Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 43

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Transcriptional Regulation Factors Of The Human Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier Gene, Isoform 2 (Slc25a13): Usf1 As Basal Factor And Foxa2 As Activator In Liver Cells, Paolo Convertini, Simona Todisco, Francesco De Santis, Ilaria Pappalardo, Dominga Iacobazzi, Maria Antonietta Castiglione Morelli, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf, Giuseppe Martelli, Ferdinando Palmieri, Vittoria Infantino Apr 2019

Transcriptional Regulation Factors Of The Human Mitochondrial Aspartate/Glutamate Carrier Gene, Isoform 2 (Slc25a13): Usf1 As Basal Factor And Foxa2 As Activator In Liver Cells, Paolo Convertini, Simona Todisco, Francesco De Santis, Ilaria Pappalardo, Dominga Iacobazzi, Maria Antonietta Castiglione Morelli, Yvonne N. Fondufe-Mittendorf, Giuseppe Martelli, Ferdinando Palmieri, Vittoria Infantino

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Mitochondrial carriers catalyse the translocation of numerous metabolites across the inner mitochondrial membrane, playing a key role in different cell functions. For this reason, mitochondrial carrier gene expression needs tight regulation. The human SLC25A13 gene, encoding for the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2 (AGC2), catalyses the electrogenic exchange of aspartate for glutamate plus a proton, thus taking part in many metabolic processes including the malate-aspartate shuttle. By the luciferase (LUC) activity of promoter deletion constructs we identified the putative promoter region, comprising the proximal promoter (−442 bp/−19 bp), as well as an enhancer region (−968 bp/−768 bp ...


Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro Apr 2019

Extracellular Vesicles As Biological Shuttles For Targeted Therapies., Stefania Raimondo, Gianluca Giavaresi, Aurelio Lorico, Riccardo Alessandro

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUN) Publications and Research

The development of effective nanosystems for drug delivery represents a key challenge for the improvement of most current anticancer therapies. Recent progress in the understanding of structure and function of extracellular vesicles (EVs)-specialized membrane-bound nanocarriers for intercellular communication-suggests that they might also serve as optimal delivery systems of therapeutics. In addition to carrying proteins, lipids, DNA and different forms of RNAs, EVs can be engineered to deliver specific bioactive molecules to target cells. Exploitation of their molecular composition and physical properties, together with improvement in bio-techniques to modify their content are critical issues to target them to specific cells ...


Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried Jul 2017

Quaternary Interactions And Supercoiling Modulate The Cooperative Dna Binding Of Agt, Manana Melikishvili, Michael G. Fried

Center for Structural Biology Faculty Publications

Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) repairs mutagenic O6-alkylguanine and O4-alkylthymine adducts in single-stranded and duplex DNAs. The search for these lesions, through a vast excess of competing, unmodified genomic DNA, is a mechanistic challenge that may limit the repair rate in vivo. Here, we examine influences of DNA secondary structure and twist on protein–protein interactions in cooperative AGT complexes formed on lesion-free DNAs that model the unmodified parts of the genome. We used a new approach to resolve nearest neighbor (nn) and long-range (lr) components from the ensemble-average cooperativity, ωave. We found that ...


Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel Jan 2017

Oxidative Stress And Inflammation In Hepatic Diseases: Current And Future Therapy., Karina Reyes-Gordillo, Ruchi Shah, Pablo Muriel

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Liver disease is a highly prevalent disease that is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The continuous exposure of the liver to some factors such as viruses, alcohol, fat, and biotransformed metabolites can cause hepatic injury, which can lead to inflammation and liver degeneration. When the injury is sustained for long time, it can cause chronic liver diseases (CLDs), which include a spectrum of disease states ranging from simple steatosis and steatohepatitis (steatosis with inflammation and hepatocyte injury and death) to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multiple evidences indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation are the most ...


