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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande Jan 2018

Role Of Sirna Pathway In Epigenetic Modifications Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Nikita Deshpande

Wayne State University Dissertations

Eukaryotic genomes are organized into large domains of coordinated regulation. The role of small RNAs in formation of these domains is largely unexplored. An extraordinary example of domain-wide regulation is X chromosome compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males. This process occurs by hypertranscription of genes on the single male X chromosome. Extensive research in this field has shown that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex binds X-linked genes and modifies chromatin to increase expression. The components of this complex, and their actions on chromatin, are well studied. In contrast, the mechanism that results in exclusive recruitment to the X chromosome is ...


The Effect Of Acetylation Of Cytochrome C On Its Functions In Prostate Cancer, Viktoriia Bazylianska Jan 2017

The Effect Of Acetylation Of Cytochrome C On Its Functions In Prostate Cancer, Viktoriia Bazylianska

Wayne State University Theses

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in America. The progression of cancer goes along with the Warburg effect, a metabolic switch from depending primarily on mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis. In addition, cancer cells manage to evade apoptosis. Cell signaling, via posttranslational modifications (PTMs), is one of the most important means of regulation, and most commonly dysregulated in cancer. In prostate cancer, androgen signaling plays a crucial role in driving cell proliferation.

Mammalian Cytochrome c (Cytc) is a multifunctional protein involved in cellular life and death decision. It is an essential component of the electron ...


Patholigical And Prognostic Role Of Mdig In Pancreatic Cancer, Srinivas Ashok Kumar Jan 2017

Patholigical And Prognostic Role Of Mdig In Pancreatic Cancer, Srinivas Ashok Kumar

Wayne State University Theses

Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignant disease having very limited therapeutic options that ultimately results in its poor prognosis. It is still elusive on the etiology and tumorigenic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer. In the present report, we provide evidence showing involvement of the mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) in the pathogenesis and prognosis of the pancreatic cancer. Using immunohistochemistry approach on human pancreatic cancer tissue microarray, we found differential expression of mdig in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and normal pancreas. Based on the staining intensities of mdig in these tissue samples, we found that 12% of the cancer tissues were strongly positive ...


Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Virion Assembly Complex: Structure In Vivo And Role Of Pul103 In Its Biogenesis, Ma Christina Raye Lim Jan 2017

Human Cytomegalovirus Cytoplasmic Virion Assembly Complex: Structure In Vivo And Role Of Pul103 In Its Biogenesis, Ma Christina Raye Lim

Wayne State University Theses

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a linear, double stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in the immunocompromised, and is one of the common cause of congenital disease. Antivirals that are currently available for treatment target the DNA replication of the virus cycle, and are highly toxic. Finding new drug targets, such as proteins responsible for virion assembly and egress, would help to alleviate the disease burden.

HCMV remodels the host cell to form a structure called the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC), a site of virion maturation and egress. The first objective of this work is to study the structure ...


Elucidating Structure, Function, And Small Molecular Interactions Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Chikungunya Virus, Kristin Nicole Slater Jan 2017

Elucidating Structure, Function, And Small Molecular Interactions Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus And Chikungunya Virus, Kristin Nicole Slater

Wayne State University Theses

Abstract HIV-1:

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a widespread, incurable retrovirus known to cause

immunodeficiency and a shortened life span. Despite successful treatment methods, HIV-1

frequently mutates, resulting in antiviral resistance. Many therapies target the HIV-1 protease

(PR), which is responsible for cleaving the viral polyprotein essential for its life cycle. HIV-1 PR

often evades treatment by way of mutations and less commonly through residue insertions. We

have identified a clinical isolate with a five residue insertion between residues 28 and 29.

Through molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed the protease protein structure and

determined that the residue insertion created a ...


Fam129b Phosphorylation And Its Effect On Membrane Localization In Confluent Hela Cells, Lakshmi Thompil Somasekharan Jan 2017

Fam129b Phosphorylation And Its Effect On Membrane Localization In Confluent Hela Cells, Lakshmi Thompil Somasekharan

Wayne State University Theses

Phosphorylation and de-phosphorylation of many proteins is a key regulator of cellular life. It maintains cellular activity through an array of signaling pathways like cell division, proliferation and growth. However, Overexpression or mutations by the constitutive activation of phosphorylation machinery disrupt the balance in the cell, driving the inappropriate activation or deactivation of the cellular processes it controls. FAM129B is a protein whose activity is partly maintained by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at the six serine residues at the C-terminal. FAM129B is expressed highly in many forms of cancer and its main function is to suppress apoptosis and enhances cancer cell ...


