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Articles 1 - 30 of 1606

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D May 2020

Analysis And Exploration Of Novel Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces Spp. In Spokane County, Washington, Kyle S. Kramer, Jenifer B. Walke Ph.D

2020 Symposium Posters

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a US citizen is infected by an antibiotic-resistant pathogen every 11 seconds, and every 15 minutes, a patient dies as a result of these infections. Due to the increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic microbes, the study and exploration of novel antibiotics from novel environments are imperative as infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this research is to investigate and analyze antibiotic-producing soil microbes in Spokane County, WA, with hopes of discovering novel antibiotic-producing microbes, specifically Streptomyces species, and explore some of ...


Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao May 2020

Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao

2020 Symposium Posters

Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...


Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson May 2020

Biological Physics Student Edition 2020: Chapter 1, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Chapter 1: What the Ancients Knew


Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey May 2020

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti Apr 2020

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Mutagenesis Of Claudins To Probe In Vivo Interactions And Assemblies, Currey Zalman, Alex J. Vecchio Apr 2020

Mutagenesis Of Claudins To Probe In Vivo Interactions And Assemblies, Currey Zalman, Alex J. Vecchio

UCARE Research Products

Paracellular transport of solutes and the control of the flow of molecules through the intracellular space in vertebrate epithelia is directed by tight junctions (TJs). Claudins form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This investigation attempts to explain the molecular bases for destruction and reconstruction of tight junctions within epithelial cells, occurring via both natural and disease-causing mechanisms. This interdisciplinary research is important in the advancement of our understanding of human biology and health, as different disruptions to epithelial tight junctions are hallmarks of many human diseases. The overall objective was to take previously made Claudin containing ...


Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov Apr 2020

Transcriptomic Profiling Reveals Extraordinary Diversity Of Venom Peptides In Unexplored Predatory Gastropods Of The Genus Clavus, Aiping Lu, Maren Watkins, Qing Li, Samuel D. Robinson, Gisela P. Concepcion, Mark Yandell, Zhiping Weng, Baldomero M. Olivera, Helena Safavi-Hemami, Alexander E. Fedosov

Open Access Articles

Predatory gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea number over 12,000 living species. The evolutionary success of this lineage can be explained by the ability of conoideans to produce complex venoms for hunting, defense and competitive interactions. Whereas venoms of cone snails (family Conidae) have become increasingly well studied, the venoms of most other conoidean lineages remain largely uncharacterized. In the present study we present the venom gland transcriptomes of two species of the genus Clavus that belong to the family Drilliidae. Venom gland transcriptomes of two specimens of Clavus canalicularis, and two specimens of Cv. davidgilmouri were analyzed, leading to ...


Methylation Of Salmonella Typhimurium Flagella Promotes Bacterial Adhesion And Host Cell Invasion, Julia A Horstmann, Michele Lunelli, Hélène Cazzola, Johannes Heidemann, Caroline Kühne, Pascal Steffen, Sandra Szefs, Claire Rossi, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chu Wang, Laurine Lemaire, Kelly T Hughes, Charlotte Uetrecht, Hartmut Schlüter, Guntram A Grassl, Theresia E B Stradal, Yannick Rossez, Michael Kolbe, Marc Erhardt Apr 2020

Methylation Of Salmonella Typhimurium Flagella Promotes Bacterial Adhesion And Host Cell Invasion, Julia A Horstmann, Michele Lunelli, Hélène Cazzola, Johannes Heidemann, Caroline Kühne, Pascal Steffen, Sandra Szefs, Claire Rossi, Ravi K Lokareddy, Chu Wang, Laurine Lemaire, Kelly T Hughes, Charlotte Uetrecht, Hartmut Schlüter, Guntram A Grassl, Theresia E B Stradal, Yannick Rossez, Michael Kolbe, Marc Erhardt

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The long external filament of bacterial flagella is composed of several thousand copies of a single protein, flagellin. Here, we explore the role played by lysine methylation of flagellin in Salmonella, which requires the methylase FliB. We show that both flagellins of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, FliC and FljB, are methylated at surface-exposed lysine residues by FliB. A Salmonella Typhimurium mutant deficient in flagellin methylation is outcompeted for gut colonization in a gastroenteritis mouse model, and methylation of flagellin promotes bacterial invasion of epithelial cells in vitro. Lysine methylation increases the surface hydrophobicity of flagellin, and enhances flagella-dependent adhesion of ...


