protein translocation by its association with presecretory or membrane proteins and the SecYEG translocon channel. Once assembled, SecA ATPase undergoes cycles of membrane insertion and retraction at SecYEG that drive protein translocation in a stepwise fashion. SecA exists in equilibrium between a monomer and dimer, and association with its translocation ligands shifts this equilibrium dramatically. Here, we examined the proposal that protein translocation can occur by means of a SecA monomer. We produced a mutant SecA protein lacking residues 2-11, which was found to exist mostly as a monomer, and it was unable to complement a conditional-lethal ...


Myod Targets Chromatin Remodeling Complexes To The Myogenin Locus Prior To Forming A Stable Dna-Bound Complex, Ivana L. De La Serna, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Charlotte A. Berkes, Donald A. Bergstrom, Caroline S. Dacwag, Stephen J. Tapscott, Anthony N. Imbalzano May 2005

Myod Targets Chromatin Remodeling Complexes To The Myogenin Locus Prior To Forming A Stable Dna-Bound Complex, Ivana L. De La Serna, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Charlotte A. Berkes, Donald A. Bergstrom, Caroline S. Dacwag, Stephen J. Tapscott, Anthony N. Imbalzano

Biology Faculty Publications

The activation of muscle-specific gene expression requires the coordinated action of muscle regulatory proteins and chromatin-remodeling enzymes. Microarray analysis performed in the presence or absence of a dominant-negative BRG1 ATPase demonstrated that approximately one-third of MyoD-induced genes were highly dependent on SWI/SNF enzymes. To understand the mechanism of activation, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitations analyzing the myogenin promoter. We found that H4 hyperacetylation preceded Brg1 binding in a MyoD-dependent manner but that MyoD binding occurred subsequent to H4 modification and Brg1 interaction. In the absence of functional SWI/SNF enzymes, muscle regulatory proteins did not bind to the myogenin promoter ...


Role Of A Conserved Glutamate Residue In The Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Mechanism, Don Oliver Apr 2005

Role Of A Conserved Glutamate Residue In The Escherichia Coli Seca Atpase Mechanism, Don Oliver

Division III Faculty Publications

Escherichia coli SecA uses ATP to drive the transport of proteins across cell membranes. Glutamate 210 in the "DEVD" Walker B motif of the SecA ATP-binding site has been proposed as the catalytic base for ATP hydrolysis (Hunt, J. F., Weinkauf, S., Henry, L., Fak, J. J., McNicholas, P., Oliver, D. B., and Deisenhofer, J. (2002) Science 297, 2018-2026). Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that mutation of glutamate 210 to aspartate results in a 90-fold reduction of the ATP hydrolysis rate compared with wild type SecA, 0.3 s(-1) versus 27 s(-1), respectively. SecA-E210D also releases ADP ...


Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick Apr 2005

Identification And Expansion Of Pancreatic Stem/Progenitor Cells., You-Qing Zhang, Marcie Kritzik, Nora Sarvetnick

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Pancreatic islet transplantation represents an attractive approach for the treatment of diabetes. However, the limited availability of donor islets has largely hampered this approach. In this respect, the use of alternative sources of islets such as the ex vivo expansion and differentiation of functional endocrine cells for treating diabetes has become the major focus of diabetes research. Adult pancreatic stem cells /progenitor cells have yet to be recognized because limited markers exist for their identification. While the pancreas has the capacity to regenerate under certain circumstances, questions where adult pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are localized, how they are regulated, and ...


Perturbation Of Triple-Helix Structure In Mutant Collagens Examined By Subnanosecond Local Dynamics Of Tryptophan: An Application Of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy, R. Dawn Paul Apr 2005

Perturbation Of Triple-Helix Structure In Mutant Collagens Examined By Subnanosecond Local Dynamics Of Tryptophan: An Application Of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy, R. Dawn Paul

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy can provide information about the local dynamic properties of a molecule at sub-nanometer resolution on the nano- and picosecond time scales. To help explain perturbations of the triple-helical structure of collagen induced by a mutation, and to facilitate an understanding of mutations associated with diseases like scurvy, an examination of synthetic collagen-like peptides was conducted. Results indicate that the extent of local motion increases near a mutation, demonstrating that the change in the amino acid interrupts the helical structure. Local motion, however, remains unchanged several amino acid residues away from the indole side chain of the tryptophan ...


