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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat May 2018

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In several human pathologies like heart attack, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders, widespread cell death, or apoptosis, is a major cause of organ dysfunction and death. Hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, experience numerous conditions during the winter that are known to be pro-apoptotic in other mammal systems (e.g. extreme hypothermia, ischemia and reperfusion, acidosis, increased reactive oxygen species, bone and muscle disuse). However, studies suggest that hibernators may invoke a protective phenotype to limit widespread cell damage and loss during the hibernation season. Could regulating apoptosis provide protection against the harmful conditions experienced during the hibernation season ...


Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker May 2018

Transcriptional Silencing And Anti-Silencing Of Virulence Genes In The Bacterial Pathogen Shigella Flexneri: Virb, Dna Supercoiling, And The Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein, Michael Adam Picker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Transcriptional silencing and anti-silencing affect many aspects of bacterial physiology, including virulence in bacterial pathogens. In Shigella species, a group of gram-negative pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery in humans, the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) transcriptionally silences virulence genes found on the large virulence plasmid while VirB anti-silences these genes. However, the mechanistic details of their interplay are not fully understood. To elucidate their regulatory mechanisms, I use the icsP virulence locus, which shares a long intergenic region with the divergently transcribed ospZ gene (1535 bp from TSS to TSS). Prior to this work, two discrete H-NS binding regions had ...


Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink Dec 2017

Complete Sequencing And Comparative Analysis Of The Genomes Of The First Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria Isolated In Pure Culture: Strains Bw-2 And Ss-5, Corey Geurink

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The genomes of the first two discovered magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) belonging to the ammaproteobacteria, strains BW-2 and SS-51, were sequenced, sealed, annotated and compared to MTB of other phylogenetic groups. Cells of both strains are rod-shaped and biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated octahedral crystals of magnetite, respectively, that are enveloped in a protein-embedded, lipid-bilayer membrane referred to as the magnetosome membrane or vesicle. The crystals and their associated membranes are known as magnetosomes. Magnetosome crystals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and, because of their specific mineral compositions, crystal morphologies and sizes, the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation ...


The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice Aug 2015

The Presence Of Clostridium Difficile On Environmental Surfaces In Healthcare Facilities Pre- And Post-Decontamination Of Patient Rooms, Theresa Trice

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are infections related to receiving medical care. HAIs are responsible for an excess of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. Though most HAIs rates are on the decline, Clostridium difficile infection rates are at an all-time high, primarily due to the persistence of C. difficile spores in the environment. In the United States, Clostridium difficile-related mortality rates per million have increased from 5.7 in 1999 to 23.7 in 2004, with an estimated 26,642 deaths due to Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs). Clostridium difficile is transmitted via the fecal-oral route or aerosolized endospores, but it can ...


Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya May 2014

Determining The Presence Of Carbapenem Antibiotic Resistance In Clinical Isolates, Fidelis Uzoma Enyinnaya

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Carbapenems are β-lactam antibiotics reserved for the treatment of severe microbial infections, especially those targeting the Enterobacteriaceae. Introduced in the 1980s, carbapenems have been used successfully in hospitals, and in the 1990s resistance was discovered. Carbapenem resistance is conferred through the production of carbapenemases. In the U.S., the most common carbapenemase is Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). In 2012, the National Healthcare Safety Network reported a carbapenem resistance rate of 13.0% among Klebsiella pneumoniae infections, and indicated that the mortality rate associated with carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections ranged from 48.0-71.9%. According to the Food and Drug ...


The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin May 2013

The Role Of Oswrky71 And Its Interacting Proteins In Seed Germination And Early Growth Of Cereal Grains, Margaret Ja Shin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

During seed germination and early seedling growth, complex molecular and physiological events occur in rice (Oryza sativa) and other cereal grains. As the seed transitions to vegetative tissue, it responds to both favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions and is vulnerable to attack by predation and disease. Although seeds are relatively small and tender in size, extensive and sophisticated molecular networks enables the immobile seed to grow, survive and adapt in its environment. One of the networks I am interested in is in the crosstalk between the gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. These pathways are interesting because they ...


Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller Dec 2012

Secondary Structure, A Missing Component Of Sequence- Based Minimotif Definitions, David P. Sargeant, Michael R. Gryk, Mark W. Maciejewsk, Vishal Thapar, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Pedro Romero, Keith Dunker, Shun-Cheng Li, Tomonori Kaneko, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Minimotifs are short contiguous segments of proteins that have a known biological function. The hundreds of thousands of minimotifs discovered thus far are an important part of the theoretical understanding of the specificity of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, and signal transduction that occur in cells. However, a longstanding problem is that the different abstractions of the sequence definitions do not accurately capture the specificity, despite decades of effort by many labs. We present evidence that structure is an essential component of minimotif specificity, yet is not used in minimotif definitions. Our analysis of several known minimotifs as case studies, analysis ...


Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala Dec 2012

Characterization Of Beryllium As A Novel Agent To Study Cell Cycle Arrest And Cellular Senescence, Priyatham Gorjala

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Cancer cells evade senescence, apoptosis, and other constraints on proliferation, often via mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene (TP53). Normal human lung fibroblasts have been shown to enter premature senescence upon exposure to beryllium. In these cells, BeSO4 stabilizes p53 protein, increases p21 gene expression, induces senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and causes cell proliferation arrest. In the present study, we have investigated whether BeSO4 is able to induce similar effects in cancer cells that have wildtype p53. We have demonstrated that beryllium salt at low concentration can induce molecular changes in the p53 signaling pathway leading to cell ...


Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller Sep 2012

Achieving High Accuracy Prediction Of Minimotifs, Tian Mi, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Michael R. Gryk, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The low complexity of minimotif patterns results in a high false-positive prediction rate, hampering protein function prediction. A multi-filter algorithm, trained and tested on a linear regression model, support vector machine model, and neural network model, using a large dataset of verified minimotifs, vastly improves minimotif prediction accuracy while generating few false positives. An optimal threshold for the best accuracy reaches an overall accuracy above 90%, while a stringent threshold for the best specificity generates less than 1% false positives or even no false positives and still produces more than 90% true positives for the linear regression and neural network ...


Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan Dec 2011

Global And Specific Controls Of Protein Synthesis In Hibernators, Peipei Pan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Mammalian hibernation is a highly dynamic physiological process that is composed of a series of torpor bouts, wherein hibernators oscillate between periods of torpor and interbout arousal. Although normally vital to homeostasis, many energetically consumptive processes such as translation or protein synthesis are virtually ceased during hibernation. Earlier studies indicated that protein synthesis had fallen to almost negligible levels. Cap-dependent initiation of translation is well regulated by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its binding partner eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) when hibernators cycle in and out the torpor state. Herein, I investigated well-characterized regulatory mechanisms of global and specific ...


A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu Dec 2011

A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method For The Detection Of Selenomonas Noxia, Arthuro Mehretu

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In recent studies, periodontal health has been linked to being overweight and/or obese. Among common oral bacteria, Selenomonas noxia has been implicated in converting periodontal health to disease. Selenomonas spp. have also been found in gastric ulcers, and were misdiagnosed as Helicobacter -like organisms, but no further studies were conducted. The increasing clinical and epidemiological importance of S. noxia necessitates the development of a rapid detection method. In this study, a TaqMan 16S rRNA based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was developed, optimized and evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of S. noxia . The 16S PCR assay ...


Investigating The Origin Of Coprolites From Three Great Basin Caves, Chelsey Vandrisse, Duane P. Moser, David Rhode Aug 2011

Investigating The Origin Of Coprolites From Three Great Basin Caves, Chelsey Vandrisse, Duane P. Moser, David Rhode

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

The study of coprolites (mummified feces) is a relatively new endeavor, which enables investigations of the health and diet of ancient people and provides some of the oldest evidence to date for the human habitation in North America (2). In this project, 18 coprolites were examined from archeological digs at three Great Basin caves: the Bonneville Estates Rockshelter (UT), Hidden Cave (NV), and Top of the Terrace Rockshelter (UT). The main objectives were: 1) to verify human origin through the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 2) assuming human origin, characterize intestinal microflora of Native Americans prior to European contact ...