Expression, Purification And Characterization Of Lysine Methyltransferase Smyd5, Wen Xue Jan 2017

Expression, Purification And Characterization Of Lysine Methyltransferase Smyd5, Wen Xue

Wayne State University Theses

Methylation of histones and non-histone proteins play vital roles in numerous cellular processes including gene expression regulation and DNA damage response. The identifications of methyltransferase SMYD protein family are not well characterized. SMYD5 is a unique and critical member of SMYD family involved in immune response, stem cell renew, hematopoiesis regulation and cancer metastasis. Understanding its function and structure is monumental to human disease. With the achievement of SMYD5 expression and purification, the association between SMYD5 and its substrate histone H4 has been investigated. While possessing a poly-E tail instead of the TPR domain included in other members, SMYD5 is ...


Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang Jan 2017

Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Low level of oxygen (O2) occurs physiologically during in vivo embryo development. As developing embryos moving from fallopian tube to uterus, oxygen level gradually decreases to ≤ 5% at the time of blastocyst implantation. Blastocysts are made of two major cell populations, trophoblast cells and inner cell mass, from which trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived respectively. TSCs serve as placental stem cells that later on proliferate and differentiate into placenta. Previous study has shown that 2% O2 is the optimal O2 level for mTSC in vitro growth and potency maintenance, which agrees with their low ...


Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen Jan 2017

Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen

Wayne State University Dissertations

SUMOylation is an essential post-translational modification that regulates a variety of critical cellular pathways ranging from nuclear transport to protein stability. Accumulating lines of evidence have shown that a perturbation of the SUMOylation pathway is associated with human diseases, especially various types of cancer. Our recent proteomic studies revealed a drastic increase in levels of SUMO2/3 modification on the proinflammatory cytokine MIF in the metastatic breast cancer cell line compared to the non-metastatic control cell line. Interestingly, the increase in levels of both MIF and global SUMO-2/3 modification in the metastatic cells are positively correlated to that of ...


Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj Jan 2017

Clinicopathology And Molecular Determinants Underlying Benign Breast And Breast Cancer Lesions, Andreana Holowatyj Holowatyj

Wayne State University Dissertations

Despite converging incidence rates for breast cancers by race, disparities in mortality persist where black women suffer from poorer prognosis compared to white counterparts. To understand the clinical, demographic, and molecular characteristics underlying these disparities, we examined differences among patients with breast cancer to understand the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, age, and race/ethnicity among women diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, and disparities in surgical therapy among female patients with early stage young-onset breast cancer. Benign breast disease, another known risk factor for breast cancer, includes a histological spectrum of lesions, could contribute ...


Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki Jan 2017

Analysis Of The Secondary Neurodegenerative Consequences Of Primary Oligodendrocyte Stress Through The Use Of The Novel Obiden Mouse Model, Daniel Zdzislaw Radecki

Wayne State University Dissertations

The work of this project was to develop, test and characterize a potential novel mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Historically, MS has been identified as a primary autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). However, treatments based on this view have met with limited success, and in most cases, fail to prevent progression of MS from mild to moderate and severe forms. Original observations regarding axonal and neuronal pathology in the white and gray matter of the CNS were rediscovered in the 1990s. These observations indicated that even in the absence of the immune system ...


Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar Jan 2017

Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar

Wayne State University Dissertations

NaCl absorption by the Thick Ascending Limb (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter, NKCC2. Increased NKCC2 activity and apical trafficking are associated to salt sensitive hypertension in rodents and humans. NKCC2 endocytosis is important for maintaining surface NKCC2 such that blocking NKCC2 endocytosis increased NKCC2 surface abundance and NKCC2-mediated NaCl reabsorption. Despite its importance, NKCC2 endocytosis has been poorly studied and a part of the reason may be attributed to the lack of availability of methods with good time resolution. Hence, we developed a method to image apical NKCC2 to monitor its endocytosis in real-time by ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Navigating Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Envelopment And Egress, William Longeway Close Jan 2017

Navigating Human Cytomegalovirus (Hcmv) Envelopment And Egress, William Longeway Close

Wayne State University Dissertations

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous viral pathogen. In individuals with fully functioning and mature immune systems, HCMV is associated with mild symptoms prior to establishing latency. In individuals with naïve or compromised immune systems, HCMV is capable of causing severe organ damage. HCMV is the leading infectious cause of congenital birth defects and a major non-genetic cause of hearing loss. Unfortunately, antiviral treatment options lack diversity due to limited knowledge of virion replication. If HCMV replication were better understood, new antiviral treatments could be developed.

In this work, we describe the development and implementation of new tools to study ...