Inferring Ideal Amino Acid Interaction Forms From Statistical Protein Contact Potentials, Piotr Pokarowski, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan, Neha S. Kothari, Maria Pokarowska, Andrzej Kolinski Apr 2005

Inferring Ideal Amino Acid Interaction Forms From Statistical Protein Contact Potentials, Piotr Pokarowski, Andrzej Kloczkowski, Robert L. Jernigan, Neha S. Kothari, Maria Pokarowska, Andrzej Kolinski

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

We have analyzed 29 different published matrices of protein pairwise contact potentials (CPs) between amino acids derived from different sets of proteins, either crystallographic structures taken from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) or computer-generated decoys. Each of the CPs is similar to 1 of the 2 matrices derived in the work of Miyazawa and Jernigan (Proteins 1999;34:49–68). The CP matrices of the first class can be approximated with a correlation of order 0.9 by the formula eij = hi + hj, 1 ≤ i, j ≤ 20, where the residue-type dependent factor h is highly correlated with the frequency of ...


The Antitumor Agent, Arglabin-Dma, Preferentially Induces Apoptosis In Human Colon Tumor Cells, Sung Wook Kwon Apr 2005

The Antitumor Agent, Arglabin-Dma, Preferentially Induces Apoptosis In Human Colon Tumor Cells, Sung Wook Kwon

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Arglabin-DMA, an analog of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), reportedly inhibits farnesyltransferase (FTase) directly by competitively blocking the binding of Ras protein and its posttranslational modification, as suggested in previous studies. But, the mechanisms by which Arglabin-DMA inhibits tumor growth in vivo and in vitro are still relatively poorly characterized. To determine the mechanism by which this drug inhibits tumor growth, the effects of Arglabin-DMA in two human colon tumor cell lines (mutant K-ras HCT 116 and wild-type ras HT-29) were explored on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle kinetics in vitro. In cell viability studies, we showed that Arglabin-DMA had ...


Mechanisms Of Cell Death Initiated In Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Expressing Colon Tumor Cells Treated With Ganciclovir And Ucn-01, Christina Elizabeth Ahn Apr 2005

Mechanisms Of Cell Death Initiated In Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Expressing Colon Tumor Cells Treated With Ganciclovir And Ucn-01, Christina Elizabeth Ahn

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Metastatic colon carcinoma is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in the United States, and development of more effective treatments is essential. Heterologous expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVtk) in combination with the prodrug, ganciclovir (GCV), has shown great promise for the genetic therapy of many cancers, but most patients have had only a partial or minimal response to the therapy. After screening a panel of two drug combinations, our laboratory has shown that the combination of GCV and the protein kinase inhibitor UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine) enhances tumor cell death more effectively than either drug alone. However ...


The Importance Of Experimental Design In Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Experiments: Some Cautionary Tales, Jeffrey S. Morris, Jianhua Hu, Kevin R. Coombes, Keith A. Baggerly Mar 2005

The Importance Of Experimental Design In Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Experiments: Some Cautionary Tales, Jeffrey S. Morris, Jianhua Hu, Kevin R. Coombes, Keith A. Baggerly

Jeffrey S. Morris

Proteomic expression patterns derived from mass spectrometry have been put forward as potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. This approach has generated much excitement and has led to a large number of new experiments and vast amounts of new data. The data, derived at great expense, can have very little value if careful attention is not paid to the experimental design and analysis. Using examples from surfaceenhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionisation/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) experiments, we describe several experimental design issues that can corrupt a dataset. Fortunately, the problems we ...


The 1.51-Angstrom Structure Of The Poxvirus L1 Protein, A Target Of Potent Neutralizing Antibodies., Hua-Poo Su, Scott Garman, Timothy J. Allison, Christiana Fogg, Bernard Moss, David N. Garboczi Mar 2005

The 1.51-Angstrom Structure Of The Poxvirus L1 Protein, A Target Of Potent Neutralizing Antibodies., Hua-Poo Su, Scott Garman, Timothy J. Allison, Christiana Fogg, Bernard Moss, David N. Garboczi

Scott Garman

Although eradicated from nature more than two decades ago, the threat of smallpox has reemerged because of concerns over its use as a biological weapon. We present the structure of the poxvirus L1 protein, a molecule that is conserved throughout the poxvirus family and is nearly identical in vaccinia virus and in variola virus, which causes smallpox. L1 is a myristoylated envelope protein that is a potent target for neutralizing antibodies and an important component of current experimental vaccines. The L1 structure reveals a hydrophobic cavity located adjacent to its N terminus. The cavity would be capable of shielding the ...