Inactivation Of Spo0a Gene Increases Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis, Denisse Reyes, Amanda Prisbrey, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto Aug 2011

Inactivation Of Spo0a Gene Increases Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis, Denisse Reyes, Amanda Prisbrey, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Stationary phase mutagenesis occurs when a population of cells acquires mutations conferring escape from nongrowing or stress conditions. This type of mutations is observed in nutritionally starved cells. Because the mutations occur after the onset of stress and in cells that are in non-replicative conditions, elucidating the underlying mechanisms contributes novel views to the process of evolution and apply to the formation of cancer in human cells and antibiotic resistance in microbial pathogens. Studies have shown that in Bacillus subtilis, the Mfd protein which is a transcription repair coupling factor is necessary for this phenomenon to occur. Here, we investigate ...


Identification Of Nitrifying Bacteria Contained In A Commercial Inoculant Using Molecular Biology Techniques, Anthony Harrington, John Perry, Penny S. Amy Aug 2011

Identification Of Nitrifying Bacteria Contained In A Commercial Inoculant Using Molecular Biology Techniques, Anthony Harrington, John Perry, Penny S. Amy

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Nitrifying bacteria play an important role in aquatic and terrestrial environments through the nitrogen cycle. Nitrification, one of the processes of the nitrogen cycle, refers to the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate. This process requires two types of chemoautotrophic bacteria, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). These bacteria are essential in maintaining an optimal environment for plants and aquatic organisms, such as fish. Current applications of nitrifiers include: inoculants for aquariums, biofertilizers, and nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants. This study wants to identify a consortium of nitrifers that can be used to produce sufficient nitrate for plants in ...


The Role Of An Abc Transporter As A Steroid Antagonist In Drosophila, Gregory King, Andrew Andres Aug 2011

The Role Of An Abc Transporter As A Steroid Antagonist In Drosophila, Gregory King, Andrew Andres

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Drosophila melanogaster are holometabolous insects that have several distinct life stages including larvae and a winged adult. The larval stage is mainly a time of feeding and growth, while the adult stage is optimized for sexual reproduction and dissemination. The larval stage can itself be divided into three time periods, or instars: 1st (L1), 2nd (L2), and 3rd (L3) (Figure 1). Larval growth – both between instars and beyond – depends on specific signaling pathways controlled by a cholesterol derived steroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Although 20E is a systemic developmental signal, little is known about the molecular details of how different tissues respond ...


Regulation Of The Shigella Flexneri Icsp Gene And H-Ns Dependent Repression, Rosa Ojeda, Amanda Wigley, Dustin Harrison, Helen Wing Aug 2011

Regulation Of The Shigella Flexneri Icsp Gene And H-Ns Dependent Repression, Rosa Ojeda, Amanda Wigley, Dustin Harrison, Helen Wing

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

The gram negative bacterium Shigella flexneri is known to cause dysentery in humans and primates. In order to help prevent the spread of shigellosis, gene regulation must be understood. Studies show that the virulence genes in S .flexneri are thermo regulated. At 30°C histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) represses transcription of virulence genes and at 37°C VirB derepresses virulence genes. One of the genes that contribute to the virulence of S. flexneri is icsP. My project focuses on the regulation of the S. flexneri icsP gene and has two main goals. The first is to identify the sequence ...


Dna Secondary Structures And Their Contribution To Mutagenesis In B. Subtilis Stationary Phase Cells, Carmen Vallin, Holly Martin, Christian Ross, Ronald Yasbin, Eduardo Robleto Aug 2011

Dna Secondary Structures And Their Contribution To Mutagenesis In B. Subtilis Stationary Phase Cells, Carmen Vallin, Holly Martin, Christian Ross, Ronald Yasbin, Eduardo Robleto

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

It is widely known and accepted that the cause of many mutations in cells are generated during the replication process of actively dividing cells, however more recent research has shown that mutations also arise in non growing conditions, a phenomenon known as stationary phase mutagenesis. Much of what is known come from studies in eukaryotic and bacterial models. It has been proposed that in non~growing cells, the process of transcription plays an important role in mutagenesis. We test the hypothesis that DNA secondary structures, formed during transcription, promote mutagenesis. The transcription-generated structures are speculated to be prone to mutations ...


