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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen Dec 2017

The Functions Of Setd5 And Mir-221 In Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation, Tsai-Yu Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are a widely used model system to study cellular differentiation because of their pluripotent characteristics, and ESC differentiation is an epigenetic process. In an effort to identify a new epigenetic factor that is required for ESC differentiation, the function of SETD5 in ESCs was studied for this thesis. Results show that SETD5 is essential for retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of mouse ESCs and for RA-induced expression of critical developmental genes (e.g., Hoxa1 and Hoxa2) and neuron-related genes (e.g., Nestin and Pax6). SETD5 was upregulated during ESC differentiation. Additional results demonstrated that SETD5 bound ...


Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry Dec 2017

Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects various mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the nasal and oral cavities, the nasopharynx, and the oropharynx. More than five hundred thousand new cases of HNSCC occurred in 2011 alone, with 50,000 reported cases in the United States. This trend made HNSCC the seventh most common non-skin cancer worldwide (Ferlay et al., 2015). Although significant epidemiological and pathological advancements have been made, survival rates have not improved much over the last 40 years, leaving a mortality rate that remains at approximately 50%. An unbiased drug screen demonstrated that HNSCC ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes Dec 2017

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno Aug 2017

Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Triple-negative (TNBC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer are the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, accounting for 20% and 10% of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Among IBC cases, 30% are additionally classified with TNBC molecular pathology, a diagnosis that significantly worsens patient’s prognosis. The current lack of TNBC and IBC molecular understanding prevents the development of effective therapeutic strategies. To identify effective treatments, we explored aberrant apoptosis pathways and cell membrane fluidity as novel therapeutic targets.

We first identified an effective therapeutic strategy against TNBC and IBC by pro-apoptotic protein NOXA-mediated inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 following inhibition of ...


Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang Aug 2017

Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors, signaling pathways and co-regulators, with complex cross-regulatory events often occurring. Growing evidence has identified chromatin modifiers as important regulators for development as well, yet how particular chromatin modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes remains largely unclear. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent, and have the abilities to generate almost all cell types in adult tissues. The dual capacity of ESCs to self-renew and differentiate offers unlimited potential for studying gene regulation events at specific developmental stages in vitro that parallel developmental events during embryogenesis in vivo.

In ...


Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang Aug 2017

Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major arginine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the addition of one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of its substrate proteins. The best-known substrate for PRMT1 is histone, while more and more non-histone proteins are now found to be methylated by PRMT1. Dysregulation of PRMT1 is reported in several human cancer types. However, its biological roles in human pancreatic cancer initiation and development are still unclear. In the first part of this study, I found that the expression level of PRMT1 was elevated in both human and mouse pancreatic cancer tissues in immunohistochemistry ...


Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino May 2017

Fret-Based Investigations Of The Structure-Function Relationships In The Nmda Receptor, Drew M. Dolino

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is one member of a class of proteins known as the ionotropic glutamate receptors. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system, with the NMDA receptor standing out among these receptors for its requirement of a co-agonist, its magnesium-block-based coincidence detection, its slow kinetics, its calcium permeability, its allosteric modulation, and its especially important functional roles in synaptic plasticity, excitotoxicity, and more. In recent years, a wealth of structural information has come about describing endpoint structures to high resolution, but such structures are unable to fully resolve the movements ...


Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa May 2017

Non-Coding Rnas Identify The Intrinsic Molecular Subtypes Of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer, Andrea E. Ochoa

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

NON-CODING RNAS IDENTIFY THE INTRINSIC MOLECULAR SUBTYPES OF MUSCLE-INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

Andrea Elizabeth Ochoa, B.S.

Advisory Professors: David J. McConkey, Ph.D. and Joya Chandra, Ph.D.

There has been a recent explosion of genomics data in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) to better understand the underlying biology of the disease that leads to the high amount of heterogeneity that is seen clinically. These studies have identified relatively stable intrinsic molecular subtypes of MIBC that show similarities to the basal and luminal subtypes of breast cancer. However, previous studies have primarily focused on protein-coding genes or DNA mutations/alterations.

There ...


Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia May 2017

Analysis Of The Biochemical And Cellular Activities Of Substrate Binding By The Molecular Chaperone Hsp110/Sse1, Veronica M. Garcia

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular chaperones ensure protein quality during protein synthesis, delivery, damage repair, and degradation. The ubiquitous and highly conserved molecular chaperone 70-kDa heat-shock proteins (Hsp70s) are essential in maintaining protein homeostasis by cycling through high and low affinity binding of unfolded protein clients to facilitate folding. The Hsp110 class of chaperones are divergent relatives of Hsp70 that are extremely effective in preventing protein aggregation but lack the hallmark folding activity seen in Hsp70s. Hsp110s serve as Hsp70 nucleotide exchange factors (NEF) that facilitate the Hsp70 folding cycle by inducing release of protein substrate from Hsp70, thus recycling the chaperone for a ...


Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul May 2017

Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genomes of all organisms are continuously damaged by numerous exogenous and endogenous sources leading to different kinds of DNA lesions, which if not repaired efficiently may trigger wide-scale genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer development. To overcome this, cells have evolved a sophisticated sensory network called the DNA damage response (DDR) comprised of a large number of distinct protein complexes categorized as sensor, mediator, transducer and effector proteins that amplify the DNA damage signal and activate cell cycle checkpoint to initiate DNA repair or trigger apoptosis where the defect is beyond repair. This intricate signaling pathway is tightly regulated by ...


The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu May 2017

The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adenosine is a ubiquitous nucleoside in almost all the cells throughout our bodies. It is highly induced particularly under hypoxia or energy depletion conditions. Adenosine functions as a critical ligand, after binding to membrane-associated adenosine receptors, adenosine initiates a downstream signaling cascade and subsequently contributes to functions of nervous system, immune response, vascular function and even metabolism.

Hypoxia is a condition with limited O2 availability in the whole body or a region of the body. It is a major consequence of many respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for people living and working at high altitudes or other ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal May 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aging brings a gradual decline in molecular fidelity and biological functionality, resulting in age related phenotypes and diseases. Despite continued efforts to uncover the conserved aging pathways among eukaryotes, exact molecular causes of aging are still poorly understood. One of the most important hallmarks of aging is increased genomic instability. However, there remains much ambiguity as to the cause. I am studying the replicative life span (RLS) of the genetically tractable model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast using the innovative “mother enrichment program” as the method to isolate unparalleled numbers of aged yeast cells to investigate the molecular changes ...


A Rare Case Of Erythema Elevatum Diutinum Presenting As Diffuse Neuropathy., G H. Nguyen, E L. Guo, D Norris Jan 2017

A Rare Case Of Erythema Elevatum Diutinum Presenting As Diffuse Neuropathy., G H. Nguyen, E L. Guo, D Norris

BCM Faculty Publications

no abstract available