The Pcna-Associated Protein Pari Negatively Regulates Homologous Recombination Via The Inhibition Of Dna Repair Synthesis, Peter Burkovics, Lili Dome, Szilvia Juhasz, Veronika Altmannova, Marek Sebesta, Martin Pacesa, Kasper Fugger, Claus Storgaard Sorensen, Marietta Y W T Lee, Lajos Haracska, Lumir Krejci Apr 2016

The Pcna-Associated Protein Pari Negatively Regulates Homologous Recombination Via The Inhibition Of Dna Repair Synthesis, Peter Burkovics, Lili Dome, Szilvia Juhasz, Veronika Altmannova, Marek Sebesta, Martin Pacesa, Kasper Fugger, Claus Storgaard Sorensen, Marietta Y W T Lee, Lajos Haracska, Lumir Krejci

NYMC Faculty Publications

Successful and accurate completion of the replication of damage-containing DNA requires mainly recombination and RAD18-dependent DNA damage tolerance pathways. RAD18 governs at least two distinct mechanisms: translesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS)-dependent pathways. Whereas TS is mainly error-free, TLS can work in an error-prone manner and, as such, the regulation of these pathways requires tight control to prevent DNA errors and potentially oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. In humans, the PCNA-associated recombination inhibitor (PARI) protein has recently been shown to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator ...


Pdip46 (Dna Polymerase Delta Interacting Protein 46) Is An Activating Factor For Human Dna Polymerase Delta, Xiaoxiao Wang, Sufang Zhang, Rong Zheng, Fu Yue, Szu Hua Sharon Lin, Amal Rahmeh, Ernest Y C Lee, Zhongtao Zhang, Marietta Y W T Lee Feb 2016

Pdip46 (Dna Polymerase Delta Interacting Protein 46) Is An Activating Factor For Human Dna Polymerase Delta, Xiaoxiao Wang, Sufang Zhang, Rong Zheng, Fu Yue, Szu Hua Sharon Lin, Amal Rahmeh, Ernest Y C Lee, Zhongtao Zhang, Marietta Y W T Lee

NYMC Faculty Publications

PDIP46 (SKAR, POLDIP3) was discovered through its interaction with the p50 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Its functions in DNA replication are unknown. PDIP46 associates with Pol δ in cell extracts both by immunochemical and protein separation methods, as well as by ChIP analyses. PDIP46 also interacts with PCNA via multiple copies of a novel PCNA binding motif, the APIMs (AlkB homologue-2 PCNA-Interacting Motif). Sites for both p50 and PCNA binding were mapped to the N-terminal region containing the APIMs. Functional assays for the effects of PDIP46 on Pol δ activity on singly primed ssM13 DNA templates ...


Global Regulator Of Virulence A (Grva) Coordinates Expression Of Discrete Pathogenic Mechanisms In Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Through Interactions With Gadw-Gade, Jason K. Morgan, Ronan K. Carroll, Carly M. Harro, Khoury W Vendura, Lindsey N. Shaw, James T. Riordan Feb 2016

Global Regulator Of Virulence A (Grva) Coordinates Expression Of Discrete Pathogenic Mechanisms In Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Through Interactions With Gadw-Gade, Jason K. Morgan, Ronan K. Carroll, Carly M. Harro, Khoury W Vendura, Lindsey N. Shaw, James T. Riordan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

UNLABELLED: Global regulator of virulence A (GrvA) is a ToxR-family transcriptional regulator that activates locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-dependent adherence in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). LEE activation by GrvA requires the Rcs phosphorelay response regulator RcsB and is sensitive to physiologically relevant concentrations of bicarbonate, a known stimulant of virulence systems in intestinal pathogens. This study determines the genomic scale of GrvA-dependent regulation and uncovers details of the molecular mechanism underlying GrvA-dependent regulation of pathogenic mechanisms in EHEC. In a grvA-null background of EHEC strain TW14359, RNA sequencing analysis revealed the altered expression of over 700 genes, including the ...


Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Background: miRNAs can regulate cellular survival in various cancer cell types. Recent evidence implicates the formation of lipid droplets as a hallmark event during apoptotic cell death response. It is presently unknown whether MIR494, located at 14q32 which is deleted in renal cancers, reduces cell survival in renal cancer cells and if this process is accompanied by changes in the number of lipid droplets.

Methods: 769-P renal carcinoma cells were utilized for this study. Control or MIR494 mimic was expressed in these cells following which cell viability (via crystal violet) and apoptotic cell numbers (via Annexin V/PI staining) were ...


Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Effect Of Hydroxychloroquine And Characterization Of Autophagy In A Mouse Model Of Endometriosis, A. Ruiz, S. Rockfield, N. Taran, E. Haller, Robert Engelman, I Flores, P Panina-Bordignon, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

In endometriosis, the increased survival potential of shed endometrial cells (which normally undergo anoikis) is suggested to promote lesion development. One mechanism that may alter anoikis is autophagy. Using an autophagic flux inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), we identified that it reduces the in vitro survival capacity of human endometriotic and endometrial T-HESC cells. We also identified that HCQ could decrease lesion numbers and disrupt lesion histopathology, as well as increase the levels of peritoneal macrophages and the IP-10 (10 kDa interferon-γ-induced protein) chemokine in a mouse model of endometriosis. We noted that RNA levels of a subset of autophagic ...


Repositioning Of Drugs Using Open-Access Data Portal Dtome: A Test Case With Probenecid (Review), Mohammad U. Ahmed, Dylan J. Bennett, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Barbara B. Doonan, Saba Ahmed, Joseph M. Wu Jan 2016

Repositioning Of Drugs Using Open-Access Data Portal Dtome: A Test Case With Probenecid (Review), Mohammad U. Ahmed, Dylan J. Bennett, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Barbara B. Doonan, Saba Ahmed, Joseph M. Wu

NYMC Faculty Publications

The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, first introduced by Beadle and Tatum in the 1940s and based on their genetic analysis and observation of phenotype changes in Neurospora crassa challenged by various experimental conditions, has witnessed significant advances in recent decades. Much of our understanding of the association between genes and their phenotype expression has benefited from the completion of the human genome project, and has shown continual transformation guided by the effort directed at the annotation and characterization of human genes. Similarly, the idea of one drug‑one primary disease indication that traditionally has been the benchmark for the labeling ...


It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield Jan 2016

It Is All About (U)Biquitin: Role Of Altered Ubiquitin-Proteasome System And Uchl1 In Alzheimer Disease, Antonella Tramutola, Fabio Di Domenico, Eugenio Barone, Marzia Perluigi, D. Allan Butterfield

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Free radical-mediated damage to macromolecules and the resulting oxidative modification of different cellular components are a common feature of aging, and this process becomes much more pronounced in age-associated pathologies, including Alzheimer disease (AD). In particular, proteins are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress-induced damage and these irreversible modifications lead to the alteration of protein structure and function. In order to maintain cell homeostasis, these oxidized/damaged proteins have to be removed in order to prevent their toxic accumulation. It is generally accepted that the age-related accumulation of “aberrant” proteins results from both the increased occurrence of damage and the decreased ...


Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2015

Cell Type–Dependent Mechanisms For Formin-Mediated Assembly Of Filopodia, Lorna E. Young, Ernest G. Heimsath, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Filopodia are finger-like protrusions from the plasma membrane and are of fundamental importance to cellular physiology, but the mechanisms governing their assembly are still in question. One model, called convergent elongation, proposes that filopodia arise from Arp2/3 complex-nucleated dendritic actin networks, with factors such as formins elongating these filaments into filopodia. We test this model using constitutively active constructs of two formins, FMNL3 and mDia2. Surprisingly, filopodial assembly requirements differ between suspension and adherent cells. In suspension cells, Arp2/3 complex is required for filopodial assembly through either formin. In contrast, a subset of filopodia remains after Arp2/3 ...