Possible Roles For Essential Oils In Chemoprevention And Suppression Of Cancer, Chad Kirk Lillestolen Apr 2020

Possible Roles For Essential Oils In Chemoprevention And Suppression Of Cancer, Chad Kirk Lillestolen

Senior Honors Theses

Cancer represents one of the costliest and most prevalent diseases to afflict the modern world, even though treatments have evolved steadily over the years and produce an increasingly positive outlook with each development and innovation. Essential oils have been used medicinally- among other purposes- for thousands of years and have begun to attract attention for possible applications to the field of oncology. Numerous investigations and publications have shed light on the possible chemopreventative (antioxidant and antimetastatic) uses of these oils, alongside cancer suppressive (apoptosis-inducing and cytotoxic) abilities that they may possess. With the high annual incidence of cancer and the ...


Progress Presentation On The Proposed Function Of Protein 4diu Through Bioinformatics Analyses, Melissa Hoff Apr 2020

Progress Presentation On The Proposed Function Of Protein 4diu Through Bioinformatics Analyses, Melissa Hoff

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Presentations

The BASIL project is a scientific inquiry project that aims to determine the function of a protein from its structure. Biochemistry students completed wet lab work, while structural biology students worked in silico. The purpose of this study was to determine the function of the protein with PDB ID: 4DIU. Bioinformatics analyses were completed using several databases: BLAST, Dali, Pfam, and Moltimate, and imaging of the protein was completed using PyMOL software. The BLAST database aligned the primary sequence with known protein sequences. The Dali database compared protein structure with known structures through global alignment. The Pfam database matched our ...


Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler Apr 2020

Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare primary liver cancer, differs from the most common liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, as FL-HCC is not correlated with chronic liver diseases. Mayo Clinic conducted a proteomic screening and found the proline biosynthetic pathway to be dysregulated in FL-HCC patients. In liver cells, free proline has been shown to induce the mTOR pathway, which stimulates cell proliferation through upregulation of full-length Cyclin E (FL-E). In addition, FL-E can be partially cleaved by an enzyme called serine protease neutrophil elastase, creating low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) that has been linked to tumorigenesis. To further investigate ...


The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman Apr 2020

The Role Of Diet In The Onset Of Depression: A Biochemical Connection Between Nutrition And Mental Health, Katlin Wildeman

Senior Honors Theses

Depression is a major clinical concern, having a complex onset and the presence of multiple, often unidentifiable causes. Depression affects millions of individuals worldwide, with a high prevalence in regions of the world with a Western-style diet as compared to regions with a Mediterranean diet. A Western-style diet consists of foods high in sugar, fat, and processed meats and grains, whereas the Mediterranean diet contains significantly more vegetables, fruits, lean meats, and whole grains. The link between diet and mental health disorders has implications for individuals of all ages who are hesitant to turn to medication. In addition to presenting ...


The Classification Of An Unknown Protein 3h04, Britney Dyszel Apr 2020

The Classification Of An Unknown Protein 3h04, Britney Dyszel

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Presentations

An unclassified protein in the Protein Data Bank, 3H04, was selected as a protein of interest. Research was performed in silico to gain key information on the structure, sequence, and homology of protein 3H04. This research was guided using the BASIL Project’s protocols on in silico research. Several databases were utilized to study protein 3H04. Based on the data gathered, unclassified protein 3H04 is an aminopeptidase that cleaves prolyl-dipeptidyl peptide bonds through alpha beta hydrolase function.