New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang Dec 2016

New Open Conformation Of Smyd3 Implicates Conformational Selection And Allostery, Nicholas Spellmon, Xiaonan Sun, Wen Xue, Joshua Holcomb, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Weifeng Shang, Brian Fp Edwards, Nualpun Sirinupong, Chunying Li, Zhe Yang

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

SMYD3 plays a key role in cancer cell viability, adhesion, migration and invasion. SMYD3 promotes formation of inducible regulatory T cells and is involved in reducing autoimmunity. However, the nearly “closed” substrate-binding site and poor in vitro H3K4 methyltransferase activity have obscured further understanding of this oncogenically related protein. Here we reveal that SMYD3 can adopt an “open” conformation using molecular dynamics simulation and small-angle X-ray scattering. This ligand-binding-capable open state is related to the crystal structure-like closed state by a striking clamshell-like inter-lobe dynamics. The two states are characterized by many distinct structural and dynamical differences and the conformational ...


Contribution Of Cx3cr1/Fractalkine (Cx3cl1) Axis To The Progression Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Rhonda Prince Jan 2016

Contribution Of Cx3cr1/Fractalkine (Cx3cl1) Axis To The Progression Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Rhonda Prince

Wayne State University Theses

A thesis is presented on the characterization of the contribution of the chemokine axis, CX_3CR1/Fractalkine, to the progression of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and Lung cancer is one of the four leading causes of the disease. Carcinoma cells, unlike their normal counterparts, gain the ability to express chemokine receptors. Understanding if/how this gain of expression contributes to the progression of cancer could provide a lucrative therapeutic target. Goals of the study include investing if the NSCLC cell line A549, an adenocarcinoma cell line, express the ...


Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu Jan 2016

Novel Regulatory Mechanisms Of Inositol Biosynthesis In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Mammalian Cells, And Implications For The Mechanism Underlying Vpa-Induced Glucose 6-Phosphate Depletion, Wenxi Yu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Myo-inositol is the precursor of all inositol containing molecules, including inositol phosphates, phosphoinositides and glycosylphosphatidylinositols, which are signaling molecules involved in many critical cellular functions. Perturbation of inositol metabolism has been linked to neurological disorders. Although several widely-used anticonvulsants and mood-stabilizing drugs have been shown to exert inositol depletion effects, the mechanisms of action of the drugs and the role of inositol in these diseases are not understood. Elucidation of the molecular control of inositol synthesis will shed light on the pathologies of inositol related illnesses.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of the four glycogen synthase kinase-3 genes, MCK1, MRK1, MDS1 ...


Investigating The Role Of Dna Polymerase Beta In The Aging Phenotype Of Down Syndrome, Aqila Ahmed Ahmed Jan 2016

Investigating The Role Of Dna Polymerase Beta In The Aging Phenotype Of Down Syndrome, Aqila Ahmed Ahmed

Wayne State University Dissertations

Down syndrome (DS) is a chromosomal condition characterized by accelerated aging that has yet to be directly linked to a DNA repair defect. Reduced PolB and unrepaired damage from oxidative stress observed in DS, point toward defective base excision repair (BER). In this study, we report that low PolB transcript correlates with increased markers of senescence. The gene dosage effect of Trisomy 21 is likely the source for PolB downregulation. We show that the HSA21-localized miR-155 overexpression correlates with a decrease in Creb1 and PolB, thus establishing a putative regulatory pathway. Data from the DS mouse model, Ts65Dn, reveal low ...


An Investigation Into The Molecular Basis Underlying Enhancement Of Transcription By The Intron In Budding Yeast, Neha Agarwal Agarwal Jan 2016

An Investigation Into The Molecular Basis Underlying Enhancement Of Transcription By The Intron In Budding Yeast, Neha Agarwal Agarwal

Wayne State University Dissertations

It is now quite evident that the introns, which are removed from the primary transcript by the process of splicing, are involved in a variety of important functions in eukaryotic cells. One of the evolutionarily conserved functions of introns is their role in regulating transcription of genes that harbors them. This effect of a splicing-competent intron on transcription is known as ‘Intron-Mediated Enhancement of transcription’ (IME). It has been observed that the intron-containing genes are often transcribed more efficiently than non-intronic genes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying IME in budding yeast and higher eukaryotes is not entirely clear, and that ...