Atrial Fibrillation: Biophysics, Molecular Mechanisms, And Novel Therapies., Alexey V. Glukhov, Leonid V. Rosenshtraukh, Anamika Bhargava, Michele Miragoli, Bas J. D. Boukens Jan 2015

Atrial Fibrillation: Biophysics, Molecular Mechanisms, And Novel Therapies., Alexey V. Glukhov, Leonid V. Rosenshtraukh, Anamika Bhargava, Michele Miragoli, Bas J. D. Boukens

Anatomy and Regenerative Biology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay Dec 2014

Gaip Interacting Protein C-Terminus Regulates Autophagy And Exosome Biogenesis Of Pancreatic Cancer Through Metabolic Pathways, Santanu Bhattacharya, Krishnendu Pal, Anil K. Sharma, Shamit K. Dutta, Julie S. Lau, Irene K. Yan, Enfeng Wang, Ahmed Elkhanany, Khalid M. Alkharfy, Arunik Sanyal, Tushar C. Patel, Suresh T. Chari, Mark R. Spaller, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

GAIP interacting protein C terminus (GIPC) is known to play an important role in a variety of physiological and disease states. In the present study, we have identified a novel role for GIPC as a master regulator of autophagy and the exocytotic pathways in cancer. We show that depletion of GIPC-induced autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells, as evident from the upregulation of the autophagy marker LC3II. We further report that GIPC regulates cellular trafficking pathways by modulating the secretion, biogenesis, and molecular composition of exosomes. We also identified the involvement of GIPC on metabolic stress pathways regulating autophagy and microvesicular ...


The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs Nov 2014

The Formin Fmnl3 Assembles Plasma Membrane Protrusions That Participate In Cell–Cell Adhesion, Timothy J. Gauvin, Lorna E. Young, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

FMNL3 is a vertebrate-specific formin protein previously shown to play a role in angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we define the cellular localization of endogenous FMNL3, the dynamics of GFP-tagged FMNL3 during cell migration, and the effects of FMNL3 suppression in mammalian culture cells. The majority of FMNL3 localizes in a punctate pattern, with >95% of these puncta being indistinguishable from the plasma membrane by fluorescence microscopy. A small number of dynamic cytoplasmic FMNL3 patches also exist, which enrich near cell–cell contact sites and fuse with the plasma membrane at these sites. These cytoplasmic puncta appear to be part ...


Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper Nov 2014

Kynurenine Aminotransferase Iii And Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes That Have Cysteine S-Conjugate Beta-Lyase Activity And Can Transaminate L-Selenomethionine, John T. Pinto, Boris F. Krasnikov, Steven Alcutt, Melanie E. Jones, Thambi Dorai, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 ...


Nack Is An Integral Component Of The Notch Transcriptional Activation Complex And Is Critical For Development And Tumorigenesis, Kelly L Weaver, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Ke Jin, Zhiqiang Wang, Xiaoqing Han, Prathibha Ranganathan, Xiaoxia Zhu, Thiago Dasilva, Wei Liu, Francesca Ratti, Renee M Demarest, Cristos Tzimas, Meghan Rice, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del Carpio, Nadia Dahmane, David J Robbins, Anthony J Capobianco Sep 2014

Nack Is An Integral Component Of The Notch Transcriptional Activation Complex And Is Critical For Development And Tumorigenesis, Kelly L Weaver, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Ke Jin, Zhiqiang Wang, Xiaoqing Han, Prathibha Ranganathan, Xiaoxia Zhu, Thiago Dasilva, Wei Liu, Francesca Ratti, Renee M Demarest, Cristos Tzimas, Meghan Rice, Rodrigo Vasquez-Del Carpio, Nadia Dahmane, David J Robbins, Anthony J Capobianco

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

The Notch signaling pathway governs many distinct cellular processes by regulating transcriptional programs. The transcriptional response initiated by Notch is highly cell context dependent, indicating that multiple factors influence Notch target gene selection and activity. However, the mechanism by which Notch drives target gene transcription is not well understood. Herein, we identify and characterize a novel Notch-interacting protein, Notch activation complex kinase (NACK), which acts as a Notch transcriptional coactivator. We show that NACK associates with the Notch transcriptional activation complex on DNA, mediates Notch transcriptional activity, and is required for Notch-mediated tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that Notch1 and NACK are ...


Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry And New Regulatory Roles In Biology, John Toohey, Arthur J L Cooper Aug 2014

Thiosulfoxide (Sulfane) Sulfur: New Chemistry And New Regulatory Roles In Biology, John Toohey, Arthur J L Cooper

NYMC Faculty Publications

The understanding of sulfur bonding is undergoing change. Old theories on hypervalency of sulfur and the nature of the chalcogen-chalcogen bond are now questioned. At the same time, there is a rapidly expanding literature on the effects of sulfur in regulating biological systems. The two fields are inter-related because the new understanding of the thiosulfoxide bond helps to explain the newfound roles of sulfur in biology. This review examines the nature of thiosulfoxide (sulfane, S0) sulfur, the history of its regulatory role, its generation in biological systems, and its functions in cells. The functions include synthesis of cofactors (molybdenum cofactor ...


Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield Sep 2013

Identification Of Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes Periodically Expressed In U2os Cells And Their Regulation By Foxm1 And E2f Transcription Factors, Gavin D. Grant, Lionel Brooks Iii, Xiaoyang Zhang, J. Matthew Mahoney, Viktor Martyanov, Tammara A. Wood, Gavin Sherlock, Chao Cheng, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We identify the cell cycle–regulated mRNA transcripts genome-wide in the osteosarcoma-derived U2OS cell line. This results in 2140 transcripts mapping to 1871 unique cell cycle–regulated genes that show periodic oscillations across multiple synchronous cell cycles. We identify genomic loci bound by the G2/M transcription factor FOXM1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) and associate these with cell cycle–regulated genes. FOXM1 is bound to cell cycle–regulated genes with peak expression in both S phase and G2/M phases. We show that ChIP-seq genomic loci are responsive to FOXM1 using a real-time luciferase assay in ...


Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield Jun 2012

Live-Cell Monitoring Of Periodic Gene Expression In Synchronous Human Cells Identifies Forkhead Genes Involved In Cell Cycle Control, Gavin D. Grant, Joshua Gamsby, Viktor Martyanov, Lionel Brooks, Lacy K. George, J. Matthew Mahoney, Jennifer J. Loros, Jay C. Dunlap, Michael L. Whitfield

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We developed a system to monitor periodic luciferase activity from cell cycle-regulated promoters in synchronous cells. Reporters were driven by a minimal human E2F1 promoter with peak expression in G1/S or a basal promoter with six Forkhead DNA-binding sites with peak expression at G2/M. After cell cycle synchronization, luciferase activity was measured in live cells at 10-min intervals across three to four synchronous cell cycles, allowing unprecedented resolution of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. We used this assay to screen Forkhead transcription factors for control of periodic gene expression. We confirmed a role for FOXM1 and identified two novel ...


The Role Of Ezh2 In The Regulation Of The Activity Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Prostate Cancer Cells., Yong Jae Shin, Jeong-Ho Kim Jan 2012

The Role Of Ezh2 In The Regulation Of The Activity Of Matrix Metalloproteinases In Prostate Cancer Cells., Yong Jae Shin, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), a critical step in cancer metastasis, is determined by the balance between MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and their inhibitors TIMPs (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases). In cancer cells, this balance is shifted towards MMPs, promoting ECM degradation. Here, we show that EZH2 plays an active role in this process by repressing the expression of TIMP2 and TIMP3 in prostate cancer cells. The TIMP genes are derepressed by knockdown of EZH2 expression in human prostate cancer cells but repressed by overexpression of EZH2 in benign human prostate epithelial cells. EZH2 catalyzes H3K27 trimethylation and subsequent DNA methylation ...


Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo Nov 2011

Differential Il-21 Signaling In Apcs Leads To Disparate Th17 Differentiation In Diabetes-Susceptible Nod And Diabetes-Resistant Nod.Idd3 Mice., Sue M. Liu, David H. Lee, Jenna M. Sullivan, Denise Chung, Anneli Jäger, Bennett O V. Shum, Nora E. Sarvetnick, Ana C. Anderson, Vijay K. Kuchroo

Journal Articles: Regenerative Medicine

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that shows familial aggregation in humans and likely has genetic determinants. Disease linkage studies have revealed many susceptibility loci for T1D in mice and humans. The mouse T1D susceptibility locus insulin-dependent diabetes susceptibility 3 (Idd3), which has a homologous genetic interval in humans, encodes cytokine genes Il2 and Il21 and regulates diabetes and other autoimmune diseases; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this regulation are still being elucidated. Here we show that T cells from NOD mice produce more Il21 and less Il2 and exhibit enhanced Th17 cell generation compared with ...


Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs Oct 2011

Splice Variant–Specific Cellular Function Of The Formin Inf2 In Maintenance Of Golgi Architecture, Vinay Ramabhadran, Farida Korobova, Gilbert J. Rahme, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

INF2 is a unique formin that can both polymerize and depolymerize actin filaments. Mutations in INF2 cause the kidney disease focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. INF2 can be expressed as two C-terminal splice variants: CAAX and non-CAAX. The CAAX isoform contains a C-terminal prenyl group and is tightly bound to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The localization pattern and cellular function of the non-CAAX isoform have not been studied. Here we find that the two isoforms are expressed in a cell type-dependent manner, with CAAX predominant in 3T3 fibroblasts and non-CAAX predominant in U2OS, HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Although INF2-CAAX is ER localized ...


Differential Interactions Of The Formins Inf2, Mdia1, And Mdia2 With Microtubules, Jeremie Gaillard, Bvinay Ramabhadran, Emmanuelle Neumanne, Pinar Gurel, Laurent Blanchoin, Marylin Vantard, Henry N. Higgs Sep 2011

Differential Interactions Of The Formins Inf2, Mdia1, And Mdia2 With Microtubules, Jeremie Gaillard, Bvinay Ramabhadran, Emmanuelle Neumanne, Pinar Gurel, Laurent Blanchoin, Marylin Vantard, Henry N. Higgs

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

A number of cellular processes use both microtubules and actin filaments, but the molecular machinery linking these two cytoskeletal elements remains to be elucidated in detail. Formins are actin-binding proteins that have multiple effects on actin dynamics, and one formin, mDia2, has been shown to bind and stabilize microtubules through its formin homology 2 (FH2) domain. Here we show that three formins, INF2, mDia1, and mDia2, display important differences in their interactions with microtubules and actin. Constructs containing FH1, FH2, and C-terminal domains of all three formins bind microtubules with high affinity (K(d) < 100 nM). However, only mDia2 binds microtubules at 1:1 stoichiometry, with INF2 and mDia1 showing saturating binding at approximately 1:3 (formin dimer:tubulin dimer). INF2-FH1FH2C is a potent microtubule-bundling protein, an effect that results in a large reduction in catastrophe rate. In contrast, neither mDia1 nor mDia2 is a potent microtubule bundler. The C-termini of mDia2 and INF2 have different functions in microtubule interaction, with mDia2's C-terminus required for high-affinity binding and INF2's C-terminus required for bundling. mDia2's C-terminus directly binds microtubules with submicromolar affinity. These formins also differ in their abilities to bind actin and microtubules simultaneously. Microtubules strongly inhibit actin polymerization by mDia2, whereas they moderately inhibit mDia1 and have no effect on INF2. Conversely, actin monomers inhibit microtubule binding/bundling by INF2 but do not affect mDia1 or mDia2. These differences in interactions with microtubules and actin suggest differential function in cellular processes requiring both cytoskeletal elements.