Synthesis Of Chimeric Receptors Essential For Spore Germination, Christopher Yip, Christian Ross, Eduardo Robleto, Ernesto Abel-Santos Aug 2011

Synthesis Of Chimeric Receptors Essential For Spore Germination, Christopher Yip, Christian Ross, Eduardo Robleto, Ernesto Abel-Santos

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

Various species of bacteria have been reported to form an endospore, a metabolically dormant cell, during times of nutrient deficiencies and extreme stress. These said structures are outstandingly resistant to harsh chemicals, extreme temperatures, and can revert back to a metabolically active cell, through a process known as germination, when the necessary conditions are met. The rigid membrane of the endospore contains various germination (Ger) receptors which sense the external environment for necessary metabolites and germinants. Ger receptors are encoded by tricistronic operons that produce three distinct membrane proteins, the A, B, and C subunits. Although the function of the ...


Molecular Evolution And Historical Biogeography Of New World Birds, Brian T. Smith May 2011

Molecular Evolution And Historical Biogeography Of New World Birds, Brian T. Smith

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Deciphering the patterns of how biodiversity has evolved across time and space has remained a fundamental objective for biologists for the last 200 years. Researchers are faced with the challenge of interpreting the complexity of evolutionary patterns that have been generated over the deep history of the Earth. The advancement of DNA sequencing technology has yielded a new and powerful genetic toolkit that has allowed biologists to address novel evolutionary questions. For my dissertation research, I used molecular genetics and a statistical framework to study the evolution and historical biogeography of birds distributed in North and South America. My dissertation ...


Characterization Of Ips Pini Ipsdienol Dehydrogenase (Idol Dh), Heidi Pak, Claus Tittiger, William Welch Apr 2011

Characterization Of Ips Pini Ipsdienol Dehydrogenase (Idol Dh), Heidi Pak, Claus Tittiger, William Welch

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Ipsdienol is an important pheromone component for pine engraver beetle, Ips pini. Ipsdienol is a ten carbon monoterpenoid secondary alcohol and ipsdienone is the corresponding ketone. We are characterizing the activity of recombinant IDOL DH produced in Sf9 (insect) cells. The enzyme has a high stereospecificity: (-) ipsdienol was found to be a substrate while (+)-ipsdienol was neither a substrate nor inhibitor. Closely related monoterpenoids, such as nerol, geraniol, and citral, were neither substrates nor inhibitors. Smaller compounds, such as 2-propanol, also failed to act as an inhibitor or substrate. This indicates the binding site of this enzyme is highly selective ...


The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos Apr 2011

The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Anthrax infection starts with germination of Bacillus anthracis spores in macrophages. Some bacteria, including B. anthracis, can sporulate in response to environmental stress, such as starvation. During germination, large concentrations of calcium ions are released from the B. anthracis spore. Calcium ions are hydrophilic secondary messengers, and may therefore interfere with detection of the spore by confusing the cell signaling pathways. We investigated calcium release on infected macrophage viability by replacing the calcium stored in B. anthracis spores for other cations via demineralization/remineralization. It was discovered that calcium ions typically out-performed other cations in germination of B. anthracis.


Scireader Enables Reading Of Medical Content With Instantaneous Definitions, Patrick R. Gradie, Megan Litster, Rinu Thomas, Jay Vyas, Martin Schiller Jan 2011

Scireader Enables Reading Of Medical Content With Instantaneous Definitions, Patrick R. Gradie, Megan Litster, Rinu Thomas, Jay Vyas, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material.

Methods

SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used bySciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used ...


Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso Dec 2010

Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a vital process intimately involved in the embryonic development and homeostatic maintenance of all multicellular organisms. The committing step to apoptosis is regulated by a key protein, Bax, and its ability to integrate and form a pore structure at the outer mitochondrial membrane.


Unfortunately, the molecular details of apoptosis remain largely unclear due to the lack of structural data of integral membrane (IM) Bax. Experimental limitations of membrane protein production have slowed the pursuit of an IM-Bax structure simply because standard protocols for producing recombinant IM-Bax are inefficient in producing adequate quantities of IM-Bax ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley Dec 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Shigella Virulence Plasmid-Encoded Genes By Virb And Crp, Christopher Thomas Hensley

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative intracellular pathogens that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Shigella relies on the precise transcriptional regulation of virulence genes, encoded by a large virulence plasmid, for invasion and infection of human colonic epithelial cells. The transcription of most identified virulence genes are regulated through a cascade controlled by the primary regulator of virulence genes, VirF, and the global transcriptional regulator, VirB. Currently, few studies have addressed how individual Shigella virulence genes are precisely regulated for optimal expression during specific stages of pathogenesis and within the constraints of the regulatory cascade. This work addresses how ...


