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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe Feb 2019

Toward A Rhetoric Of Dna: The Advent Of Crispr, Michael J. Zerbe

Poroi

The nucleic acid DNA, which contains an organism’s genetic information, consists of a four-letter alphabet that has until recently been characterized as a read-only text. The development of a quick, inexpensive DNA targeting and manipulation technique called CRISPR, pronounced “crisper,” though, has changed DNA from this arhetorical, read-only data set, as it has been characterized in the rhetoric literature to date, to a fully rhetorical text—one that can be not only read but created, interpreted, copied, altered, and stored as well. The Book of Nature, an idea with roots in antiquity but popularized during the nineteenth century, provides ...


Substrate Recognition By The Yeast Rev1 Protein And Dna Polymerase Ζ, Craig A Howell Jan 2008

Substrate Recognition By The Yeast Rev1 Protein And Dna Polymerase Ζ, Craig A Howell

Theses and Dissertations

DNA damage blocks replication by classical DNA polymerases, those that replicate nondamaged DNA during normal DNA replication and repair, by altering the geometry of the DNA. Consequently, translesion synthesis, the replication of damaged DNA, is catalyzed by non-classical DNA polymerases, which are capable of accommodating the inherent distorted geometry of damaged DNA.

The yeast Rev1 protein (Rev1p) specifically catalyzes the incorporation of cytosine opposite template guanine and several types of DNA damage utilizing a unique mechanism of nucleotide selection whereby the sidechain of Arg-324 acts as the template by forming hydrogen bonds with the incoming cytosine. To better understand the ...


Mechanisms Of Human Epithelial Cell Immortalization And P16nk4a Induced Telomere-Independent Sencescence, Benjamin Will Darbro Jan 2007

Mechanisms Of Human Epithelial Cell Immortalization And P16nk4a Induced Telomere-Independent Sencescence, Benjamin Will Darbro

Theses and Dissertations

As human epithelial cells age in culture, protein levels of the tumor suppressor protein p16INK4a continue to increase resulting in growth arrest independent of telomere length. Telomere-independent senescence induced by the p16INK4a/Rb tumor suppressor pathway prevents many epithelial cells from becoming immortalized by telomerase alone. Differences in culture conditions have been hypothesized to modulate both p16INK4a expression and replicative capacity of human epithelial cells; however, the mechanism(s) of p16INK4a regulation under these conditions is unknown.

We have demonstrated that p16INK4a expression is delayed and replicative capacity increased in human keratinocytes grown in co-culture ...


Post Transcriptional Regulation Of Cyclin E During The Embryonic Development Of Xenopus Laevis, Michael Keith Slevin Jan 2006

Post Transcriptional Regulation Of Cyclin E During The Embryonic Development Of Xenopus Laevis, Michael Keith Slevin

Theses and Dissertations

The embryonic cell cycle of Xenopus laevis consists of rapid oscillations between S and M phase occurring in the absence of gap phases and their associated regulatory checkpoints. The end of the 12th cell cycle marks the onset of the midblastula transition (MBT) when the cell cycle lengthens establishing gap phases, their associated checkpoint pathways, and the initiation of zygotic transcription.

During cell cycles 2-12, cyclins A and B are translated and expressed once per cell cycle until the MBT when their protein levels decrease due to a newly transcribed zygotic factor that leads to the deadenylation and subsequent loss ...


Innate Immune Responses In The Lung And Liver, Rana Basem Dajani Jan 2005

Innate Immune Responses In The Lung And Liver, Rana Basem Dajani

Theses and Dissertations

The innate immune system provides nonspecific defenses against pathogens. Many diseases occur because of malfunctions in the innate immune system. In the present thesis, I have investigated two independent mechanisms of innate immunity in the lung and liver. Both mechanisms involve responses to bacterial infection and/or components of the bacterial wall (lipopolysaccharide). In the first model, I studied the role of submucosal glands in lung innate immunity through the use of tracheal xenograft airways with and without glands. This work provides evidence that submucosal glands are a major source of antibacterials that are critical for maintaining sterile airways. In ...


Modifier Genes In The Phenotypic Manifestation Of Primary Disease-Causing Mutations, Suma Prabhu Shankar Jan 2005

Modifier Genes In The Phenotypic Manifestation Of Primary Disease-Causing Mutations, Suma Prabhu Shankar

Theses and Dissertations

Primary disease-causing mutations have been identified in many inherited eye diseases. However, there is a wide range of variation in the penetrance and phenotypic expression of these mutations, making identification of the mutation alone insufficient in providing accurate prognosis and treatment. We studied two genetic eye diseases in which the primary disease-causing mutations have been identified: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a maternally transmitted disorder caused by mitochondrial mutations, and autosomal dominant retinal dystrophies (adRD), caused by a splice site mutation (IVS2+3A→T) in the peripherin/RDS gene. Incomplete penetrance in LHON and phenotypic variation in adRD suggest a ...