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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend Apr 2019

Effect Of Lead On Vma1 Atpase Gene Expression And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Sarah Butler, Jazmine E. Townsend

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Lead is an environmental toxin that has been sown to have deleterious effects on human health, including neurological defects, developmental delays, and bodily pain. The purpose of this experiment was to test whether prolonged exposure to lead altered expression of the VMA1 gene and feeding behavior in the model organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. The VMA1 gene encodes the protein VMA1 (Vacuolar Membrane ATPase) which assists in regulating active transport systems on the vacuolar membrane. We hypothesized that exposure of T. thermophila to lead would result in altered expression of the VMA1 gene and in the feeding behavior of these organisms. For ...


Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones Apr 2019

Investigating The Effect Of Phytosterol Concentration On The Des7 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Nate Burman, Dylan Jones

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

This study examined the impact of phytosterols on DES7 gene expression and feeding behavior in Tetrahymena thermophila. Tetrahymena thermophila are single-celled protists that are often used as model organisms for studying basic processes of Molecular Biology. One major topic in Molecular Biology that has been extensively studied in Tetrahymena is the concept of gene regulation. Gene regulation helps determine whether a certain protein is produced, and this often depends on both the internal and external conditions of the organism. This project took a closer look at the way Tetrahymena process exogenous cholesterol molecules through the production of the DES7 enzyme ...


Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz Apr 2019

Effects Of Ethanol On The Gene Expression Of Uracil Dna N-Glycosylase 1 (Ung1) And Growth Rate In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Samantha Mundel, Seth Berkowitz

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Alcohol (ethanol) interferes with human health in a variety of ways such as heart damage, liver damage, and specifically, DNA damage. The purpose of this experiment is to explore the effects of ethanol on the growth rate and expression of the uracil DNA N-Glycosylase (UNG1 ) gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. It was hypothesized that expression of UNG1, the gene that codes for the enzyme uracil DNA N-Glycosylase, would increase and that growth rate would decrease in Tetrahymena cells exposed to ethanol. Previous studies suggest that UNG1 expression is increased when DNA is damaged. This enzyme is involved in base excision repair ...


Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. Mcentee Apr 2019

Effect Of Turmeric On Oxidatively Stressed Tetrahymena Thermophila Cells, Logan Meeks, Luke R. Mcentee

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) are chemically reactive forms of oxygen that, within a cellular environment, form free radicals that interfere with cellular processes and damage DNA. ROSs are routinely produced during oxidative metabolic processes that occur within the mitochondria and their presence in the cell must be tightly regulated. The OXR1 gene encodes a protein that is essential to the degradation of ROSs primarily in the nucleus and in the mitochondria. In this study, we wanted to determine whether turmeric had a protective effect on ROS-induced oxidative stress through regulation of the OXR1 gene in the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila ...


Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete Apr 2019

Effect Of Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate On Tetrahymena Thermophila Dcl-1 Gene Expression And Conjugation, Talya Vaira, Peyton Twete

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Phthalates, often referred to as plasticizers, are a group of chemicals used in hundreds of products including detergents, food packaging, and nail polish. Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP) have recently been shown to disrupt endocrine chemical balances, thereby causing reproductive strain. For this project, we wanted to explore how DEHP influences conjugation in Tetrahymena thermophila and to determine how DEHP exposure affects expression of the DCL-1 gene. The DCL-1 gene encodes the protein DCL-1 which is essential for transmitting genetic information during the process of conjugation in T. thermophila. We hypothesized that DEHP will act as a repressor of conjugation resulting ...


Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill Apr 2019

Pesticides And Parkinson's: An Investigation Of The Effect Of Roundup Exposure On Drosophila Melanogaster, Siobhan O'Neill

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

From commercial farms to private households, Roundup is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States. In recent years, exposure to Roundup has been correlated with a variety of health problems including Celiac Disease, birth defects, kidney and liver diseases, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease. To date, the use of Roundup has been banned or restricted in several foreign countries, including the Netherlands, Portugal, Germany and Italy, because it has been classified as a possible carcinogen by the World Health Organization. The goal of this research was to determine the effects of Roundup exposure on dopaminergic neurons ...


The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker Apr 2019

The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Roundup is a very common herbicide in the United States, but has been linked to many detrimental health effects and was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization in 1994. Not much research has been done to elucidate the possible effects on non-cancer gene pathways.The goal of this project was to research the influence that exposure to Roundup has on the growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and the expression of the cytochrome p450 gene. It was hypothesized that Roundup exposure would change the expression of cytochrome p450 gene and would decrease the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila. Background ...


Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

Effect Of Egta On Sit1 Scramblase Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Emma Esposito, Theda Knauth, Amelia Ohnstad, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Scramblase is an enzyme that facilitates the movement of newly synthesized phospholipids from the cytosolic side to the extracellular side of the lipid bilayer. This process is vital for cell membrane repair and growth. In Tetrahymena thermophila, the gene SIT1 encodes for the Scramblase protein, whose functionality is Ca2+-dependent. In this experiment, the concentration of accessible Ca2+ ions was decreased in order to observe whether the change had an aect on the expression of SIT1 and cell growth. It was hypothesized that expression of the SIT1 gene would increase, while cell growth would decrease. To carry out the experiment ...


Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Brendan Mcmahon, Scott Kahle Apr 2018

Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Brendan Mcmahon, Scott Kahle

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Investigation of Tetrahymena Thermophila’s Response to Oxidative Damage

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does oxidative damage, induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), affect the growth rate and the expression of the OXR1 gene in Tetrahymena Thermophila? It was hypothesized that the expression of OXR1 would increase in Tetrahymena that were exposed to potassium bromate and that their growth rate would decrease. The exact mechanism and function of the OXR1 gene is still unknown, however, the literature suggests that it is required for oxidative damage resistance. To test the hypothesis Tetrahymena were randomly assigned to either ...


Investigating The Role Of Dnc-2 And Dli-1 On Ampa Receptor Mediated Behaviors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Natalie Oberding Apr 2018

Investigating The Role Of Dnc-2 And Dli-1 On Ampa Receptor Mediated Behaviors In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Natalie Oberding

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Γ-amino-3-hydroxy-5methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) are protein complexes involved in excitatory neurotransmission. AMPARs are tetrameric structures consisting of the pairings of GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 subunits. Dctn2 and Dync1li1 were found to interact with GluA2 in an immunoprecipitation screen that was performed on postnatal day 14 rat brains. DNC-2 and DLI-1 were identified as the C. elegans homologs of Dctn2 and Dync1li1, respectively, and are components of motor proteins that transport cargo throughout the cell. The goal of this project was to determine whether knocking down DNC-2 and DLI-1 by RNAi affects AMPA Receptor-mediated behaviors, including mechanosensation and chemosensation ...


Is Hif-1Α Required For V-Atpase-Dependent Regulation Of Glycolytic Enzymes?, Tyler Northrup Apr 2016

Is Hif-1Α Required For V-Atpase-Dependent Regulation Of Glycolytic Enzymes?, Tyler Northrup

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) is frequently up-regulated in tumors and tumor cell lines where it contributes to tumorigenic phenotypes, including the Warburg Effect (e.g. the phenomenon where glycolysis is preferred over oxidative phosphorylation (Vander Heiden et al. 2009)). The preferential use of glycolytic metabolism favored by tumor cells may be caused by at least two factors (Vander Heiden et al. 2009). First, the metabolic intermediates generated by the citric acid (TCA) cycle are used in a variety of anabolic pathways in the cell, and may supply a ready source of intermediate buildingblocks for biosynthetic processes. Second, hypoxia observed in some tumors ...


Investigating The Role Of Prp And Amyloid Beta Proteins In Ad And Other Protein-Misfolding Diseases, Steven Cornish Apr 2015

Investigating The Role Of Prp And Amyloid Beta Proteins In Ad And Other Protein-Misfolding Diseases, Steven Cornish

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Prion diseases are very rare, neurodegenerative diseases caused by misfolding of the Prion protein. The pathologies created by the misfolded protein are remarkably similar to those of Alzheimer’s disease. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the genomic and proteomic similarities between Prion proteins and several proteins implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While genomic similarity has been proven, studies are unclear as to whether any genomic mutations in PRNP affect the progression of AD. Studies have definitively proven that Prion protein interacts on a molecular level with several proteins implicated in AD. These interactions require further study to ...


The Effects Of Glycosylation On Prion Protein Conversion, Christopher Casebeer Apr 2010

The Effects Of Glycosylation On Prion Protein Conversion, Christopher Casebeer

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Glycosylation of the prion protein may be experimentally altered through expression in different insect cell lines. The presence or absence of several terminal sugars may or may not have an effect on the conversion efficiency of the prion protein into its infectious form. The main focus of this research was to characterize the prion protein as it is produced in two varying insect cell lines that are able to glycosylate proteins to different extents. Glycosidase treatment demonstrated that the expressed prion protein was glycosylated. Lectin blotting was used to assess the presence or absence of terminal sugar moieties existing on ...


