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Articles 91 - 113 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes Are Transcriptionally Regulated By E2f Transcription Factors: A Link Between Cell Cycle Control And Metastatic Progression, Jacqueline Lea Johnson Jan 2012

Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes Are Transcriptionally Regulated By E2f Transcription Factors: A Link Between Cell Cycle Control And Metastatic Progression, Jacqueline Lea Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The RbµE2F transcriptional regulatory pathway plays a critical role in the cell cycle. Rb is inactivated through multiple waves of phosphorylation, mediated mainly by cyclin D and cyclin E associated kinases. Once Rb is inactivated, cells can enter Sµphase. Collectively, three Rb family members and ten E2F proteins coordinate every additional stage of the cell cycle, from quiescence to mitosis. However the RbµE2F pathway is frequently altered in cancer. Aside from cell proliferation, the RbµE2F pathway regulates other essential cellular processes including apoptosis, cell differentiation, angiogenesis and DNA damage repair pathways, but its role in invasion and cancer progression is ...


Cloning Of The Gene, Purification As Recombinant Protein And Functional Characterization Of Leishmania Mexicana Cytochrome B5 Reductase, Ala Azhari Jan 2012

Cloning Of The Gene, Purification As Recombinant Protein And Functional Characterization Of Leishmania Mexicana Cytochrome B5 Reductase, Ala Azhari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leishmania are protozoan parasites that are transmitted by a sand fly vector. These parasites affect not only humans but also wild animals including domestic dogs and rodents, which form an additional challenge and public health problem to control the disease. Leishmaniasis is an important disease with worldwide distribution, including Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and other tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Due to the expansion of irrigation and agricultural activities, more exposure to sand fly occurs, which leads to the expansion of leishmaniasis infections as newly emerging disease.

Emerging drug resistance in leishmaniasis is an additional problem, contributed ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressors, Ship And Rb, In Immune Suppressive Cells, Michelle Marie Collazo Ruiz Jan 2012

The Role Of Tumor Suppressors, Ship And Rb, In Immune Suppressive Cells, Michelle Marie Collazo Ruiz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been extensively studied in the past 30-40 years. Their potent suppressive capacity shown in several pathological and clinical settings, such as cancer and transplantation, has made it evident that better understanding their development and function is critical.

Specifically, Tregs play a pivotal role in preventing autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and organ graft rejection. We previously demonstrated that germline or induced SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) deficiency in the host abrogates GvHD. Here we show that SHIP-deficiency promotes an increase of FoxP3+ cells in both the CD4+CD25+ and the CD4 ...


An Observation Of Immunological Effect, A Diet Enhanced With Spirulina And Treatment With Fractalkine In Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Mibel Pabón May 2011

An Observation Of Immunological Effect, A Diet Enhanced With Spirulina And Treatment With Fractalkine In Models Of Parkinson's Disease, Mibel Pabón

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In my dissertation research we used use human wild type α-synuclein gene expression using an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV9) that induced a slowly progressive loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the Substantia nigra (SN) as one of our animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is our hypothesis that neuroinflammation predisposes the brain to susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases. Thus we examined the progression of a PD lesion and examined the manipulations of the immune system to understand further the inflammatory role when we administered exogenous soluble fractalkine.

The specific etiology of neurodegeneration in PD is unknown, but the inflammatory ...


Microbial Ecology And Functional Genomics Of Deep-Water Coral-Associated Microbes, Julia Parker Galkiewicz Jan 2011

Microbial Ecology And Functional Genomics Of Deep-Water Coral-Associated Microbes, Julia Parker Galkiewicz

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lophelia pertusa is a cosmopolitan cold-water coral, often found in aphotic waters (>200m). Aggregations of L. pertusa (reefs) provide important habitat to many invertebrate and fish species and act as biodiversity hotspots in the deep sea. The health and diversity of these reefs is of vital importance to deep-sea ecosystems, and the microbial consortia associated with L. pertusa form the most basic ecological level. Deciphering the diversity and function of these microbes provides insight into the roles they play in maintaining reef health. This dissertation takes microbiological techniques that are used in shallow-water coral microbial research and applies them to ...


Inhibition Of P53 Dna Binding Function By The Mdm2 Acidic Domain, Brittany Lynne Cross Jan 2011

Inhibition Of P53 Dna Binding Function By The Mdm2 Acidic Domain, Brittany Lynne Cross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

MDM2 regulates p53 predominantly by promoting p53 ubiquitination. However, ubiquitination-independent mechanisms of MDM2 have also been implicated. Here we show that MDM2 inhibits p53 DNA binding activity in vitro and in vivo. MDM2 binding promotes p53 to adopt a mutant-like conformation, losing reactivity to antibody Pab1620, while exposing the Pab240 epitope. The acidic domain of MDM2 is required to induce p53 conformational change and inhibit p53 DNA binding. ARF binding to the MDM2 acidic domain restores p53 wild type conformation and rescues DNA binding activity. Furthermore, histone methyl transferase SUV39H1 binding to the MDM2 acidic domain also restores p53 wild ...