The Effects Of Courtship And Pairing Behavior On The Nonapeptide And Noradrenergic Systems Of Adult Male And Female Zebra Finches, Erin Lowrey Ondercin Jan 2016

The Effects Of Courtship And Pairing Behavior On The Nonapeptide And Noradrenergic Systems Of Adult Male And Female Zebra Finches, Erin Lowrey Ondercin

Wayne State University Dissertations

Social relationships are complex and likely involve the multiple neural circuits, including those involved in learning, memory, motivation, and attention. Two neurotransmitter pathways highly involved in these neural circuits are norepinephrine (NE) and the nonapeptides, vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT). There is extensive research implicating a role for the nonapeptides in trust, sociality, parental care, and romantic relationships. There is little direct evidence for the role of nonapeptides in monogamous relationships in any species other than the prairie vole (Goodson 2013). However, there is evidence that nonapeptides are important in pair bonding for both male and female zebra finches (Lowrey ...


A Critical Role Of Cxcr2 Pdz Motif-Mediated Interactions In Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing And Angiogenesis, Yuning Hou Jan 2016

A Critical Role Of Cxcr2 Pdz Motif-Mediated Interactions In Endothelial Progenitor Cell Homing And Angiogenesis, Yuning Hou

Wayne State University Dissertations

Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in postnatal vascularization in response to growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Chemokine receptor CXCR2 and its cognate ligands are reported to mediate EPC recruitment and angiogenesis. CXCR2 possesses a consensus PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif at its carboxyl terminus. The PDZ motif has been reported to regulate cellular signaling and functions. Here we investigated the potential role of the PDZ motif in CXCR2-mediated EPC motility and angiogenesis. We have found that introducing exogenous CXCR2 C-terminus significantly attenuated in vitro EPC migration and angiogenic activities in response to CXCR2 ligands, as well as in ...


Effective Drug Treatment Induces Drug Resistance Through Rapid Genome Alteration-Mediated Cancer Evolution, Steven Horne Jan 2016

Effective Drug Treatment Induces Drug Resistance Through Rapid Genome Alteration-Mediated Cancer Evolution, Steven Horne

Wayne State University Dissertations

The central paradox associated with current cancer therapeutic strategies is initially effective treatment, which eliminates a high tumor cell count, consistently results in successful drug resistance. Mathematical and evolutionary modeling have previously suggested that therapeutic intervention could provide selective pressure for the expansion of resistant variants. Drug-related stress has been associated with genome chaos, a common phenomenon in cancer characterized as rapid, stochastic genomic fragmentation and reorganization. Since cancer represents an evolutionary process, analysis within the context of genome-mediated cancer evolution can shed light on this key problem of therapeutics. We propose that genomic change is a general response to ...


A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi Jan 2016

A Novel Role For Repetitive Sequences In Recognition Of The Drosophila Melanogaster X Chromosome, Sonal Suresh Joshi

Wayne State University Dissertations

In humans and fruit flies, males have one X chromosome while females have two. This imbalance in gene dosage is potentially lethal, and the process of dosage compensation corrects it. The MSL (Male Specific Lethal) complex, which is composed of five proteins and one of two functionally redundant long non-coding roX (RNA on the X) RNAs, brings about dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. In fruit fly dosage compensation, all the genes on the single male X chromosome are upregulated approximately twofold, via chromatin modifications, to equalize gene dosage with the two X chromosomes of females. This process calls for highly ...


Modeling The Mechanism Underlying Environmental And Genetic Determinants Of Gene Expression And Complex Traits, Gregory Alan Moyerbrailean Jan 2016

Modeling The Mechanism Underlying Environmental And Genetic Determinants Of Gene Expression And Complex Traits, Gregory Alan Moyerbrailean

Wayne State University Dissertations

Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies and functional genomics strategies have allowed researchers to identify both common and rare genetic variation, to deeply profile gene expression, and even to determine regions of active gene transcription.

While these technologies and strategies have contributed greatly to our understanding of complex traits and diseases, there are many biological questions and analytical issues to be addressed.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified large numbers of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. However, in many cases the mechanistic link between the phenotype and associated variant remains unclear. This may be because most variants ...


An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu Jan 2016

An Analysis Of The Interaction Between Sin3 And Methionine Metabolism In Drosophila, Mengying Liu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Chromatin modification and cellular metabolism are tightly connected. The mechanism for this cross-talk, however, remains incompletely understood. SIN3 controls histone acetylation through association with the histone deacetylase RPD3. In this study, my major goal is to explore the mechanism of how SIN3 regulates cellular metabolism.

Methionine metabolism generates the major methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for histone methylation. In collaboration with others, I report that reduced levels of some enzymes involved in methionine metabolism and histone demethylases lead to lethality, as well as wing development and cell proliferation defects in Drosophila melanogaster. Additionally, disruption of methionine metabolism can directly affect histone ...