The Development Of A Quantitative Assay To Measure The Effects Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase On Prion Protein Misfolding, Lauren Vogl Apr 2010

The Development Of A Quantitative Assay To Measure The Effects Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase On Prion Protein Misfolding, Lauren Vogl

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The objective ofthis project was to develop a quantitative assay to measure the misfolding ofprion proteins that can be used to assess the effects of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) on the misfolding process ofthe Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) prion protein. CWD is a spongiform encephalopathy native to animals in the family Cervidae, which includes whitetail deer, mule deer, elk and moose. CWD is caused by the misfolding ofprion proteins. Qualitative observations from previous studies indicate that disulfide bond rearrangement might be a rate limiting step in the misfolding process. There is a need to be able to quantitate the amount ...


Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman Apr 2010

Effect Of Membrane Cholesterol Levels And Allelic Variation On Prion Conversion, Ross Hartman

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is caused by an accumulation of misfolded prion proteins (PrPsc) and subsequent plaque formation in the central nervous system. CWD is horizontally transferable; misfolded prions from one animal can enter another and cause normal prion proteins (PrPc) to misfold. This misfolding process is termed prion conversion. In natural deer populations an allelic variation in the prion gene is thought to confer resistance to CWD. Wild type mule deer are serine (S) homozygotes at codon 225. Mule deer that are Serine/ Phenyalanine (S/F) heterozygotes exhibit resistance to prion infection. In this study the F encoding allele ...


Cloning Of A Rare Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Allele From Mule Deer, Martha Bankhead Apr 2009

Cloning Of A Rare Chronic Wasting Disease Prion Allele From Mule Deer, Martha Bankhead

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The prion protein is thought to be the causative agent for Chronic Wasting Disease in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Prion protein polymorphisms at amino acid 225 cause three different allele product combinations: homozygous 225 serine/serine, heterozygous 225 serine/phenylalanine, and homozygous 225 phenylalanine/phenylalanine. The most common combination of allele products in clinically progressed CWD in O. hemionus is serine/serine at 225. The phenylalanine substitution is underrepresented in diseased animals. The goal of this project was to clone the very rare phenylalanine encoding prion allele for future study. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the ...


Developing A Method For In Vitro Conversion Of Recombinant Mule Deer Prion Protein, Andrew Peterson Apr 2009

Developing A Method For In Vitro Conversion Of Recombinant Mule Deer Prion Protein, Andrew Peterson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) occurring in free-ranging and captive populations of deer and elk. CWD is thought to involve a misfolded protein called the prion protein. The misfolding SC mechanism remains unknown, but the conversion results from misfolded PrP contacting normal PrPc, and inducing a conformational change of PrPcto PrPsc. Previous studies have shown the normal cellular PrPc, isolated from mule deer brain, has the ability to misfold in vitro when incubated with misfolded PrPsc. Instead of using deer brain as a source of the normal cellular form of the prion protein, this project ...


The Effect Of Culture Medium Composition On The Localization Of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins In Yeast, Maria Miller Apr 2009

The Effect Of Culture Medium Composition On The Localization Of Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins In Yeast, Maria Miller

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Formation and degradation of peroxisomes are not well understood, but their absence leads to serious consequences. In the study described in this thesis, 1 sought to (1) verify previous work indicating that switching from glucose-rich medium to lipid-rich medium induces peroxisome formation; (2) reveal that switching back from lipid-rich to glucose-rich medium induces peroxisome degradation; (3) test the hypothesis that Pex3p is a class II PMP that enters the peroxisome from the endoplasmic reticulum during de novo peroxisome formation; and (4) test the hypothesis that Pxalp is a class I PMP that enters the peroxisomal membrane from the cytosol. I ...


The Effect Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (Pdi) On In Vitro Conversion Of Mule Deer Prion Proteins, Alexander Nixon Apr 2009

The Effect Of Protein Disulfide Isomerase (Pdi) On In Vitro Conversion Of Mule Deer Prion Proteins, Alexander Nixon

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The objective of this project was to study Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a form of spongiform encephalopathy native to animals in the family Cervidae. The infectious agent in CWD is a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrPSc), which has undergone conversion from the normal, cellular prion protein (PrPc). The prion protein contains a disulfide bond, and the current project examined whether disulfide bond rearrangement is involved in the misfolding process. Using Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI), an enzyme that accelerates disulfide rearrangement, the efficiency of prion protein misfolding was monitored. Two different sources of normal prion protein were used: deer ...


