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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari Aug 2019

Investigation Of Microbiota In Health And Disease Of Poultry, Bishnu Adhikari

Theses and Dissertations

The microbiotas play vital roles in health and diseases of both humans and animals. 16S rRNA genes sequence analysis is one of the most popular and commonly used methods in the analysis of microbiotas associated with hosts. In this dissertation, the microbiotas of chickens (broilers, breeders, and layers) and turkeys were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Characterization of the culturable subpopulations of Lactobacillus in the chicken gut can serve as a valuable resource for probiotic development. In Chapter 2, Lactobacillus subpopulations recovered on MRS from chicken gut were defined comprehensively for the first time using 16S rRNA gene profiling ...


Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston Aug 2019

Flavobacterium Gliding Motility: From Protein Secretion To Cell Surface Adhesin Movements, Joseph Johnston

Theses and Dissertations

Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits rapid gliding motility over surfaces. At least twenty genes are involved in this process. Seven of these, gldK, gldL, gldM, gldN, sprA, sprE, and sprT encode proteins of the type IX protein secretion system (T9SS). The T9SS is required for surface localization of the motility adhesins SprB and RemA, and for secretion of the soluble chitinase ChiA. This thesis demonstrates that the gliding motility proteins GldA, GldB, GldD, GldF, GldH, GldI and GldJ are also essential for secretion. Cells with mutations in the genes encoding any of these seven proteins had normal levels of gldK mRNA but ...


Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter May 2019

Hormone Signaling, Gene Expression, And Mitochondrial Hormone Receptor Expression In Avian Muscle (Cells), Kentu Rushadd Lassiter

Theses and Dissertations

Mitochondria are vital to the proper growth and function of muscle cells since they’re responsible for the majority of ATP production used for cellular energy. Previous studies have investigated how differences in mitochondrial function affects feed efficiency (FE) in broilers phenotyped for High and Low FE. Low FE broilers have been shown to have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to higher levels of oxidative stress and damage seen in these birds. Global gene and protein expression studies conducted on breast muscle of the High FE and Low FE phenotypes have suggested that differences in mitochondrial ...


Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany May 2019

Spatial Reorganization Of Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Proteins Caused By Silver Nanoparticles, Meaad Alqahtany

Theses and Dissertations

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ions (Ag+) can be the new generation of antibiotics due to their antimicrobial effects against bacteria and other microbes. Many studies have shown that AgNPs and suppress the growth of bacteria and damage the cell walls of the microbes; therefore, treating bacterial cells with AgNPs may be a promising method to terminate multi-resistant bacteria. In this work, the effect of AgNPs with two different surface coatings on the spatial reorganization of histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) proteins in Escherichia coli bacteria was investigated using quantitative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to understand the toxicity and antimicrobial mechanism of AgNPs ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...