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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Characterization And Structure Of A Zn2+ And [2fe-2s]-Containing Copper Chaperone From Archaeoglobus Fulgidus, Matthew Sazinsky, Benjamin Lemoine, Maria Orofino, Roman Davydov, Krisztina Bencze, Timothy Stemmler, Brian Hoffman, José Argüello, Amy Rosenzweig Dec 2015

Characterization And Structure Of A Zn2+ And [2fe-2s]-Containing Copper Chaperone From Archaeoglobus Fulgidus, Matthew Sazinsky, Benjamin Lemoine, Maria Orofino, Roman Davydov, Krisztina Bencze, Timothy Stemmler, Brian Hoffman, José Argüello, Amy Rosenzweig

José M. Argüello

Bacterial CopZ proteins deliver copper to P1B-type Cu+-ATPases that are homologous to the human Wilson and Menkes disease proteins. The genome of the hyperthermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus encodes a putative CopZ copper chaperone that contains an unusual cysteine rich N-terminal domain of 130 amino acids in addition to a C-terminal copper-binding domain with a conserved CXXC motif. The N-terminal domain (CopZ-NT) is homologous to proteins found only in extremophiles and is the only such protein that is fused to a copper chaperone. Surprisingly, optical, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic data indicate the presence of a [2Fe-2S] cluster in ...


Control Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Differentiation By The Heterochronic Genes And The Cellular Asymmetry Machinery In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Omid F. Harandi, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Control Of Stem Cell Self-Renewal And Differentiation By The Heterochronic Genes And The Cellular Asymmetry Machinery In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Omid F. Harandi, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Transitions between asymmetric (self-renewing) and symmetric (proliferative) cell divisions are robustly regulated in the context of normal development and tissue homeostasis. To genetically assess the regulation of these transitions, we used the postembryonic epithelial stem (seam) cell lineages of Caenorhabditis elegans. In these lineages, the timing of these transitions is regulated by the evolutionarily conserved heterochronic pathway, whereas cell division asymmetry is conferred by a pathway consisting of Wnt (Wingless) pathway components, including posterior pharynx defect (POP-1)/TCF, APC related/adenomatosis polyposis coli (APR-1)/APC, and LIT-1/NLK (loss of intestine/Nemo-like kinase). Here we explore the genetic regulatory mechanisms ...


The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard Oct 2015

The Decapping Scavenger Enzyme Dcs-1 Controls Microrna Levels In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Gabriel Bosse, Stefan Ruegger, Maria Ow, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Evelyne Rondeau, Victor Ambros, Helge Grosshans, Martin Simard

Victor R. Ambros

In metazoans, microRNAs play a critical role in the posttranscriptional regulation of genes required for cell proliferation and differentiation. MicroRNAs themselves are regulated by a multitude of mechanisms influencing their transcription and posttranscriptional maturation. However, there is only sparse knowledge on pathways regulating the mature, functional form of microRNA. Here, we uncover the implication of the decapping scavenger protein DCS-1 in the control of microRNA turnover. In Caenorhabditis elegans, mutations in dcs-1 increase the levels of functional microRNAs. We demonstrate that DCS-1 interacts with the exonuclease XRN-1 to promote microRNA degradation in an independent manner from its known decapping scavenger ...


Developmental Decline In Neuronal Regeneration By The Progressive Change Of Two Intrinsic Timers, Yan Zou, Hui Chiu, Anna Zinovyeva, Victor Ambros, Chiou-Fen Chuang, Chieh Chang Oct 2015

Developmental Decline In Neuronal Regeneration By The Progressive Change Of Two Intrinsic Timers, Yan Zou, Hui Chiu, Anna Zinovyeva, Victor Ambros, Chiou-Fen Chuang, Chieh Chang

Victor R. Ambros

Like mammalian neurons, Caenorhabditis elegans neurons lose axon regeneration ability as they age, but it is not known why. Here, we report that let-7 contributes to a developmental decline in anterior ventral microtubule (AVM) axon regeneration. In older AVM axons, let-7 inhibits regeneration by down-regulating LIN-41, an important AVM axon regeneration-promoting factor. Whereas let-7 inhibits lin-41 expression in older neurons through the lin-41 3' untranslated region, lin-41 inhibits let-7 expression in younger neurons through Argonaute ALG-1. This reciprocal inhibition ensures that axon regeneration is inhibited only in older neurons. These findings show that a let-7-lin-41 regulatory circuit, which was previously ...