Analysis Of Ahr Expression And Stability In A Recombinant Yeast Model System, Sarah Elizabeth Cuccinello Jan 2011

Analysis Of Ahr Expression And Stability In A Recombinant Yeast Model System, Sarah Elizabeth Cuccinello

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) are well characterized bHLH-PAS transcription factors shown to regulate expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes. Extensive study has shown that upon treatment with certain aromatic hydrocarbons, mammalian cells rapidly activate the Ahr signaling pathway in order to stimulate gene expression and attempt to metabolize the xenobiotic compounds. It has been shown that after DNA-binding, the Ahr but not the Arnt protein, is quickly eliminated from the nuclear compartment thereby attenuating the dose of gene regulation administered by the Ahr*Arnt transcription factor complex. Previous studies have implicated involvement ...


Microbial Landscapes Of Corals And Ctenophores, Camille Arian Daniels Jan 2011

Microbial Landscapes Of Corals And Ctenophores, Camille Arian Daniels

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As technology and engineering allow mankind to survey nature at finer scales, the importance of bacteria has been elucidated in their metabolic diversity, ability to transfer genetic information, involvement in biogeochemical cycling, and sheer abundance. With an individual domain of life unto themselves, this diverse group of microorganisms plays an integral role in facilitating life on land and in the oceans, and is second only to viruses in abundance on Earth. They carve niches in a wide range of environments, including those inhospitable to other life forms, and reside in concert or to the detriment of other microbes and/or ...


The Role Of Brca1 Domains And Motifs In Tumor Suppression, Aneliya Velkova Jan 2011

The Role Of Brca1 Domains And Motifs In Tumor Suppression, Aneliya Velkova

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Individuals that carry deleterious mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) have much more elevated risk to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer than the individuals from the general population. The BRCA1 gene product has been implicated in several aspects of the DNA damage response, but its biochemical function in these processes has remained elusive. In order to probe BRCA1 functions we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening to identify interacting partners to a conserved motif (Motif 6) in the central region of BRCA1. In this dissertation, we report the identification of the actin-binding protein Filamin ...


Development Of A Non-Invasive Electrode For Intradermal Electrically Mediated Dna Vaccination, Amy Lynn Donate Jan 2011

Development Of A Non-Invasive Electrode For Intradermal Electrically Mediated Dna Vaccination, Amy Lynn Donate

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Current progress in the development of vaccines has decreased the incidence of fatal and non-fatal infections and increased longevity. However, new technologies need to be developed to combat an emerging generation of infectious diseases. DNA vaccination has been demonstrated to have great potential for use against a wide variety of diseases. Alone, this vaccine technology does not generate a significant immune response for vaccination, but combined with delivery by electroporation (EP), can enhance plasmid expression and immunity against the expressed antigen. Most EP systems, while effective, can be invasive and painful making them less desirable for use in vaccination. Our ...


From Dna To Protein: A Study Of Genomic Instability Candidate Genes During Zebrafish Development, Kristine Griffett Jan 2011

From Dna To Protein: A Study Of Genomic Instability Candidate Genes During Zebrafish Development, Kristine Griffett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a type of freshwater minnow often used to model human diseases including cancer, anxiety and aging diseases. The overall biology of zebrafish is strikingly similar to that of humans, allowing these fish to be used for drug discovery and toxicology studies for preclinical trials. In this study, zebrafish embryos were used to identify and characterize several candidate genes within two known regions of genomic instability on chromosome 18 and chromosome 4. This fish that were used in this study had been previously classified as genomic instability (gin) mutants due to increased incidence of somatic mutation ...


Identification Of Novel Stat3 Target Genes Associated With Oncogenesis, Rachel Haviland Jan 2011

Identification Of Novel Stat3 Target Genes Associated With Oncogenesis, Rachel Haviland

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways involving STAT3 are frequently constitutively activated in many human primary tumors, and are known for the transcriptional role they play in controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. However, the extent of STAT3's reach on transcriptional control of the genome as a whole remains an important question. We predicted that this persistent STAT3 signaling affects a wide variety of cellular functions, many of which still remain to be characterized.