Dbf4-Dependent Kinase (Ddk)-Mediated Proteolysis Of Cenp-A Prevents Mislocalization Of Cenp-A In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica R. Eisenstatt, Lars Boeckmann, Wei-Chun Au, Valerie Garcia, Levi Bursch, Josefina Ocampo, Michael Costanzo, Michael Weinreich, Robert A. Sclafani, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Chad L. Myers, Charles Boone, David J. Clark, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai Apr 2020

Dbf4-Dependent Kinase (Ddk)-Mediated Proteolysis Of Cenp-A Prevents Mislocalization Of Cenp-A In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica R. Eisenstatt, Lars Boeckmann, Wei-Chun Au, Valerie Garcia, Levi Bursch, Josefina Ocampo, Michael Costanzo, Michael Weinreich, Robert A. Sclafani, Anastasia Baryshnikova, Chad L. Myers, Charles Boone, David J. Clark, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai

Open Access Articles

The evolutionarily conserved centromeric histone H3 variant (Cse4 in budding yeast, CENP-A in humans) is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mislocalization of CENP-A to non-centromeric chromatin contributes to chromosomal instability (CIN) in yeast, fly, and human cells and CENP-A is highly expressed and mislocalized in cancers. Defining mechanisms that prevent mislocalization of CENP-A is an area of active investigation. Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of overexpressed Cse4 (GALCSE4) by E3 ubiquitin ligases such as Psh1 prevents mislocalization of Cse4, and psh1Delta strains display synthetic dosage lethality (SDL) with GALCSE4. We previously performed a genome-wide screen and identified five alleles of CDC7 and DBF4 ...


Interpretation Of The Epigenetic Signature Of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy In Light Of Genotype-Phenotype Studies, Ana Nikolic, Louise Maranda, Rossella Ginevra Tupler Apr 2020

Interpretation Of The Epigenetic Signature Of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy In Light Of Genotype-Phenotype Studies, Ana Nikolic, Louise Maranda, Rossella Ginevra Tupler

Open Access Articles

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by incomplete penetrance and intra-familial clinical variability. The disease has been associated with the genetic and epigenetic features of the D4Z4 repetitive elements at 4q35. Recently, D4Z4 hypomethylation has been proposed as a reliable marker in the FSHD diagnosis. We exploited the Italian Registry for FSHD, in which FSHD families are classified using the Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation Form (CCEF). A total of 122 index cases showing a classical FSHD phenotype (CCEF, category A) and 110 relatives were selected to test with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the diagnostic and predictive value of D4Z4 ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland Citrullinome, Guangyuan Li, Coleman H. Young, Bryce Snow, Amanda O. Christensen, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Venkatesh V. Nemmara, Paul R. Thompson, Heather M. Rothfuss, Brian D. Cherrington Apr 2020

Identification And Characterization Of The Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland Citrullinome, Guangyuan Li, Coleman H. Young, Bryce Snow, Amanda O. Christensen, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Venkatesh V. Nemmara, Paul R. Thompson, Heather M. Rothfuss, Brian D. Cherrington

Open Access Articles

Citrullination is a post-translational modification (PTM) in which positively charged peptidyl-arginine is converted into neutral peptidyl-citrulline by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD or PADI) enzymes. The full protein citrullinome in many tissues is unknown. Herein, we used mass spectrometry and identified 107 citrullinated proteins in the lactation day 9 (L9) mouse mammary gland including histone H2A, alpha-tubulin, and beta-casein. Given the importance of prolactin to lactation, we next tested if it stimulates PAD-catalyzed citrullination using mouse mammary epithelial CID-9 cells. Stimulation of CID-9 cells with 5 microg/mL prolactin for 10 min induced a 2-fold increase in histone H2A citrullination and a ...