The Evolution Of Our Thinking About Micrornas, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

The Evolution Of Our Thinking About Micrornas, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Our appreciation of the significance of microRNAs to biology at large continues to be an evolving process.


The Developmental Timing Regulator Hbl-1 Modulates The Dauer Formation Decision In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

The Developmental Timing Regulator Hbl-1 Modulates The Dauer Formation Decision In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Animals developing in the wild encounter a range of environmental conditions, and so developmental mechanisms have evolved that can accommodate different environmental contingencies. Harsh environmental conditions cause Caenorhabditis elegans larvae to arrest as stress-resistant "dauer" larvae after the second larval stage (L2), thereby indefinitely postponing L3 cell fates. HBL-1 is a key transcriptional regulator of L2 vs. L3 cell fate. Through the analysis of genetic interactions between mutations of hbl-1 and of genes encoding regulators of dauer larva formation, we find that hbl-1 can also modulate the dauer formation decision in a complex manner. We propose that dynamic interactions between ...


Mir-14 Regulates Autophagy During Developmental Cell Death By Targeting Ip3-Kinase 2, Charles Nelson, Victor Ambros, Eric Baehrecke Oct 2015

Mir-14 Regulates Autophagy During Developmental Cell Death By Targeting Ip3-Kinase 2, Charles Nelson, Victor Ambros, Eric Baehrecke

Victor R. Ambros

Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a lysosome-dependent degradation process that has been implicated in age-associated diseases. Autophagy is involved in both cell survival and cell death, but little is known about the mechanisms that distinguish its use during these distinct cell fates. Here, we identify the microRNA miR-14 as being both necessary and sufficient for autophagy during developmentally regulated cell death in Drosophila. Loss of miR-14 prevented induction of autophagy during salivary gland cell death, but had no effect on starvation-induced autophagy in the fat body. Moreover, misexpression of miR-14 was sufficient to prematurely induce autophagy in salivary glands, but not in ...


Circulating Micrornas In Cardiovascular Disease, David Mcmanus, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Circulating Micrornas In Cardiovascular Disease, David Mcmanus, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Comment on: Transcoronary concentration gradients of circulating microRNAs. [Circulation. 2011]


Micrornas And Developmental Timing, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas And Developmental Timing, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

MicroRNAs regulate temporal transitions in gene expression associated with cell fate progression and differentiation throughout animal development. Genetic analysis of developmental timing in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans identified two evolutionarily conserved microRNAs, lin-4/mir-125 and let-7, that regulate cell fate progression and differentiation in C. elegans cell lineages. MicroRNAs perform analogous developmental timing functions in other animals, including mammals. By regulating cell fate choices and transitions between pluripotency and differentiation, microRNAs help to orchestrate developmental events throughout the developing animal, and to play tissue homeostasis roles important for disease, including cancer.


Dauer Larva Quiescence Alters The Circuitry Of Microrna Pathways Regulating Cell Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Dauer Larva Quiescence Alters The Circuitry Of Microrna Pathways Regulating Cell Fate Progression In C. Elegans, Xantha Karp, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

In C. elegans larvae, the execution of stage-specific developmental events is controlled by heterochronic genes, which include those encoding a set of transcription factors and the microRNAs that regulate the timing of their expression. Under adverse environmental conditions, developing larvae enter a stress-resistant, quiescent stage called 'dauer'. Dauer larvae are characterized by the arrest of all progenitor cell lineages at a stage equivalent to the end of the second larval stage (L2). If dauer larvae encounter conditions favorable for resumption of reproductive growth, they recover and complete development normally, indicating that post-dauer larvae possess mechanisms to accommodate an indefinite period ...