The Use Of Sm-Fret Spectroscopy To Determine Whether Cooperative Binding Is Involved In The Chaperone Function Of Hiv-1 Nucleocapsid Protein, Elizabeth Swanson Apr 2008

The Use Of Sm-Fret Spectroscopy To Determine Whether Cooperative Binding Is Involved In The Chaperone Function Of Hiv-1 Nucleocapsid Protein, Elizabeth Swanson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein (HIV-1 NC) is known to have both structural and nucleic acid chaperone functions in the replication cycle of the retrovirus. As a nucleic acid chaperone, NC protein interacts with TAR RNA and TAR DNA structures during the minus-strand transfer step of reverse transcription. The aim of this study is to use single molecule florescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) spectroscopy to study biotin-immobilized TAR DNA hairpins at various concentrations of NC protein. The resulting data will subsequently be used to determine whether cooperative binding occurs between the NC protein and the TAR DNA hairpins. The results ...


Neurological Effects Of Chlorpyrifos On Prenatally-Exposed Rats, Kyle Denning Apr 2008

Neurological Effects Of Chlorpyrifos On Prenatally-Exposed Rats, Kyle Denning

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Though extensively documented, autism is still poorly understood. Possible factors include prenatal or neonatal chemical exposure that causes declined synaptic transmission. One chemical, the pesticide known as chlorpyrifos, has been shown to cause anatomical differences in the areas of rats’ brains that are linked to behavioral symptoms closely related to autism. With the knowledge of the increased susceptibility ofmales to prenatal drug exposure, it was hypothesized that male rats exposed to chlorpyrifos before birth would exhibit such symptoms. Two tests, an elevated plus maze and a Morris water maze, were used to test anxiety and cognition, respectively. Anxiety tests yielded ...


Rescuing A Molecular Motor In Dilute Mice, Sara Anderson Apr 2006

Rescuing A Molecular Motor In Dilute Mice, Sara Anderson

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Molecular motors are cellular enzymes that convert chemical energy into mechanical energy and are vital to cellular organization and function. The focus of the following research is Myosin Va, a molecular motor whose activity contributes to melanosome distribution in melanocytes. A mutation within myosin Va leads to the dilute coat-color phenotype in mice and some cases of Griscelli’s syndrome in humans. The main goal of this research was to create a chimeric myosin V, with portions of both myosin Va and Vb. This chimeric myosin was then transfected into dilute melanocytes to see if the normal distribution ofmelanosomes was ...


Prion Infection Of The Nasal Cavity: Site For Agent Shedding?, Brian Moreaux Apr 2006

Prion Infection Of The Nasal Cavity: Site For Agent Shedding?, Brian Moreaux

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The mechanism of prion shedding in prion disease is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nasal cavity is a site of prion infection. Hamsters were intracerebrally inoculated with the hyper strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy agent. Once clinically ill, the hamsters were euthanized and their skulls were removed and examined for prion infection using immunohistochemical and dual immunofluorescence staining techniques. In infected hamsters, the infectious agent (PrP50) was shown to be present in the olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory sensory epithelium (OSE) as well as in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and the vomeronasal ...


Perturbation Of Triple-Helix Structure In Mutant Collagens Examined By Subnanosecond Local Dynamics Of Tryptophan: An Application Of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy, R. Dawn Paul Apr 2005

Perturbation Of Triple-Helix Structure In Mutant Collagens Examined By Subnanosecond Local Dynamics Of Tryptophan: An Application Of Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy, R. Dawn Paul

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy can provide information about the local dynamic properties of a molecule at sub-nanometer resolution on the nano- and picosecond time scales. To help explain perturbations of the triple-helical structure of collagen induced by a mutation, and to facilitate an understanding of mutations associated with diseases like scurvy, an examination of synthetic collagen-like peptides was conducted. Results indicate that the extent of local motion increases near a mutation, demonstrating that the change in the amino acid interrupts the helical structure. Local motion, however, remains unchanged several amino acid residues away from the indole side chain of the tryptophan ...


