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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Effect Of Residue C:N Ratio On The Turnover Of N And C In Various Soil Organic Matter Fractions, Ana B. Wingeyer Sep 2007

The Effect Of Residue C:N Ratio On The Turnover Of N And C In Various Soil Organic Matter Fractions, Ana B. Wingeyer

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Identifying soil organic matter (SOM) fractions that contribute to soil indigenous nitrogen (N) supply and understanding their turnover under different management constitute necessary tools toward an efficient N use. The objectives of this study were: i) trace the endpoint of carbon (C) flux from residue inputs into SOM; and ii) asses the role of the light fraction (LF), mobile humic acid (MHA) fraction and calcium humate (CaHA) fraction as N sources for heterotrophic decomposition of fresh plant residues with contrasting C:N ratio. A long-term aerobic soil incubation was carried out on 15N-labeled soil samples from Lincoln and Mead ...


Serotype Association And Regulation Of The Hyaluronate Lyase Gene Of Streptococcus Pyogenes, Martha Stokes Jul 2007

Serotype Association And Regulation Of The Hyaluronate Lyase Gene Of Streptococcus Pyogenes, Martha Stokes

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

S. pyogenes expresses many virulence factors, controlled by a complex regulatory network. These include hyaluronate lyase, an enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, a major component of the human extracellular matrix. Paradoxically, hyaluronic acid is also the sole component of the bacterium's capsule, a primary defense against the host immune response. The hylA gene, which encodes the enzyme, has been shown to take three structural forms: a full-length gene, one containing a 3' deletion and a gene that produces a prematurely truncated protein. This work was intended to show that the structure of hylA is associated with serotype ...


Molecular Basis Of Campylobacter Antibiotic Resistance And Adaptation To The Intestinal Tract Of Chickens, Baoqing Guo Jan 2007

Molecular Basis Of Campylobacter Antibiotic Resistance And Adaptation To The Intestinal Tract Of Chickens, Baoqing Guo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen causing human enteric infections. Antibiotic treatments are needed for prolonged and severe cases of campylobacteriosis, but Campylobacter is increasingly resistant to antimicrobials, which has rendered antimicrobial therapy less effective. Multiple mechanisms contribute to antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter, but antibiotic efflux mediated by membrane transporters is considered a significant player in conferring intrinsic and acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of antimicrobials. The recently published genomic sequence revealed the presence of multiple genes encoding efflux transporters in C. jejuni, and work conducted in our laboratory identified that CmeABC, a RND (resistance nodulation and cell division ...


Biotechnological Improvements Of Bio-Based Fuels And Lubricants: Characterization Of Genes For Branched Chain Fatty Acids And Mono-Acyl Esters, Yuqin Jin Jan 2007

Biotechnological Improvements Of Bio-Based Fuels And Lubricants: Characterization Of Genes For Branched Chain Fatty Acids And Mono-Acyl Esters, Yuqin Jin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goals of the research in this dissertation are to generate the fundamental technologies that can be used to improve the production and quality of vegetable-oil based biodiesel and biolubricants. Specifically, we sought to test the hypothesis that branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) can substitute for unsaturated fatty acids in maintaining fluidityin an organism. Toward this goal, we examined the utility of two Bacillus keto-acyl synthase III (KASIII) coding genes (yhfB and yjaX) in producing BCFAs. In conducting this research it was necessary to examine if the E. coli KASIII gene (fabH) was essential for initiating fatty acid biosynthesis and ...


Methanobactin And The Membrane-Associated Methane Monooxygenase In Methanotrophy: A Tale Of Two Proteins, Dongwon Choi Jan 2007

Methanobactin And The Membrane-Associated Methane Monooxygenase In Methanotrophy: A Tale Of Two Proteins, Dongwon Choi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Glutamate Excitotoxicity In Epilepsy And Ischemia, Mangala Meenakshi Soundarapandian Jan 2007

Glutamate Excitotoxicity In Epilepsy And Ischemia, Mangala Meenakshi Soundarapandian

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

'Excitotoxicity' represents the excitatory amino acid mediated degeneration of neurons. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders like Stroke, Epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury. This neurotoxicity is summed up by the 'glutamate hypothesis' which describes the cause of neuronal cell death as an excessive release of glutamate causing over excitation of the glutamate receptors and subsequent increase in influx of calcium leading to cell death. An effort to counteract this neurotoxicity has lead to the development of glutamate receptor antagonists that can effectively serve ...