Mirwip: Microrna Target Prediction Based On Microrna-Containing Ribonucleoprotein-Enriched Transcripts, Molly Hammell, Dang Long, Liang Zhang, Andrew Lee, C. Steven Carmack, Min Han, Ye Ding, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Mirwip: Microrna Target Prediction Based On Microrna-Containing Ribonucleoprotein-Enriched Transcripts, Molly Hammell, Dang Long, Liang Zhang, Andrew Lee, C. Steven Carmack, Min Han, Ye Ding, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Target prediction for animal microRNAs (miRNAs) has been hindered by the small number of verified targets available to evaluate the accuracy of predicted miRNA-target interactions. Recently, a dataset of 3,404 miRNA-associated mRNA transcripts was identified by immunoprecipitation of the RNA-induced silencing complex components AIN-1 and AIN-2. Our analysis of this AIN-IP dataset revealed enrichment for defining characteristics of functional miRNA-target interactions, including structural accessibility of target sequences, total free energy of miRNA-target hybridization and topology of base-pairing to the 5' seed region of the miRNA. We used these enriched characteristics as the basis for a quantitative miRNA target prediction ...


Systematic Analysis Of Dynamic Mirna-Target Interactions During C. Elegans Development, Liang Zhang, Molly Hammell, Brian Kudlow, Victor Ambros, Min Han Oct 2015

Systematic Analysis Of Dynamic Mirna-Target Interactions During C. Elegans Development, Liang Zhang, Molly Hammell, Brian Kudlow, Victor Ambros, Min Han

Victor R. Ambros

Although microRNA (miRNA)-mediated functions have been implicated in many aspects of animal development, the majority of miRNA::mRNA regulatory interactions remain to be characterized experimentally. We used an AIN/GW182 protein immunoprecipitation approach to systematically analyze miRNA::mRNA interactions during C. elegans development. We characterized the composition of miRNAs in functional miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs) at each developmental stage and identified three sets of miRNAs with distinct stage-specificity of function. We then identified thousands of miRNA targets in each developmental stage, including a significant portion that is subject to differential miRNA regulation during development. By identifying thousands of miRNA ...


Immunopurification Of Ago1 Mirnps Selects For A Distinct Class Of Microrna Targets, Xin Hong, Molly Hammell, Victor Ambros, Stephen Cohen Oct 2015

Immunopurification Of Ago1 Mirnps Selects For A Distinct Class Of Microrna Targets, Xin Hong, Molly Hammell, Victor Ambros, Stephen Cohen

Victor R. Ambros

microRNAs comprise a few percent of animal genes and have been recognized as important regulators of a diverse range of biological processes. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs requires effective means to identify their targets. Combined efforts from computational prediction, miRNA over-expression or depletion, and biochemical purification have identified thousands of potential miRNA-target pairs in cells and organisms. Complementarity to the miRNA seed sequence appears to be a common principle in target recognition. Other features, including miRNA-target duplex stability, binding site accessibility, and local UTR structure might affect target recognition. Yet computational approaches using such contextual features have yielded largely ...


Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Micrornas: Genetically Sensitized Worms Reveal New Secrets, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Why do many microRNA gene mutants display no evident phenotype? Multiply mutant worms that are selectively impaired in genetic regulatory network activities have been used to uncover previously unknown functions for numerous Caenorhabditis elegans microRNAs.


Prb/Cki Pathways At The Interface Of Cell Cycle And Development, Victor Ambros Oct 2015

Prb/Cki Pathways At The Interface Of Cell Cycle And Development, Victor Ambros

Victor R. Ambros

Comment on: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, cki-1 and cki-2, act in overlapping but distinct pathways to control cell-cycle quiescence during C. elegans development. Buck SH, et al. Cell Cycle 2009; 8:2613-20.