We took a broad approach to identify novel STAT3 regulated genes by examining changes in the genome-wide gene expression profile by microarray, using cells ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Human Herpesviruses 6a And 6b Genome Integration Into Telomeres Of Human Chromosomes During Latency, Jesse Herbert Arbuckle Jan 2011

Identification And Characterization Of The Human Herpesviruses 6a And 6b Genome Integration Into Telomeres Of Human Chromosomes During Latency, Jesse Herbert Arbuckle

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While the latent genome of most Herpesviruses persists as a nuclear circular episome, previous research has suggested that Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) may integrate into host cell chromosomes, and be vertically transmitted in the germ-line. Because the HHV-6 genome encodes a perfect TTAGGG telomere repeat array at the right end direct repeat (DRR) and an imperfect TTAGGG repeat at the end of the left end direct repeat (DRL), we established a hypothesis that during latency, the HHV-6A and HHV-6B genome integrates into the telomeres of human chromosomes through homologous recombination with the n(TTAGGG) viral repeats, and the integrated virus ...


Multivariate Anti-Inflammatory Approaches To Rescue Neurogenesis And Cognitive Function In Aged Animals, Sandra Antonieta Acosta Jan 2011

Multivariate Anti-Inflammatory Approaches To Rescue Neurogenesis And Cognitive Function In Aged Animals, Sandra Antonieta Acosta

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging is considered the number one risk factor to develop neuropathologies such as memory loss, senile dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease. Neurodegenerative diseases tend to start during adulthood, and aggravate over time, making them difficult to prevent and to treat. In the Unites States, demographic studies by U.S. Bureau of the Census have determined that our aging population of >65 years is expected to increase from the present 35 million to 78 million in 2030. This would result, not only to ...


Biochemical And Pharmacological Characterization Of Cytochrome B5 Reductase As A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target In Candida Albicans, Mary Jolene Patricia Holloway Jan 2011

Biochemical And Pharmacological Characterization Of Cytochrome B5 Reductase As A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target In Candida Albicans, Mary Jolene Patricia Holloway

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The opportunistic fungus Candida albicans is a commensal member of the human microflora and is the most common causative agent of fungal-related disease with particular significance in immunocompromised individuals. Emerging drug resistance is a major problem in Candida, contributed by enzymes involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and pharmacological agents. One such enzyme, cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r), has a high pharmacological significance owing to its role in fatty acid elongation, ergosterol (or cholesterol in mammals) biosynthesis, and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification of xenobiotics.

We have compared the kinetic, biochemical, and pharmacological characteristics of C. albicans cb5r isoforms, Cbr1 and Mcr1, as ...


Novel Roles For The Transcriptional Repressor Prdm1 In Human Natural Killer Cells And Identification Of An Inhibitor Of Its Interacting Methyltransferase G9a, Matthew Adams Smith Jan 2011

Novel Roles For The Transcriptional Repressor Prdm1 In Human Natural Killer Cells And Identification Of An Inhibitor Of Its Interacting Methyltransferase G9a, Matthew Adams Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The studies presented within this dissertation provide the first description of PRDM1 (also known as Blimp-1 or PRDI-BF1) function in natural killer cells. NK cells are major effectors of the innate immune response via antigen-independent cytotoxicity and link to the adaptive immune response through cytokine release. Molecular mechanisms mediating NK activation are relatively well-studied; however, much less is known about the mechanisms that restrain activation.

In the first study, the transcriptional repressor PRDM1 is shown to be a critical negative regulator of NK function. Microarray analysis was used to characterize transcriptional changes associated with cytokine-mediated activation. PRDM1 is expressed at ...


Development Of An Elisa For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus That Can Differentiate Infected From Vaccinated Horses, Andrea Bingham Jan 2011

Development Of An Elisa For Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus That Can Differentiate Infected From Vaccinated Horses, Andrea Bingham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes a fatal mosquito-borne virus that is vaccine preventable for horses. The conventional serological tests measure antibodies to the structural proteins of EEEV which are also found in the vaccine. This makes it difficult to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) is a theoretical strategy that would allow you to survey natural infections among vaccinated populations. This test would also allow for more accurate representations of the natural infection rate, vaccination rate, and help identify vaccine failures. The potential uses of the NSPs of Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus ...


Characterization Of The Role Of Nicotine And Delta 9-Thc In Modulation Of Neuroinflammation, Jared Ehrhart Dec 2010

Characterization Of The Role Of Nicotine And Delta 9-Thc In Modulation Of Neuroinflammation, Jared Ehrhart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Neuroinflammation is a major driving force in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, as well as cannabinoid CB2 receptors, have been shown to have strong anti-inflammatory properties when activated. These effects are shown, in vivo, to be a result of stimulation of α7 nAChRs and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Microglia cells, an immune cell in the brain, are shown to express both of these receptor subtypes. The studies detailed herein, investigated the ability of two compounds, nicotine and Δ9-THC, in modulation of inflammatory processes. Stimulation of these receptors on microglia using nicotine and Δ9-THC blocked the activation of these ...