Genome Wide Analysis Identifies Sphingolipid Metabolism As A New Target Of Valproic Acid, Shyamalagauri Jadhav Jadhav Jan 2016

Genome Wide Analysis Identifies Sphingolipid Metabolism As A New Target Of Valproic Acid, Shyamalagauri Jadhav Jadhav

Wayne State University Dissertations

Bipolar disorder (BD), which is characterized by depression and mania, affects about 1% of the total world population. Current treatments are effective in only 40-60% of cases and cause severe side effects. Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is one of the most widely used drugs for the treatment of BD. Although many hypotheses have been postulated to explain the molecular mechanism of action of this drug in BD, the therapeutic mechanism is not understood. This knowledge gap has hampered the development of new drugs to treat this disorder. To identify candidate pathways affected by VPA, I performed ...


Investigation Of Mutations In Nuclear Genes That Affect The Atp Synthase, Russell Dsouza Jan 2016

Investigation Of Mutations In Nuclear Genes That Affect The Atp Synthase, Russell Dsouza

Wayne State University Dissertations

The F1 domain is the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. Studies with respiratory-deficient yeast identified ATP1 and ATP2 as nuclear genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits, respectively, of the mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The mutations in the atp1 and atp2 genes were cloned and sequenced, and they appear to affect the ATP synthase. Most yeast strains with mutations in the or the subunit primarily show an F1 assembly defective phenotype. This feature is similar to the assembly-defective mutants missing the chaperones required for assembly of the F1 oligomer or either the alpha/beta subunits.

Some of the atp2 and ...


Insights Into De Novo Fes-Cluster Biogenesis Via The Eukaryotic Fes-Cluster (Isc) Pathway In Vitro, Stephen Paul Dzul Jan 2016

Insights Into De Novo Fes-Cluster Biogenesis Via The Eukaryotic Fes-Cluster (Isc) Pathway In Vitro, Stephen Paul Dzul

Wayne State University Dissertations

Fe-S clusters are iron-containing cofactors utilized by numerous proteins within several biological pathways essential to life. In eukaryotes, the primary pathway for Fe-S cluster production is the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) pathway. The eukaryotic ISC pathway, localized primarily within the mitochondria, has been best characterized within Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeast, de novo Fe-S cluster formation is accomplished through coordinated assembly of the substrates iron and sulfur on the primary scaffold assembly protein “Isu1”. The sulfur used for cluster assembly is provided by the cysteine desulfurase “Nfs1”, a protein that works in union with its accessory protein “Isd11”. Frataxin “Yfh1” helps direct ...


Identification Of Lipolysis-Derived Lipid Mediators And The Activation Of A Pro-Inflammatory Cyclooxygenase Pathway, Via Cyclooxygenase-2, In Adipose Tissue, Allison Christine Gartung Jan 2016

Identification Of Lipolysis-Derived Lipid Mediators And The Activation Of A Pro-Inflammatory Cyclooxygenase Pathway, Via Cyclooxygenase-2, In Adipose Tissue, Allison Christine Gartung

Wayne State University Dissertations

Adipose lipolysis triggers pro-inflammatory responses that play critical roles in insulin resistance and associated metabolic syndrome. However, pro-inflammatory mediators generated by adipose lipolysis, particularly in the context of lipid mediators, are poorly defined. In this study, the activation of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3)/hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) pathway, a well-employed model system, was utilized to characterize the pro-inflammatory lipid mediators generated by adipose lipolysis. Cultured adipocytes were treated with an ADRB3 agonist and the media was analyzed for eicosanoids using the LC-MS/MS lipidomic method. Among the characterized eicosanoids, I found that approximately 43 metabolites generated by cyclooxygenase (COX ...


Characterization Of The Yeast Cysteine Desulfurase Complex Within The Mitochondrial Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis, Dulmini Pabasara Barupala Jan 2016

Characterization Of The Yeast Cysteine Desulfurase Complex Within The Mitochondrial Fe-S Cluster Biogenesis, Dulmini Pabasara Barupala

Wayne State University Dissertations

Disrupted iron homeostasis within the human body materializes as various disorders. Pathophysiology of many of them relates to iron induced oxidative damage to key cellular components caused by iron accumulation within the tissues. Pertaining to the growing occurrence, cost of patient care and devastating burden associated with these diseases, the call for understanding the role of iron homeostasis within these disorders becomes inevitable. Being an abundant iron containing cofactor, the role of Fe-S clusters in cellular iron homeostasis is indisputable in the case of Friedreich’s ataxia, a disease caused by a deficiency in the protein frataxin that is indispensable ...