The Effects Of Trivalent Arsenicals And Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors On Selenium Metabolism In Lung Cell Culture Models, Sarah Ryann Talbot Jan 2007

The Effects Of Trivalent Arsenicals And Thioredoxin Reductase Inhibitors On Selenium Metabolism In Lung Cell Culture Models, Sarah Ryann Talbot

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Arsenic exposure, through various routes, is associated with the development of cancer of the skin, lung, liver, kidney, and bladder. Treatment of cells in culture with trivalent arsenicals has been shown to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS). In particular, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), a trivalent metabolite of arsenite, is highly cytotoxic and possibly carcinogenic. Three trivalent arsenicals; arsenite, arsenic trioxide (ATO), and MMAIII, are also known inhibitors of the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Selenium, an essential micronutrient in mammals, is needed in the form of selenocysteine for activity of this enzyme and other selenoproteins. TrxR is part of a key component ...


Lim Kinase 1 Modulates Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases And Associates With Gamma-Tubulin: Dual Role In Invasion And Mito, Tenekua Tapia Jan 2007

Lim Kinase 1 Modulates Expression Of Matrix Metalloproteinases And Associates With Gamma-Tubulin: Dual Role In Invasion And Mito, Tenekua Tapia

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a unique dual specificity serine/threonine kinase containing two N-terminal LIM domains in tandem, a PDZ domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. LIMK1 is involved in modulation of actin cytoskeleton through inactivating phosphorylation of the ADF (actin depolymerization factor) family protein cofilin. Recent studies have shown that LIMK1 is upregulated in breast and prostate cancer cells and tissues, promotes metastasis in animals and induces acquisition of an invasive phenotype when ectopically expressed in benign prostate epithelial (BPH) cells. Furthermore, overexpression of LIMK1 was associated with altered sub cellular localization of the membrane type 1 matrix ...


Mechanisms Promoting Phosphorylation Of The Nf2 Tumor Suppressor And Its Effects On Schwann Cell Development, Courtney Lynn Thaxton Jan 2007

Mechanisms Promoting Phosphorylation Of The Nf2 Tumor Suppressor And Its Effects On Schwann Cell Development, Courtney Lynn Thaxton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the formation of schwannomas and other peripheral neuropathies. The nf2 gene encodes the protein Schwannomin, or merlin. Schwannomin (Sch) is a membrane-cytoskeletal linking protein that suppresses cell proliferation at high cell density and modulates cell shape. Sch's tumor suppressive activity is regulated by its localization, conformation, and phosphorylation at serine 518 (S518). Sch's localization is dependent on binding the scaffold protein, paxillin. Phosphorylation of Sch at S518 regulates its conformation and tumor suppressor function. In a negative feedback loop, unphosphorylated Sch restricts cell proliferation downstream of Rac and ...


Shear Stress Induced Mtor Signaling In Cultured A7r5 Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Line, Sriram Prasad Mupparaju Jan 2007

Shear Stress Induced Mtor Signaling In Cultured A7r5 Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Line, Sriram Prasad Mupparaju

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Vascular intervention procedures such as balloon angioplasty and stent implantation lead to denudation of endothelium exposing the underlying smooth muscle layer to effects of blood shear stress. The effect of shear stress on smooth muscle cell signaling has not been studied in depth. In this study, we examined time dependent changes in activation of Akt, mTOR and p70S6k related signaling in response to orbital shear stress on cultured A7r5 cells. A7r5 cells cultured to subconfluence on 150mm culture dishes were subjected to orbital shear of 9.8dynes/cm 2 for zero, 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1h, 4h and ...