The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino Aug 2010

The Larval Salivary Gland Of Drosophila Melangogaster: A Model System For Temporal And Spatial Steroid Hormone Regulation, Benjamin Constantino

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Drosophila melanogaster provides an ideal model organism to test genetic and molecular biological mechanisms within the context of a living animal. For over one hundred years Drosophila continues to produce a boundless extent of informative and important scientific data providing crucial insight into development, disease progression and genetic interactions. A century as a model organism allowed for the development of an abundance of unique genetic and molecular tools allowing researchers to tease apart cellular mechanisms with very little limitation. From the whole adult body to tissue function to molecular networks, if a biological question arises it most likely can be ...


Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller May 2010

Mimosa: A System For Minimotif Annotation, Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Thomas Meusburger, David P. Sargeant, Krishna Kadaveru, Michael R. Gryk, Vamsi Kundeti, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Martin Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Minimotifs are short peptide sequences within one protein, which are recognized by other proteins or molecules. While there are now several minimotif databases, they are incomplete. There are reports of many minimotifs in the primary literature, which have yet to be annotated, while entirely novel minimotifs continue to be published on a weekly basis. Our recently proposed function and sequence syntax for minimotifs enables us to build a general tool that will facilitate structured annotation and management of minimotif data from the biomedical literature.

RESULTS:

We have built the MimoSA application for minimotif annotation. The application supports management of ...


Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller Apr 2010

Partitioning Of Minimotifs Based On Function With Improved Prediction Accuracy, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Tian Mi, Jerlin Camilus Merlin, Aaron Oommen, Patrick R. Gradie, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences in proteins that are known to have a function in at least one other protein. One of the principal limitations in minimotif prediction is that false positives limit the usefulness of this approach. As a step toward resolving this problem we have built, implemented, and tested a new data-driven algorithm that reduces false-positive predictions.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Certain domains and minimotifs are known to be strongly associated with a known cellular process or molecular function. Therefore, we hypothesized that by restricting minimotif predictions to those where the minimotif containing protein and target protein ...


From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth Apr 2010

From The Valleys To The Mountains: The Biographic History Of Antelope Squirrels, Bats, And Chipmunks In Western North America, Stacy James Mantooth

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Genetic differentiation within and between species often coincides with significant geological or climatic changes that have shaped the sizes and locations of their geographic ranges and altered the connectivity between populations over time. Across western North America, many endemic taxa experienced high levels of initial divergence associated with geological transformations of the Neogene, with subsequent diversification and geographic structuring of populations associated with climatic changes during the Quaternary. As such, we can use a combination of molecular markers and genetic analyses to effectively examine the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of populations, species, and regional biotas whose signatures of differentiation are ...


Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller Oct 2009

Venn, A Tool For Titrating Sequence Conservation Onto Protein Structures, Jay Vyas, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Residue conservation is an important, established method for inferring protein function, modularity and specificity. It is important to recognize that it is the 3D spatial orientation of residues that drives sequence conservation. Considering this, we have built a new computational tool, VENN that allows researchers to interactively and graphically titrate sequence homology onto surface representations of protein structures. Our proposed titration strategies reveal critical details that are not readily identified using other existing tools. Analyses of a bZIP transcription factor and receptor recognition of Fibroblast Growth Factor using VENN revealed key specificity determinants. Weblink: http://sbtools.uchc.edu/venn/.


A Proposed Syntax For Minimotif Semantics, Version 1., Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Mark W. Maciejewski, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller Aug 2009

A Proposed Syntax For Minimotif Semantics, Version 1., Jay Vyas, Ronald J. Nowling, Mark W. Maciejewski, Sanguthevar Rajasekaran, Michael R. Gryk, Martin R. Schiller

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

One of the most important developments in bioinformatics over the past few decades has been the observation that short linear peptide sequences (minimotifs) mediate many classes of cellular functions such as protein-protein interactions, molecular trafficking and post-translational modifications. As both the creators and curators of a database which catalogues minimotifs, Minimotif Miner, the authors have a unique perspective on the commonalities of the many functional roles of minimotifs. There is an obvious usefulness in standardizing functional annotations both in allowing for the facile exchange of data between various bioinformatics resources, as well as the internal clustering of sets of ...