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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Expression And Regulation Of Human Cytochrome P450 4f Isoforms In Tissue Samples And Under Tnf-Alpha Challenges, Jordan C. Bell May 2011

Expression And Regulation Of Human Cytochrome P450 4f Isoforms In Tissue Samples And Under Tnf-Alpha Challenges, Jordan C. Bell

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

CYP4F (Cytochrome P4504F) enzymes metabolize endogenous molecules including leukotrienes, prostaglandins and arachidonic acid. The involvement of these endogenous compounds in inflammation has led to the hypothesis that changes in the inflamed tissue environment may affect the expression of CYP4Fs during the pro-inflammatory state, which in turn may modulate inflammatory conditions during the anti-inflammatory state. We demonstrated that inflamed tissues have different levels of CYP4F isoform expression profiles in a number of human samples when compared to the average population. The CYP4F isoform expression levels change with the degree of inflammation present in tissue. Further investigation in cell culture studies revealed ...


A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully May 2011

A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mitotic kinase Aurora B plays a pivotal role in mitosis and cytokinesis and governs the spindle assembly checkpoint which ensures correct chromosome segregation and normal progression through mitosis. Aurora B is overexpressed in breast and other cancers and may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. Tumor suppressor p53 is the guardian of the genome and an important negative regulator of the cell cycle. Previously, it was unknown whether Aurora B and p53 had mutual regulation during the cell cycle. A small molecule specific inhibitor of Aurora B, AZD1152, gave us an indication that Aurora B negatively impacted p53 ...


Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn Dec 2010

Elucidating Functional Roles For Myogenin In Adult Skeletal Muscle Metabolism, Exercise Capacity, And Regeneration, Jesse Flynn

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The four basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription factors, myogenin, Myf5, MRF4, and MyoD are critical for embryonic skeletal muscle development. Myogenin is necessary for the terminal differentiation of myoblasts into myofibers during embryogenesis, but little is known about the roles played by myogenin in adult skeletal muscle function and metabolism. Furthermore, while metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, how it is regulated at the transcriptional level remains poorly understood. In this study, my aim was to determine the function of myogenin in adult skeletal muscle metabolism, exercise capacity, and regeneration. To investigate this, I utilized a mouse strain harboring the Myogflox ...


Dynamic Remodeling Of The Stressed Heart: Role Of Protein Degradation Pathways, Deborah Vela Dec 2010

Dynamic Remodeling Of The Stressed Heart: Role Of Protein Degradation Pathways, Deborah Vela

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The heart is a remarkable organ. In order to maintain its function, it remodels in response to a variety of environmental stresses, including pressure overload, volume overload, mechanical or pharmacological unloading and hormonal or metabolic disturbances. All these responses are linked to the inherent capacity of the heart to rebuild itself. Particularly, cardiac pressure overload activates signaling pathways of both protein synthesis and degradation. While much is known about regulators of protein synthesis, little is known about regulators of protein degradation in hypertrophy. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) selectively degrades unused and abnormal intracellular proteins. I speculated that the UPS may ...


Artemis Interacts With The Cul4a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Complex And Regulates The Cell Cycle Progression, Yiyi Yan Aug 2010

Artemis Interacts With The Cul4a Ubiquitin E3 Ligase Complex And Regulates The Cell Cycle Progression, Yiyi Yan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Artemis, a member of the SNM1 gene family, is one of the six known components of the non-homologous end joining pathway. It is a multifunctional phospho-protein that has been shown to be modified by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PIKs) DNA-PKcs, ATM and ATR in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Artemis has important roles in V(D)J recombination, DNA double strand breaks repair and damage-induced cell-cycle checkpoint regulation. The detailed mechanism by which Artemis mediates its functions in these cellular pathways needs to be further elucidated. My work presented here demonstrates a new function for Artemis in cell cycle ...


Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin Aug 2010

Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cancer cause of death in the US. Gemcitabine is the first-line therapy for this disease, but unfortunately it shows only very modest benefit. The focus of the current study was to investigate the role and regulation of EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in PDAC, to further understand this disease and identify new therapeutic targets.

The role of EphA2 was determined in PDAC by siRNA mediated silencing. In combination with gemcitabine, silencing of EphA2 caused a dramatic increase in apoptosis even in highly resistant cells in vitro. Furthermore, EphA2 silencing was found ...


Specific, Reversible Cytostatic Protection Of Normal Cells Against Negative Effects Of Chemotherapy, Benjamin B. Mull Aug 2010

Specific, Reversible Cytostatic Protection Of Normal Cells Against Negative Effects Of Chemotherapy, Benjamin B. Mull

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Chemotherapy is a common and effective method to treat many forms of cancer. However, treatment of cancer with chemotherapy has severe side effects which often limit the doses of therapy administered. Because some cancer chemotherapeutics target proliferating cells and tissues, all dividing cells, whether normal or tumor, are affected. Cell culture studies have demonstrated that UCN-01 is able to reversibly and selectively arrest normal dividing cells; tumor cells lines do not undergo this temporary arrest. Following UCN-01 treatment, normal cells displayed a 50-fold increase in IC50 for camptothecin; tumor cells showed no such increased tolerance.

We have examined the response ...


A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee May 2010

A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and the most common non-skin cancer in men in the USA. Considerable advancements in the practice of medicine have allowed a significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease and, in recent years, both incidence and mortality rates have been slightly declining. However, it is still estimated that 1 man in 6 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, and 1 man in 35 will die of the disease.

In order to identify novel strategies and effective therapeutic approaches in the fight against prostate cancer, it ...


Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse May 2010

Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. We have shown that neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) can developmentally reprogram the reproductive tract in genetically susceptible Eker rats giving rise to complete penetrance of uterine leiomyoma. Based on this, we hypothesized that xenoestrogens, including genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA), reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium and promote the development of uterine leiomyoma. We proposed the mechanism that is responsible for the developmental reprogramming of gene expression was through ...


Functions Of Deadenylation Factors In Mrna Decay And Mrna Processing Body Formation, Dinghai Zheng Sep 1980

Functions Of Deadenylation Factors In Mrna Decay And Mrna Processing Body Formation, Dinghai Zheng

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Most newly synthesized messenger RNAs possess a 5’ cap and a 3’ poly(A) tail. The process of poly(A) tail shortening, also termed deadenylation, is important for post-transcriptional gene regulation, because deadenylation not only leads to mRNA translational inhibition but also is the first step of major mRNA degradation. Translationally inhibited mRNAs can be stored and/or degraded in dynamic cytoplasmic foci termed mRNA processing bodies, or P bodies, which are conserved in eukaryotes.

To shed new light on the mechanisms of P body formation and P body functions, I focused on the link between deadenylation factors and P ...