Methylxanthines Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase And Monoamine Oxidase Activities Of Human Adipose Tissue, Wiem Haj Ahmed, CéCile Peiro, Jessica Fontaine, Barry J. Ryan, Gemma K. Kinsella, Jeff O’Sullivan, Jean-Louis Grolleau, Gary T.M. Henehan, Christian CarpéNé Apr 2020

Methylxanthines Inhibit Primary Amine Oxidase And Monoamine Oxidase Activities Of Human Adipose Tissue, Wiem Haj Ahmed, CéCile Peiro, Jessica Fontaine, Barry J. Ryan, Gemma K. Kinsella, Jeff O’Sullivan, Jean-Louis Grolleau, Gary T.M. Henehan, Christian CarpéNé

Articles

Abstract: Background: Methylxanthines including caffeine and theobromine are widely consumed compounds and were recently shown to interact with bovine copper-containing amine oxidase. To the best of our knowledge, no direct demonstration of any interplay between these phytochemicals and human primary amine oxidase (PrAO) has been reported to date. We took advantage of the coexistence of PrAO and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (hScAT) to test the interaction between several methylxanthines and these enzymes, which are involved in many key pathophysiological processes. Methods: Benzylamine, methylamine, and tyramine were used as substrates for PrAO and MAO in homogenates ...


Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette Apr 2020

Genome Sequencing Analysis Of Laboratory Isolate Of Francisella Noatunensis Subs. Orientalis, Joseph Paquette

Senior Honors Projects

Francisella noatunensis subs. orientalis is a known fish pathogen that has been most notably isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Costa Rica. The genome of this Francisella species pathogen has been sequenced using Next-Generation Sequencing and been made available for the scientific community. Dr. Kathryn Ramsey’s research laboratory in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Rhode Island works with several Francisella species pathogens and is interested in identifying the differences, if any, between the known genome sequence of Francisella noatunensis and that of a laboratory isolate of the same species. With the use of ...


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech Apr 2020

Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diminished glucose lowering effect of insulin in obesity, called "insulin resistance," is associated with glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, and other serious maladies. Many publications on this topic have suggested numerous hypotheses on the molecular and cellular disruptions that contribute to the syndrome. However, significant uncertainty remains on the mechanisms of its initiation and long-term maintenance.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: To simplify insulin resistance analysis, this review focuses on the unifying concept that adipose tissue is a central regulator of systemic glucose homeostasis by controlling liver and skeletal muscle metabolism. Key aspects of adipose function related to insulin resistance ...


Mixed-Lineage Kinase-3 (Mlk3) Plays A Negative Modulatory Role In Insulin Secretion From The Pancreatic Β-Cell, Tyler Russeth, Vijayalakshmi Thamilselvan, Anjaneyulu Kowluru Mar 2020

Mixed-Lineage Kinase-3 (Mlk3) Plays A Negative Modulatory Role In Insulin Secretion From The Pancreatic Β-Cell, Tyler Russeth, Vijayalakshmi Thamilselvan, Anjaneyulu Kowluru

Medical Student Research Symposium

Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic β-cell in response to elevated levels of glucose is controlled by a variety of signals including intracellular calcium and nucleotides such as cAMP, ATP and GTP. These cellular signals are responsible for activation of specific kinases that mediate phosphorylation of key exocytotic proteins that lead to GSIS. In the context of protein kinases, mixed-lineage kinases (MLKs) have been implicated in an assortment of cellular functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, very little is known on potential regulatory roles of MLKs in islet β-cell function, including GSIS. The goal of this study is ...


Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Mar 2020

Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although many features of embryonic development exhibit remarkable stability in the face of environmental perturbations, it is also clear that some aspects of early embryogenesis can be modulated by non-genetic influences during and after fertilization. Among potential perturbations experienced during reproduction, understanding the consequences of differing ex vivo fertilization methods at a molecular level is imperative for comprehending both the basic biology of early development and the potential consequences of assisted reproduction. Here, we set out to explore stable and flexible aspects of preimplantation gene expression using single-embryo RNA-sequencing of mouse embryos fertilized by natural mating, in vitro fertilization, or ...


