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Articles 31 - 44 of 44

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll Aug 2012

Angiotensinogen Gene Silencing Reduces Lipid Accumulation And Inflammation In Cultured 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Wenting Xin Carroll

Masters Theses

Obesity is characterized by metabolic complications which are related to several life-threatening diseases. Dysregulated inflammatory adipokines secretion from adipose tissue is believed as the major contributor to obesity-associated local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and other metabolic dysfunctions.

Numerous studies in our lab and others pointed to the role of local adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that adipocytes-derived angiotensinogen (Agt) played a critical role in adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis as well as adipose inflammation. To test, we established 3T3-L1 preadipocytes stably transfected with Agt-shRNA or scrambled sequence (Sc-shRNA). Transfected ...


Elucidating The Effect Of Silver On Ethylene Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Brittany Kathleen Mcdaniel May 2012

Elucidating The Effect Of Silver On Ethylene Signaling In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Brittany Kathleen Mcdaniel

Masters Theses

Ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, is involved in numerous plant developmental processes such as seed germination, senescence, and fruit ripening. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ethylene is perceived by a family of five membrane-bound receptors, which upon binding ethylene trigger downstream effects. At the receptor level, it is known that the coordination of a copper ion is necessary for ethylene to bind, resulting in a conformational change of the receptor and the initiation of the ethylene signal transduction pathway. Interestingly, silver ions are also able to support binding of ethylene but ethylene responses are blocked in the presence of silver. When etiolated ...


Genetic Basis Of Flocculation In Azospirillum Brasilense., Priyanka Satish Mishra May 2012

Genetic Basis Of Flocculation In Azospirillum Brasilense., Priyanka Satish Mishra

Masters Theses

Azospirillum brasilense is a class of rhizobacteria capable of nitrogen fixation, root colonization and hence promoting host plant growth. The bacteria posses cell interaction behaviors like clumping and flocculation that contribute the survival of the organism in nutrient limited conditions. Change in the cell surface adhesive properties allows the cells to progress from free swimming to clumping and finally flocculation. Less is known about the genetic regulation of these processes with flcA being the only transcriptional regulator known so far to directly control flocculation. Recent evidence suggesting that Che1, a chemotaxis like signal transduction pathway controls the cell behavior clumping ...


Examining The Roles Of Pstoc75 Potra Domains In Chloroplast Protein Import, Richard Franklin Simmerman Aug 2011

Examining The Roles Of Pstoc75 Potra Domains In Chloroplast Protein Import, Richard Franklin Simmerman

Masters Theses

During chloroplast formation via endosymbiosis most of the plastid genome was transferred to the host nuclear genome. Genomic and proteomic analysis suggests that >95% of the original plastid proteome is now encoded in the nucleus, and these now cytosolically fabricated proteins require a post-translational transport pathway back into the organelle. This process is not well understood, yet it has been shown to involve translocons at the outer and inner envelope of the chloroplast membranes (TOC & TIC). These translocons interact with a cleavable N-terminal extension of between 20 and 100 residues on chloroplast-bound precursor proteins known as the transit-peptide. Precursor proteins ...


The Effects Of Bisphenol A On Adipose Tissue Development, Metabolism, And Endocrine Function And The Role It May Play In The Development Of Obesity, Brantley Nelson Wyatt May 2011

The Effects Of Bisphenol A On Adipose Tissue Development, Metabolism, And Endocrine Function And The Role It May Play In The Development Of Obesity, Brantley Nelson Wyatt

Masters Theses

While diet and sedentary lifestyle remain important factors in the development of obesity, recent findings have shown the possible involvement of environmental obesogens, chemicals that can disrupt homeostatic energy balance and increase adiposity. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a compound used in the manufacturing of plastics as a hardening agent and is ubiquitous in the environment due to its widespread use. BPA has been shown to be an endocrine disruptor through its ability to mimic estrogen, which is now known to play important roles in adipose tissue growth and metabolism. In fact, a small but compelling number of studies have shown ...