Evaluation Of Immunogene Therapy Using A Plasmid Encoding Il-15 Delivered By Electroporation In A 3d Tumor Model And A Mouse Melanoma Model, Bernadette Marrero Nov 2010

Evaluation Of Immunogene Therapy Using A Plasmid Encoding Il-15 Delivered By Electroporation In A 3d Tumor Model And A Mouse Melanoma Model, Bernadette Marrero

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Melanoma is an aggressive disease with few effective treatment options. Non-toxic, anti-tumor therapies and prophylactic approaches are currently being investigated to identify treatment options that will control and remove late-stage melanoma.

The overall goal of this project was to establish an effective delivery method for a plasmid encoding human interleukin (phIL-15) into mouse melanoma cells (B16.F10) using the gene transfer technique electroporation (EP)1. The EP delivery phIL-15 was optimized using an in vitro 3D tumor model. The purpose was to translate these IL-15 delivery conditions into an in vivo mouse melanoma model to study IL-15 signal transduction and ...


Molecular Mechanism Of Agc Kinases In Human Malignant, Shaokun Shu Oct 2010

Molecular Mechanism Of Agc Kinases In Human Malignant, Shaokun Shu

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The maintenance of normal cell function and tissue homeostasis is dependent on the precise regulation of multiple signaling pathways that control cellular decisions to either proliferate, differentiate, arrest cell growth, or initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cancer arises when clones of mutated cells escape this balance and proliferate inappropriately without compensatory apoptosis. Deregulated cell growth occurs as a result of perturbed signal transduction that modulates or alters cellular behavior or function to keep the critical balance between the rate of cell-cycle progression (cell division) and cell growth (cell mass) on one hand, and programmed cell death (apoptosis, autophagy) on the ...


The Human In 3d: Advanced Morphometric Analysis Of High-Resolution Anatomically Accurate Computed Models, Summer J. Decker Oct 2010

The Human In 3d: Advanced Morphometric Analysis Of High-Resolution Anatomically Accurate Computed Models, Summer J. Decker

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Computed virtual models of anatomical structures are proving to be of increasing value in clinical medicine, education and research. With a variety of fields focused on craniofacial and pelvic anatomy there is a need for accurate anatomical models. Recent technological advancements in computer and medical imaging technologies have provided the tools necessary to develop three-dimensional (3D) functional models of human anatomy for use in medicine (surgical planning and education), forensics and engineering (computer-aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis).

Traditionally caliper methodologies are used in the quantitative analysis of human anatomy. In order for experts in anatomy and morphometrics to ...


The Biogeochemistry Of Submerged Coastal Karst Features In West Central Florida, Keith Michael Garman Sep 2010

The Biogeochemistry Of Submerged Coastal Karst Features In West Central Florida, Keith Michael Garman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

West Central Florida is a complex karst environment with numerous sinkholes, springs, and submerged cave systems. Many of these karst features are anchialine, located within the subterranean estuary where freshwater and saltwater mix. Water quality data and/or fauna data were obtained from twenty-one karst features and their associated cave systems. The anchialine karst environment of the study area has a wide range of habitats with measured salinities ranging from freshwater at <0.2 ppt to sulfidic, hypersaline water at 38.5 ppt and measured pH readings ranging from 6.39 in water impacted by sulfur oxidizing bacteria to 10.3 in an isolated room of a cave. Stygobitic crustaceans were identified in conduits extending beneath the Gulf of Mexico supporting the hypotheses that freshwater crustaceans could survive higher sea levels in freshwater conduits beneath saltwater. The fauna associated with the anchialine cave systems included Sabellidae and Polychaeta worms, hydroids, cnidarians and hydrobiid snails. Jewfish Sink, like other anaerobic marine basins that were submarine springs, has four zones: oxic zone, transition zone, upper anoxic zone and anoxic bottom water. The upper zones have seasonal water quality variations from winter cooling and sinking of surface water and changes in the microbial communities. Activity of sulfate reducing bacteria is carbon limited in the anoxic zones, where sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process, and primary production is phosphate limited in the oxic zones. Organic input from the Gulf of Mexico drives the bacterial anaerobic ecosystem, resulting in a “sulfide pump”, in which sulfide percolates upward removing oxygen from the overlying sediment.


Neuroprotection With Anesthetics In Two Models Of Cerebral Ischemia, Rafael Eduardo Chaparro-Buitrago Apr 2010

Neuroprotection With Anesthetics In Two Models Of Cerebral Ischemia, Rafael Eduardo Chaparro-Buitrago

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Neuroprotection with anesthetics has been studied for many decades; important advances in this field have modified the way Anesthesiologists treat patients in the operating room. Animal models have played an important role in the study of ischemia in the operating room. Recent studies have demonstrated that the effect of anesthetics seems to be different in different animal models. We decided to evaluate anesthetics in a well-known model of cerebral ischemia and also in hypotensive models designed by us. We used a model of cerebral ischemia (MCAO) to test anesthetics neuroprotective effect in a two-week period. Then, we used a model ...