Liver-Directed But Not Muscle-Directed Aav-Antibody Gene Transfer Limits Humoral Immune Responses In Rhesus Monkeys, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Eva G. Rakasz, Guangping Gao, Ronald C. Desrosiers Mar 2020

Liver-Directed But Not Muscle-Directed Aav-Antibody Gene Transfer Limits Humoral Immune Responses In Rhesus Monkeys, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Eva G. Rakasz, Guangping Gao, Ronald C. Desrosiers

Open Access Articles

A number of publications have described the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) for the delivery of anti-HIV and anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to rhesus monkeys. Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) have been frequently observed, and long-term AAV-mediated delivery has been inconsistent. Here, we investigated different AAV vector strategies and delivery schemes to rhesus monkeys using the rhesus monkey mAb 4L6. We compared 4L6 immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) delivery using the AAV1 versus the AAV8 serotype with a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the use of a muscle-specific versus a liver-specific promoter. Long-term expression levels of 4L6 IgG1 following AAV8-mediated gene transfer ...


Muscle-Directed Delivery Of An Aav1 Vector Leads To Capsid-Specific T Cell Exhaustion In Nonhuman Primates And Humans, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M. Gruntman, Meghan Blackwood, Marina Zieger, Terence R. Flotte, Christian Mueller Mar 2020

Muscle-Directed Delivery Of An Aav1 Vector Leads To Capsid-Specific T Cell Exhaustion In Nonhuman Primates And Humans, Gwladys Gernoux, Alisha M. Gruntman, Meghan Blackwood, Marina Zieger, Terence R. Flotte, Christian Mueller

Open Access Articles

With the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) approvals for Zolgensma, Luxturna, and Glybera, recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are considered efficient tools for gene transfer. However, studies in animals and humans demonstrate that intramuscular (IM) AAV delivery can trigger immune responses to AAV capsids and/or transgenes. IM delivery of rAAV1 in humans has also been described to induce tolerance to rAAV characterized by the presence of capsid-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs) in periphery. To understand mechanisms responsible for tolerance and parameters involved, we tested 3 muscle-directed administration routes in rhesus monkeys: IM delivery, venous ...


A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse Mar 2020

A Halogen Bonding Perspective On Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity, Eric S. Marsan, Craig A. Bayse

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) are involved in the regioselective removal of iodine from thyroid hormones (THs). Deiodination is essential to maintain TH homeostasis, and disruption can have detrimental effects. Halogen bonding (XB) to the selenium of the selenocysteine (Sec) residue in the Dio active site has been proposed to contribute to the mechanism for iodine removal. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known disruptors of various pathways of the endocrine system. Experimental evidence shows PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) can inhibit Dio, while data regarding PCB inhibition are limited. These xenobiotics could inhibit Dio activity by competitively ...


Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier Feb 2020

Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), two fatal age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The C9ORF72 expansion encodes five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that are produced through a non-canonical translation mechanism. Among the DPRs, proline-arginine (PR), glycine-arginine (GR), and glycine-alanine (GA) are the most neurotoxic and increase the frequency of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). While the accumulation of these genotoxic lesions is increasingly recognized as a feature of disease, the mechanism(s) of DPR-mediated DNA damage are ill-defined and the effect of DPRs on the efficiency ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminase Isozyme-Specific Pad2, Pad3 And Pad4 Inhibitors Differentially Modulate Extracellular Vesicle Signatures And Cell Invasion In Two Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines, Pinar Uysal-Onganer, Amy Maclatchy, Rayan Mahmoud, Igor Kraev, Paul R. Thompson, Jameel M. Inal, Sigrun Lange Feb 2020

Peptidylarginine Deiminase Isozyme-Specific Pad2, Pad3 And Pad4 Inhibitors Differentially Modulate Extracellular Vesicle Signatures And Cell Invasion In Two Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines, Pinar Uysal-Onganer, Amy Maclatchy, Rayan Mahmoud, Igor Kraev, Paul R. Thompson, Jameel M. Inal, Sigrun Lange

Open Access Articles

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive adult brain tumour with poor prognosis. Roles for peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) in GBM have recently been highlighted. Here, two GBM cell lines were treated with PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 isozyme-specific inhibitors. Effects were assessed on extracellular vesicle (EV) signatures, including EV-microRNA cargo (miR21, miR126 and miR210), and on changes in cellular protein expression relevant for mitochondrial housekeeping (prohibitin (PHB)) and cancer progression (stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM-1) and moesin), as well as assessing cell invasion. Overall, GBM cell-line specific differences for the three PAD isozyme-specific inhibitors were observed on modulation of EV-signatures, PHB, STIM-1 ...