Toward Solving The Structure Of Cholesterol Oxidase H447e/E361q Double Mutant, Larryn Krause Apr 2004

Toward Solving The Structure Of Cholesterol Oxidase H447e/E361q Double Mutant, Larryn Krause

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Cholesterol oxidase, a bifunctional flavoenzyme facilitates the oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol. Wild type cholesterol oxidase has been crystallized, and its structure has been resolved to 0.95 A. Wild type cholesterol oxidase turns over cholesterol with such extreme efficiency that it is very difficult to crystallize the substrate-enzyme complex. Cholesterol oxidase H447E/E361Q double mutant, which binds cholesterol, but is unable to completely turn it over, was expressed, purified, and crystallized to obtain a crystal structure. Once solved, the structure of the cholesterol oxidase double mutant could then be used as a background structure for the crystallization of the ...


Effects Of Estradiol And Tamoxifen On Leukocyte Distribution In Response To Restraint Stress In Mice (Mus Musculus), Julianna Duchesneau Apr 2004

Effects Of Estradiol And Tamoxifen On Leukocyte Distribution In Response To Restraint Stress In Mice (Mus Musculus), Julianna Duchesneau

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), drugs that either mimic or block the action of estrogen but do not have its side effects, have been under intense research since the early 20th century because of their distinct biological functions as antagonists and agonists in cells through their unique molecular conformations. Previous, unpublished research has found a correlation between a reduction in the leukocytic stress response in mice and injection with a natural form of estrogen, estradiol. The present study tested the effects of a SERM, tamoxifen, on the leukocyte distribution in mice after subjection to restraint stress. No difference was found ...


The Effect Of Pkc 5 Inhibitors On Pma-Induced Apoptosis In Xenopus Laevis Splenocytes, Annie Crater Apr 2003

The Effect Of Pkc 5 Inhibitors On Pma-Induced Apoptosis In Xenopus Laevis Splenocytes, Annie Crater

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Protein kinase C (PKC) controls apoptosis in amphibian systems such as that of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. The effects of cancer inducing agents like phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) when combined with Ca2+ independent PKC inhibitors on programmed cell death were studied in A laevis splenocytes. Regulation of PMA-activated cells was observed via Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide assays, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis. Results indicate the PKC inhibitors reduced both apoptosis and cell growth in PMA-stimulated X. laevis splenocytes compared to PMA alone. These results are valuable to future mammalian cancer research. By identifying the various ...


Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke Apr 2002

Analysis Of Candidate Proteins Interacting With Eyal, Ryan Schwanke

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The Eyal gene is important for mammalian organogenesis, and mutations in the human EYA1 results in Branchio-Oto-Renal (BOR) syndrome. This syndrome is autosomal dominant and causes combinations of branchial, otic, and renal anomalies. All Eya gene products contain an extremely conserved 271 amino acid C-terminus that is essential in protein-protein interaction. Recently, it was found that during mouse development, the expression of certain Six genes relied on the function of Eyal, and that Eyal interacts with relevant Six proteins through its C-terminal domain. These results provided insight into the molecular and developmental basis for organ defects occurring in BOR syndrome ...


The Involvement Of C-Terminal Amino Acids In The Formation Of Prion Protein Dimers, Rebecca Phillip Apr 2001

The Involvement Of C-Terminal Amino Acids In The Formation Of Prion Protein Dimers, Rebecca Phillip

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Accumulations o f abnormal prion protein are thought to be the cause o f the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which are degenerative brain diseases. Throughout the disease process it is hypothesized that there is some sort of binding that occurs among the proteins. This research project involved the search for a strong, most likely covalent, linkage in a dimer of prion proteins. The focus was on the amino acid sequence o f the prion protein from 220 to 232. The lysine residue in this sequence was of particular concern due to its involvement in covalent linkages in other proteins (Priola et ...


Immunoprecipitation Of A Nadph Oxidase System Gtpase, Rac2, From The Human Neutrophil And The Gtp-Dependent Activity Of Rac2 In A Phosphorylation-Dependent Cell-Free System, Rachel Brennan Apr 2001

Immunoprecipitation Of A Nadph Oxidase System Gtpase, Rac2, From The Human Neutrophil And The Gtp-Dependent Activity Of Rac2 In A Phosphorylation-Dependent Cell-Free System, Rachel Brennan

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

The neutrophil is an integral part of the body’s line of defense against infectious microbial agents. Its microbicidal activity is carried out by NADPH oxidase, an enzyme that uses electron transfer to create superoxide (O2"), which is then transformed into various toxins that are responsible for the demise of the foreign microorganism. The oxidase system is composed of membrane and cytosolic components. One of the cytosolic components is a low molecular-weight member of the Rho family of GTPases, Rac2. A genetic link has recently been established between Rac2 and Chronic Granulomatomous Disease (CGD), a disease in which the body ...