A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder Sep 2015

A Conserved Three-Nucleotide Core Motif Defines Musashi Rna Binding Specificity, Nancy Zearfoss, Laura Deveau, Carina Clingman, Eric Schmidt, Emily Johnson, Francesca Massi, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Musashi (MSI) family proteins control cell proliferation and differentiation in many biological systems. They are overexpressed in tumors of several origins, and their expression level correlates with poor prognosis. MSI proteins control gene expression by binding RNA and regulating its translation. They contain two RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains, which recognize a defined sequence element. The relative contribution of each nucleotide to the binding affinity and specificity is unknown. We analyzed the binding specificity of three MSI family RRM domains using a quantitative fluorescence anisotropy assay. We found that the core element driving recognition is the sequence UAG. Nucleotides outside ...


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Biosignatures In Chimney Structures And Sediment From The Loki’S Castle Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field At The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, A. Jaeschke, B. Eickmann, Susan Lang, S. Bernasconi, H. Strauss, G. Früh-Green Jun 2015

Biosignatures In Chimney Structures And Sediment From The Loki’S Castle Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Vent Field At The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge, A. Jaeschke, B. Eickmann, Susan Lang, S. Bernasconi, H. Strauss, G. Früh-Green

Susan Q. Lang

No abstract provided.


Positive Selection Drives Preferred Segment Combinations During Influenza Virus Reassortment, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Nicholas Renzette, Matthieu Foll, Serena Pham, Sergey Venev, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Bolon, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Jeffrey Jensen, Daniel Caffrey, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Jennifer Wang, Robert Finberg Jun 2015

Positive Selection Drives Preferred Segment Combinations During Influenza Virus Reassortment, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Nicholas Renzette, Matthieu Foll, Serena Pham, Sergey Venev, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Bolon, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Jeffrey Jensen, Daniel Caffrey, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Jennifer Wang, Robert Finberg

Celia A. Schiffer

Influenza A virus (IAV) has a segmented genome that allows for the exchange of genome segments between different strains. This reassortment accelerates evolution by breaking linkage, helping IAV cross species barriers to potentially create highly virulent strains. Challenges associated with monitoring the process of reassortment in molecular detail have limited our understanding of its evolutionary implications. We applied a novel deep sequencing approach with quantitative analysis to assess the in vitro temporal evolution of genomic reassortment in IAV. The combination of H1N1 and H3N2 strains reproducibly generated a new H1N2 strain with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein segments originating from H1N1 ...


Modulation Of Hiv Protease Flexibility By The T80n Mutation, Hao Zhou, Shangyang Li, John Badger, Ellen Nalivaika, Yufeng Cai, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Celia Schiffer, Lee Makowski Jun 2015

Modulation Of Hiv Protease Flexibility By The T80n Mutation, Hao Zhou, Shangyang Li, John Badger, Ellen Nalivaika, Yufeng Cai, Jennifer Foulkes-Murzycki, Celia Schiffer, Lee Makowski

Celia A. Schiffer

The flexibility of HIV protease plays a critical role in enabling enzymatic activity and is required for substrate access to the active site. While the importance of flexibility in the flaps that cover the active site is well known, flexibility in other parts of the enzyme is also critical for function. One key region is a loop containing Thr 80 which forms the walls of the active site. Although not situated within the active site, amino acid Thr80 is absolutely conserved. The mutation T80N preserves the structure of the enzyme but catalytic activity is completely lost. To investigate the potential ...


An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor From The Salamander Ambystoma Mexicanum Exhibits Low Sensitivity To 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Wade Powell Jun 2015

An Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor From The Salamander Ambystoma Mexicanum Exhibits Low Sensitivity To 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin, Wade Powell

Wade Powell

n/a


Hnrnp A1 And Secondary Structure Coordinate Alternative Splicing Of Mag, Nancy Zearfoss, Emily Johnson, Sean Ryder May 2015

Hnrnp A1 And Secondary Structure Coordinate Alternative Splicing Of Mag, Nancy Zearfoss, Emily Johnson, Sean Ryder

Sean P. Ryder

Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a major component of myelin in the vertebrate central nervous system. MAG is present in the periaxonal region of the myelin structure, where it interacts with neuronal proteins to inhibit axon outgrowth and protect neurons from degeneration. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of Mag mRNA have been identified. The mRNA encoding the shorter isoform, known as S-MAG, contains a termination codon in exon 12, while the mRNA encoding the longer isoform, known as L-MAG, skips exon 12 and produces a protein with a longer C-terminal region. L-MAG is required in the central nervous system. How inclusion of ...


