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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Fancm And Faap24 Maintain Genomic Stability Through Cooperative And Unique Functions, Yucai Wang Dec 2012

Fancm And Faap24 Maintain Genomic Stability Through Cooperative And Unique Functions, Yucai Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive genetic disease with an array of clinical manifestations including multiple congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and profound cancer susceptibility. A hallmark of cells derived from FA patients is hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC) and cisplatin, suggesting that FA- and FA-associated proteins play important roles in protecting cells from DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) damage. Two genes involved in the FA pathway, FANCM and FAAP24, are of particular interest because they contain DNA interacting domains. However, there are no definitive patient mutations for these two genes, and the ...


A Study On The Function Of 14-3-3sigma In Regulating Cancer Energy Metabolism, Liem M. Phan, Liem M. Phan Dec 2012

A Study On The Function Of 14-3-3sigma In Regulating Cancer Energy Metabolism, Liem M. Phan, Liem M. Phan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Metabolic reprogramming has been shown to be a major cancer hallmark providing tumor cells with significant advantages for survival, proliferation, growth, metastasis and resistance against anti-cancer therapies. Glycolysis, glutaminolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis are among the most essential cancer metabolic alterations because these pathways provide cancer cells with not only energy but also crucial metabolites to support large-scale biosynthesis, rapid proliferation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we find that 14-3-3σ suppresses all these three metabolic processes by promoting the degradation of their main driver, c-Myc. In fact, 14-3-3s significantly enhances c-Myc poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, reduces c-Myc transcriptional activity, and down-regulates ...


Differential Activity Of The Kras Oncogene By Method Of Activation: Implications For Signaling And Therapeutic Intervention, Nathan Ihle Dec 2012

Differential Activity Of The Kras Oncogene By Method Of Activation: Implications For Signaling And Therapeutic Intervention, Nathan Ihle

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Despite having been identified over thirty years ago and definitively established as having a critical role in driving tumor growth and predicting for resistance to therapy, the KRAS oncogene remains a target in cancer for which there is no effective treatment. KRas is activated b y mutations at a few sites, primarily amino acid substitutions at codon 12 which promote a constitutively active state. I have found that different amino acid substitutions at codon 12 can activate different KRas downstream signaling pathways, determine clonogenic growth potential and determine patient response to molecularly targeted therapies. Computer modeling of the KRas structure ...


Trim24-Regulated Estrogen Response Is Dependent On Specific Histone Modifications In Breast Cancer Cells, Teresa T. Yiu Dec 2012

Trim24-Regulated Estrogen Response Is Dependent On Specific Histone Modifications In Breast Cancer Cells, Teresa T. Yiu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In this dissertation, I discovered that function of TRIM24 as a co-activator

of ERα-mediated transcriptional activation is dependent on specific histone

modifications in tumorigenic human breast cancer-derived MCF7 cells. In the first

part, I proved that TRIM24-PHD finger domain, which recognizes unmethylated

histone H3 lysine K4 (H3K4me0), is critical for ERα-regulated transcription.

Therefore, when LSD1-mediated demethylation of H3K4 is inhibited, activation of

TRIM24-regulated ERα target genes is greatly impaired. Importantly, I

demonstrated that TRIM24 and LSD1 are cyclically recruited to estrogen

responsive elements (EREs) in a time-dependent manner upon estrogen

induction, and depletion of their expression exert corresponding time-dependent

effect ...


Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen Dec 2012

Functional Analysis Of Drosophila Integrator Complex In Snrna 3' End Processing, Jiandong Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Uridine-rich small nuclear RNAs (U snRNAs) play essential roles in eukaryotic gene expression by facilitating the removal of introns from mRNA precursors and the processing of the replication-dependent histone pre-mRNAs. Formation of the 3’ end of these snRNAs is carried out by a poorly characterized, twelve-membered protein complex named Integrator Complex.

In the effort to understand Integrator Complex function in the formation of the snRNA 3’ end, we performed a functional RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells to identify protein factors required for snRNA 3’ end formation. This screen was conducted by using a fluorescence-based reporter that elicits GFP expression ...


Tet1: A Unique Dna Demethylase For Maintenance Of Dna Methylation Pattern, Chunlei Jin Dec 2012

Tet1: A Unique Dna Demethylase For Maintenance Of Dna Methylation Pattern, Chunlei Jin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DNA methylation at the C5 position of cytosine (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) is a crucial epigenetic modification of the genome and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes in mammals, including embryonic development, transcription, X chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting and chromatin structure. Like histone modifications, DNA methylation is also dynamic and reversible. However, in contrast to well defined DNA methyltransferases, the enzymes responsible for erasing DNA methylation still remain to be studied. The ten-eleven translocation family proteins (TET1/2/3) were recently identified as Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent 5mC dioxygenases, which consecutively convert 5mC into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine both ...


Regulation Of Toxin Synthesis By Clostridium Difficile, Charles Darkoh Aug 2012

Regulation Of Toxin Synthesis By Clostridium Difficile, Charles Darkoh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Clostridium difficile is the leading definable cause of nosocomial diarrhea worldwide due to its virulence, multi-drug resistance, spore-forming ability, and environmental persistence. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been increasing exponentially in the last decade. Virulent strains of C. difficile produce either toxin A and/or toxin B, which are essential for the pathogenesis of this bacterium. Current methods for diagnosing CDI are mostly qualitative tests that detect the bacterium, the toxins, or the toxin genes. These methods do not differentiate virulent C. difficile strains that produce active toxins from non-virulent strains that do not produce toxins or ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof May 2012

Chemosensitization Of Hepatocellular Carcinoma To Gemcitabine By Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field-Induced Hyperthermia, Mustafa Raoof

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gemcitabine is a potent nucleoside analogue against solid tumors however drug resistance rapidly emerges. Removal of gemcitabine incorporated in the DNA by repair mechanisms could potentially contribute to resistance in chemo-refractory solid tumors. In this study, we evaluated homologous recombination repair of gemcitabine-stalled replication forks as a potential mechanism contributing to resistance. We also studied the effect of hyperthermia on homologous recombination pathway to explain the previously reported synergy between gemcitabine and hyperthermia. We found that hyperthermia degrades and inhibits localization of Mre11 to gemcitabine-stalled replication forks. Furthermore, gemcitabine-treated cells that were also treated with hyperthermia demonstrate a prolonged passage ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Syntaxin 6- And Microtubule- Mediated Intracellular Trafficking Contributes To Golgi And Nuclear Translocation Of Egfr, Yi Du May 2012

Syntaxin 6- And Microtubule- Mediated Intracellular Trafficking Contributes To Golgi And Nuclear Translocation Of Egfr, Yi Du

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Receptor-mediated endocytosis is well known for its degradation and recycling trafficking. Recent evidence shows that these cell surface receptors translocate from cell surface to different cellular compartments, including the Golgi, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the nucleus to regulate physiological and pathological functions. Although some trafficking mechanisms have been resolved, the mechanism of intracellular trafficking from cell surface to the Golgi is not yet completed understood. Here we report a mechanism of Golgi translocation of EGFR in which EGF-induced EGFR travels to the Golgi via microtubule (MT)-dependent movement by interacting with dynein and fuses with the Golgi through syntaxin ...