Ancient Mitochondrial Dna From Pre-Historic Southeastern Europe: The Presence Of East Eurasian Haplogroups Provides Evidence Of Interactions With South Siberians Across The Central Asian Steppe Belt, Jeremy R. Newton Apr 2011

Ancient Mitochondrial Dna From Pre-Historic Southeastern Europe: The Presence Of East Eurasian Haplogroups Provides Evidence Of Interactions With South Siberians Across The Central Asian Steppe Belt, Jeremy R. Newton

Masters Theses

Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism have provided valuable insights for understanding patterns of human migration and interaction. The ability to recover ancient mtDNA sequence data from post-mortem bone and tissue samples allows us to view snapshots of historic gene pools firsthand, provided that great care is taken to prevent sample contamination. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequence of the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of the mtDNA control region, as well as a portion of the coding region, in 14 individuals from three collective burials from the Neolithic Dnieper-Donetz culture and three individuals from Bronze Age Kurgan burials ...


Structural And Functional Analysis Of Toc75, Ashita Mukul Dave Dec 2010

Structural And Functional Analysis Of Toc75, Ashita Mukul Dave

Masters Theses

The majority of chloroplast proteins are nuclear-encoded and post-translationally imported into the chloroplast. These newly imported proteins are translocated from the cytosolic compartment to the stroma by the Translocons of the Outer/Inner membranes of Chloroplast (TOC/TIC). In order to understand protein transport across the chloroplast outer membrane, it is crucial to investigate the structure and function of these complexes. The TOC complex is composed of the beta-barrel channel protein Toc75 and the GTPase receptors Toc34 and Toc159.

Toc75 is a member of the OMP85 (Outer Member Protein, 85 kDa) superfamily. Other proteins of the OMP85 superfamily also exist ...


Study Of The Structure And Function Of Cxc Chemokine Receptor 2, Hae Ryong Kwon Dec 2010

Study Of The Structure And Function Of Cxc Chemokine Receptor 2, Hae Ryong Kwon

Masters Theses

It has been shown that the amino terminus and second extracellular loop (EC2) of CXCR2 are crucial for ligand binding and receptor activation. The lack of an ionic lock motif in the third intracellular loop of CXCR2 focuses an investigation of the mechanism by which these two extracellular regions contribute to receptor recognition and activation.

The first objective of this investigation was to predict the structure of CXCR2 based on known structures of crystallized GPCRs. Rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic receptor, CXCR4 were used for homology modeling of CXCR2 structure. Highly conserved motifs found in sequence alignments of the template GPCRs were helpful ...


Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades Aug 2010

Four Aspects Of Dogwood Pollination: Insect Visitation, A Novel Approach To Identify Pollen, Floral Volatile Emission, And Tracking Parentage, Paul Raymond Rhoades

Masters Theses

Part 1: Visitation of potential pollinators to Cornus florida and C. kousa flowers was assessed in East Tennessee in 2008 and 2009. Data regarding insect visitation rates to multiple trees per location were gathered throughout the flowering period. Diurnal and seasonal variations in visitation were recorded. Pollen coverage was assessed on portions of captured insect exoskeletons that were most likely to contact the stigma. Eleven families in four insect orders were collected from C. florida and 26 families in five orders from C. kousa. The most important pollinators in eastern Tennessee were bees in the Andrenidae and Halictidae. The most ...


Kinetic Analysis Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh2- Msh6 Dna Binding And Atpase Activities, Jie Zhai May 2010

Kinetic Analysis Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh2- Msh6 Dna Binding And Atpase Activities, Jie Zhai

Masters Theses

The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) identifies replication errors and damaged bases in DNA and takes corrective actions to preserve genomic integrity. MutS performs the task of locating mismatched base pairs, loops and lesions and initiating MMR, and the fundamental question of how this protein targets specific sites for MMR is unresolved. To address this question, we examined the interactions between S. cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6, a eukaryotic MutS homolog, and DNA in real time. The reaction kinetics reveal that Msh2-Msh6 binds a variety of sites at similarly fast rates (kON ~ 107 M-1 s-1). Msh2-Msh6 selectivity manifests in differential dissociation rates; e ...