Fret-Based Identification Of Mrnas Undergoing Translation, Benjamin Stevens, Chunlai Chen, Ian Farrell, Haibo Zhang, Jaskiran Kaur, Steven Broitman, Zeev Smilansky, Barry Cooperman, Yale Goldman Apr 2015

Fret-Based Identification Of Mrnas Undergoing Translation, Benjamin Stevens, Chunlai Chen, Ian Farrell, Haibo Zhang, Jaskiran Kaur, Steven Broitman, Zeev Smilansky, Barry Cooperman, Yale Goldman

Steven Broitman

No abstract provided.


Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang Mar 2015

Evolution Of The Influenza A Virus Genome During Development Of Oseltamivir Resistance In Vitro, Nicholas Renzette, Daniel Caffrey, Konstantin Zeldovich, Ping Liu, Glen Gallagher, Daniel Aiello, Alyssa Porter, Evelyn Kurt-Jones, Daniel Bolon, Yu-Ping Poh, Jeffrey Jensen, Celia Schiffer, Timothy Kowalik, Robert Finberg, Jennifer Wang

Glen R. Gallagher

Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Current antiviral therapies include oseltamivir, a neuraminidase inhibitor that prevents the release of nascent viral particles from infected cells. However, the IAV genome can evolve rapidly, and oseltamivir resistance mutations have been detected in numerous clinical samples. Using an in vitro evolution platform and whole-genome population sequencing, we investigated the population genomics of IAV during the development of oseltamivir resistance. Strain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) was grown in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with or without escalating concentrations of oseltamivir over serial passages. Following drug ...


Structural Basis And Distal Effects Of Gag Substrate Coevolution In Drug Resistance To Hiv-1 Protease, Aysegul Ozen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Nese Yilmaz, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Structural Basis And Distal Effects Of Gag Substrate Coevolution In Drug Resistance To Hiv-1 Protease, Aysegul Ozen, Kuan-Hung Lin, Nese Yilmaz, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance mutations in response to HIV-1 protease inhibitors are selected not only in the drug target but elsewhere in the viral genome, especially at the protease cleavage sites in the precursor protein Gag. To understand the molecular basis of this protease-substrate coevolution, we solved the crystal structures of drug resistant I50V/A71V HIV-1 protease with p1-p6 substrates bearing coevolved mutations. Analyses of the protease-substrate interactions reveal that compensatory coevolved mutations in the substrate do not restore interactions lost due to protease mutations, but instead establish other interactions that are not restricted to the site of mutation. Mutation of a ...


Structural Analysis Of Asunaprevir Resistance In Hcv Ns3/4a Protease, Djade Soumana, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Structural Analysis Of Asunaprevir Resistance In Hcv Ns3/4a Protease, Djade Soumana, Akbar Ali, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Asunaprevir (ASV), an isoquinoline-based competitive inhibitor targeting the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease, is very potent in vivo. However, the potency is significantly compromised by the drug resistance mutations R155K and D168A. In this study three crystal structures of ASV and an analogue were determined to analyze the structural basis of drug resistance susceptibility. These structures revealed that ASV makes extensive contacts with Arg155 outside the substrate envelope. Arg155 in turn is stabilized by Asp168, and thus when either residue is mutated, the enzyme's interaction with ASV's P2* isoquinoline is disrupted. Adding a P1-P3 macrocycle to ...


Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, Aysegul Ozen, Woody Sherman, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Improving The Resistance Profile Of Hepatitis C Ns3/4a Inhibitors: Dynamic Substrate Envelope Guided Design, Aysegul Ozen, Woody Sherman, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

Drug resistance is a principal concern in the treatment of quickly evolving diseases. The viral protease NS3/4A is a primary drug target for the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is known to evolve resistance mutations in response to drug therapy. At the molecular level, drug resistance reflects a subtle change in the balance of molecular recognition by NS3/4A; the drug resistant protease variants are no longer effectively inhibited by the competitive active site inhibitors but can still process the natural substrates with enough efficiency for viral survival. In previous works we have developed the "substrate envelope" hypothesis, which ...


A Sensitive Assay Using A Native Protein Substrate For Screening Hiv-1 Maturation Inhibitors Targeting The Protease Cleavage Site Between The Matrix And Capsid, Sook-Kyung Lee, Nancy Cheng, Emily Hull-Ryde, Marc Potempa, Celia Schiffer, William Janzen, Ronald Swanstrom Jan 2015

A Sensitive Assay Using A Native Protein Substrate For Screening Hiv-1 Maturation Inhibitors Targeting The Protease Cleavage Site Between The Matrix And Capsid, Sook-Kyung Lee, Nancy Cheng, Emily Hull-Ryde, Marc Potempa, Celia Schiffer, William Janzen, Ronald Swanstrom

Celia A. Schiffer

The matrix/capsid processing site in the HIV-1 Gag precursor is likely the most sensitive target to inhibit HIV-1 replication. We have previously shown that modest incomplete processing at the site leads to a complete loss of virion infectivity. In the study presented here, a sensitive assay based on fluorescence polarization that can monitor cleavage at the MA/CA site in the context of the folded protein substrate is described. The substrate, an MA/CA fusion protein, was labeled with the fluorescein-based FlAsH (fluorescein arsenical hairpin) reagent that binds to a tetracysteine motif (CCGPCC) that was introduced within the N-terminal ...


Efficient Computation Of Small-Molecule Configurational Binding Entropy And Free Energy Changes By Ensemble Enumeration, Nathaniel Silver, Bracken King, Madhavi Nalam, Hong Cao, Akbar Ali, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer, Bruce Tidor Jan 2015

Efficient Computation Of Small-Molecule Configurational Binding Entropy And Free Energy Changes By Ensemble Enumeration, Nathaniel Silver, Bracken King, Madhavi Nalam, Hong Cao, Akbar Ali, G. S. Kiran Kumar Reddy, Tariq Rana, Celia Schiffer, Bruce Tidor

Celia A. Schiffer

Here we present a novel, end-point method using the dead-end-elimination and A* algorithms to efficiently and accurately calculate the change in free energy, enthalpy, and configurational entropy of binding for ligand-receptor association reactions. We apply the new approach to the binding of a series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protease inhibitors to examine the effect ensemble reranking has on relative accuracy as well as to evaluate the role of the absolute and relative ligand configurational entropy losses upon binding in affinity differences for structurally related inhibitors. Our results suggest that most thermodynamic parameters can be estimated using only a small ...


Drug Resistance Conferred By Mutations Outside The Active Site Through Alterations In The Dynamic And Structural Ensemble Of Hiv-1 Protease, Debra Ragland, Ellen Nalivaika, Madhavi Nalam, Kristina Prachanronarong, Hong Cao, Rajintha Bandaranayake, Yufeng Cai, Nese Yilmaz, Celia Schiffer Jan 2015

Drug Resistance Conferred By Mutations Outside The Active Site Through Alterations In The Dynamic And Structural Ensemble Of Hiv-1 Protease, Debra Ragland, Ellen Nalivaika, Madhavi Nalam, Kristina Prachanronarong, Hong Cao, Rajintha Bandaranayake, Yufeng Cai, Nese Yilmaz, Celia Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

HIV-1 protease inhibitors are part of the highly active antiretroviral therapy effectively used in the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS. Darunavir (DRV) is the most potent of these inhibitors, soliciting drug resistance only when a complex combination of mutations occur both inside and outside the protease active site. With few exceptions, the role of mutations outside the active site in conferring resistance remains largely elusive. Through a series of DRV-protease complex crystal structures, inhibition assays, and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that single and double site mutations outside the active site often associated with DRV resistance alter the structure ...