Serum- And Glucocorticoid-Induced Kinase 3 In Recycling Endosomes Mediates Acute Activation Of Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe3 By Glucocorticoids, Peijian He, Sei-Jung Lee, Songbai Lin, Ursula Seidler, Florian Lang, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, C. Chris Yun Aug 2011

Serum- And Glucocorticoid-Induced Kinase 3 In Recycling Endosomes Mediates Acute Activation Of Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe3 By Glucocorticoids, Peijian He, Sei-Jung Lee, Songbai Lin, Ursula Seidler, Florian Lang, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, C. Chris Yun

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) is the major Na(+) transporter in the intestine. Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) 1 interacts with NHE regulatory factor 2 (NHERF2) and mediates activation of NHE3 by dexamethasone (Dex) in cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we compared short-term regulation of NHE3 by Dex in SGK1-null and NHERF2-null mice. In comparison to wild-type mice, loss of SGK1 or NHERF2 significantly attenuated regulation of NHE3 by Dex but did not completely obliterate the effect. We show that transfection of SGK2 or SGK3 in PS120 cells resulted in robust activation of NHE3 by Dex. However, unlike SGK1 ...


What Is New For An Old Molecule? Systematic Review And Recommendations On The Use Of Resveratrol, Ole Vang, Nihal Ahmad, Karen Brown, Anna Csiszar, Thomas Szekeres, Thomas Walle, Joseph M. Wu Jun 2011

What Is New For An Old Molecule? Systematic Review And Recommendations On The Use Of Resveratrol, Ole Vang, Nihal Ahmad, Karen Brown, Anna Csiszar, Thomas Szekeres, Thomas Walle, Joseph M. Wu

NYMC Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a natural compound suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, people are consuming resveratrol for this reason without having the adequate scientific evidence for its effects in humans. Therefore, scientific valid recommendations concerning the human intake of resveratrol based on available published scientific data are necessary. Such recommendations were formulated after the Resveratrol 2010 conference, held in September 2010 in Helsingør, Denmark.

METHODOLOGY: Literature search in databases as PUBMED and ISI Web of Science in combination with manual search was used to answer the following five questions: (1)Can resveratrol be recommended in the prevention or treatment ...


The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson Sep 2010

The Mir-15/107 Group Of Microrna Genes: Evolutionary Biology, Cellular Functions, And Roles In Human Diseases, John R. Finnerty, Wang-Xia Wang, Sébastien S. Hébert, Bernard R. Wilfred, Guogen Mao, Peter T. Nelson

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

The miR-15/107 group of microRNA (miRNA) gene is increasingly appreciated to serve key functions in humans. These miRNAs regulate gene expression involved in cell division, metabolism, stress response, and angiogenesis in vertebrate species. The miR-15/107 group has also been implicated in human cancers, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide an overview of the following: (1) the evolution of miR-15/107 group member genes; (2) the expression levels of miRNAs in mammalian tissues; (3) evidence for overlapping gene-regulatory functions by different miRNAs; (4) the normal biochemical pathways regulated by miR-15/107 group miRNAs ...


Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller May 2010

Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Minimotifs are short peptide sequences within one protein, which are recognized by other proteins or molecules. While there are now several minimotif databases, they are incomplete. There are reports of many minimotifs in the primary literature, which have yet to be annotated, while entirely novel minimotifs continue to be published on a weekly basis. Our recently proposed function and sequence syntax for minimotifs enables us to build a general tool that will facilitate structured annotation and management of minimotif data from the biomedical literature.

RESULTS:

We have built the MimoSA application for minimotif annotation. The application supports management of ...


Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller Apr 2010

Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences in proteins that are known to have a function in at least one other protein. One of the principal limitations in minimotif prediction is that false positives limit the usefulness of this approach. As a step toward resolving this problem we have built, implemented, and tested a new data-driven algorithm that reduces false-positive predictions.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Certain domains and minimotifs are known to be strongly associated with a known cellular process or molecular function. Therefore, we hypothesized that by restricting minimotif predictions to those where the minimotif containing protein and target protein ...