Linkage Analysis Of Caffeine Resistance And Circadian Rhythm In Caffeine-Treated Ddt Resistant And Susceptible Strains Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Chandrashis Bhowmick Aug 2007

Linkage Analysis Of Caffeine Resistance And Circadian Rhythm In Caffeine-Treated Ddt Resistant And Susceptible Strains Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Chandrashis Bhowmick

Masters Theses

Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, many plant products and various drug preparations. It is the most consumed common psychoactive drug around the world. Consumption of caffeine causes several behavioral and physiological responses in humans and other mammals. Caffeine is also known to be an insect repellant and can be used as an insecticide. As observed in mammals, caffeine treatment increases the locomotor activity in insects including Drosophila. However, very little is known about genetic and molecular basis of caffeine sensitivity and action in insects. In the present study, I have used DDT resistant (91-R) and susceptible (91-C ...


Studies On The Mechanisms Of Homolog Pairing And Sister Chromatid Cohesion During Drosophila Male Meiosis, Jian Ma Aug 2007

Studies On The Mechanisms Of Homolog Pairing And Sister Chromatid Cohesion During Drosophila Male Meiosis, Jian Ma

Masters Theses

Meiosis is a complex process involving one round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell divisions. The proper segregation of homologs at meiosis I and sister chromatids during meiosis II is essential for the survival of the offspring. Aberrant chromosome segregation at any stage of meiosis can lead to aneuploidy. Meiotic chromosome segregation without crossing over or chiasmata is a widespread but poorly understand chromosome segregation pathway. In male Drosophila meiosis the absence of recombination in chromosomes makes it easier to identify mutations which influence homologous chromosome pairing and segregation.

Modifier of Mdg4 in Meiosis (MNM), a protein ...


The Effects Of Acute Ethanol Treatment On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus In Adult Male Mice, Charles Andrew Mangrum May 2007

The Effects Of Acute Ethanol Treatment On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus In Adult Male Mice, Charles Andrew Mangrum

Masters Theses

Light is the primary entraining signal for the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Light entering the eye leads to release of glutamate directly onto SCN neurons where it binds to N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors initiating a cascade of cellular processes that ultimately modulates clock phase. SCN neurons show a 24-hour rhythm in neuronal activity that peaks in the middle of the day when isolated in a brain slice preparation. Treatments that phase-shift the SCN clock in vivo have been shown similarly to shift this rhythm of neuronal activity in vitro. Here, I have investigated the ...


Comparison Of Surface Polysaccharides Of R. Leguminosarum Anu57 (Exo-1), R. Leg. Anu57(Pbr1an) (Nod+, Nif-), And R. Leg. Anu57(Pjb5j1) (Nod+, Nif-), Frank G. Hustmyer Jan 1984

Comparison Of Surface Polysaccharides Of R. Leguminosarum Anu57 (Exo-1), R. Leg. Anu57(Pbr1an) (Nod+, Nif-), And R. Leg. Anu57(Pjb5j1) (Nod+, Nif-), Frank G. Hustmyer

Masters Theses

Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are suspected to be involved in the legume/Rhizobium symbiotic process. Polysaccharide compositions from the EPS, LPS, capsular polysaccharide (CPS), and small polysaccharide (SmPS) were compared between Rhizobium leguminosarum ANU57 (parent, Exo-1) and two mutants R. leg. ANU57(pBR1AN) (nod+, nif-) and R. leg. ANU57(pJB5J1) (nod+, nif-) both containing a Sym (symbiotic) plasmid insertion. R. leg. ANU57(pBR1AN) and R. leg. ANU57(pJB5J1) are nod+ on clover and peas, respectively. The nod+ mutants produce larger amounts of EPS and decreased amounts of LPS compared to the parental strain. However, the EPS found ...