Stride-A Fluorescence Method For Direct, Specific In Situ Detection Of Individual Single- Or Double-Strand Dna Breaks In Fixed Cells, Magdalena M. Kordon, Miroslaw Zarebski, Kamil Solarczyk, Hanhui Ma, Thoru Pederson, Jurek W. Dobrucki Feb 2020

Stride-A Fluorescence Method For Direct, Specific In Situ Detection Of Individual Single- Or Double-Strand Dna Breaks In Fixed Cells, Magdalena M. Kordon, Miroslaw Zarebski, Kamil Solarczyk, Hanhui Ma, Thoru Pederson, Jurek W. Dobrucki

Open Access Articles

We here describe a technique termed STRIDE (SensiTive Recognition of Individual DNA Ends), which enables highly sensitive, specific, direct in situ detection of single- or double-strand DNA breaks (sSTRIDE or dSTRIDE), in nuclei of single cells, using fluorescence microscopy. The sensitivity of STRIDE was tested using a specially developed CRISPR/Cas9 DNA damage induction system, capable of inducing small clusters or individual single- or double-strand breaks. STRIDE exhibits significantly higher sensitivity and specificity of detection of DNA breaks than the commonly used terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay or methods based on monitoring of recruitment of repair proteins or ...


Genome Of Tripterygium Wilfordii And Identification Of Cytochrome P450 Involved In Triptolide Biosynthesis, Lichan Tu, Ping Su, Zhongren Zhang, Linhui Gao, Jiadian Wang, Tianyuan Hu, Jiawei Zhou, Yifeng Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Yuan Liu, Yadi Song, Yuru Tong, Yun Lu, Jian Yang, Cao Xu, Meirong Jia, Reuben J. Peters, Luqi Huang, Wei Gao Feb 2020

Genome Of Tripterygium Wilfordii And Identification Of Cytochrome P450 Involved In Triptolide Biosynthesis, Lichan Tu, Ping Su, Zhongren Zhang, Linhui Gao, Jiadian Wang, Tianyuan Hu, Jiawei Zhou, Yifeng Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Yuan Liu, Yadi Song, Yuru Tong, Yun Lu, Jian Yang, Cao Xu, Meirong Jia, Reuben J. Peters, Luqi Huang, Wei Gao

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Triptolide is a trace natural product of Tripterygium wilfordii. It has antitumor activities, particularly against pancreatic cancer cells. Identification of genes and elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway leading to triptolide are the prerequisite for heterologous bioproduction. Here, we report a reference-grade genome of T. wilfordii with a contig N50 of 4.36 Mb. We show that copy numbers of triptolide biosynthetic pathway genes are impacted by a recent whole-genome triplication event. We further integrate genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data to map a gene-to-metabolite network. This leads to the identification of a cytochrome P450 (CYP728B70) that can catalyze oxidation of a ...


Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro Feb 2020

Conformational Changes In The Ebola Virus Membrane Fusion Machine Induced By Ph, Ca2+, And Receptor Binding, Dibyendu Kumar Das, Uriel Bulow, William E. Diehl, Natasha D. Durham, Fernando Senjobe, Kartik Chandran, Jeremy Luban, James B. Munro

Open Access Articles

The Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope glycoprotein (GP) is a membrane fusion machine required for virus entry into cells. Following endocytosis of EBOV, the GP1 domain is cleaved by cellular cathepsins in acidic endosomes, removing the glycan cap and exposing a binding site for the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) receptor. NPC1 binding to cleaved GP1 is required for entry. How this interaction translates to GP2 domain-mediated fusion of viral and endosomal membranes is not known. Here, using a bulk fluorescence dequenching assay and single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET)-imaging, we found that acidic pH, Ca2+, and NPC1 binding synergistically induce conformational ...