The Generation And Scavenging Of Radicals Via Cerium And Nanoceria, Eric Glenn Heckert Jan 2007

The Generation And Scavenging Of Radicals Via Cerium And Nanoceria, Eric Glenn Heckert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth metals, found on average at a level of 66 parts per million in the earth's crust. The unique redox properties of cerium and cerium oxide nanoparticles have led to its use in a wide variety of industrial and commercial uses such as oxygen sensors, fertilizers and as a catalyst to remove toxic gases in automobile exhaust. The use of cerium has also garnered interest in the nanotechnology field. Nanoceria has been generated in its oxide form as nanoparticles and nanorods. Recently, nanoceria has been shown to protect against oxidative stress ...


Identification Of Genes Encoding Acyl-Coa Reductases And Aldehyde Reductases In Mycobacterial Genome By Characterization Of The Reductases Expressed In E. Coli, Harminder Singh Jan 2007

Identification Of Genes Encoding Acyl-Coa Reductases And Aldehyde Reductases In Mycobacterial Genome By Characterization Of The Reductases Expressed In E. Coli, Harminder Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been long known to produce wax esters. However, the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have not been identified. Here we report the identification of Rv3391 and Rv1543 as genes that encode fatty acyl-CoA reductases and Rv1544 as one that encodes an aldehyde reductase. When expressed in E.coli, the products of Rv3391 and Rv1543 catalyzed reduction of fatty acyl-CoA to fatty alcohol with the corresponding aldehyde as an intermediate with an optimal pH of 7.0. Both enzymes showed a strong preference for NADPH over NADH as a reductant. Apparent Km for NADPH was 38 [micro]M ...


Helical Packing Regulates Structural Transitions In Bax, Nuska Tschammer Jan 2007

Helical Packing Regulates Structural Transitions In Bax, Nuska Tschammer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Apoptosis is essential for development and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and is frequently dysregulated in disease states. Proteins of the BCL-2 family are key modulators of this process and are thus ideal therapeutic targets. In response to diverse apoptotic stimuli, the pro-apoptotic member of BCL-2 family, BAX, redistributes from the cytosol to the mitochondria or endoplasmic reticulum and primes cells for death. The structural changes that enable this lethal protein to transition from a cytosolic form to a membrane-bound form remain poorly understood. Elucidating this process is a necessary step in the development of BAX as a novel therapeutic ...


Physical Characteristics Of An Individual: The Identification Of Biomarkers For Biological Age Determination, Michelle Alvarez Jan 2007

Physical Characteristics Of An Individual: The Identification Of Biomarkers For Biological Age Determination, Michelle Alvarez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is now a matter of routine for the forensic scientist to obtain the genetic profile of an individual from DNA recovered from a biological stain deposited at a crime scene. Potential contributors of the stain must either be known to investigators (i.e. a developed suspect) or the questioned profile must be searched against a database of DNA profiles such as those maintained in the CODIS National DNA database. However, in those instances where there is no developed suspect and no match is obtained after interrogation of appropriate DNA databases, the DNA profile per se presently provides no meaningful ...


Correlation Of Rpob Gene Mutation With Clinical Rifabutin And Rifampicin Resistance For Treatment Of Crohn's Disease, Daniel Beckler Jan 2007

Correlation Of Rpob Gene Mutation With Clinical Rifabutin And Rifampicin Resistance For Treatment Of Crohn's Disease, Daniel Beckler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Emerging rise in microbial drug resistance and the slow-growing characteristic of some intracellular pathogens such as MAP (Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis) strongly urges the need for an effective approach for unconventional drug susceptibility testing. We designed a molecular-based PCR method for the evaluation of rifabutin (RFB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance based on probable determinant regions within the rpoB gene of MAP, including the 81 bp variable site located between nucleotides 1363 and 1443. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for RIF was also determined against 10 MAP isolates in attempt to seek correlation with rpoB sequences. We determined that MAP strain ...


Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen Jan 2007

Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed at the apical membrane surface of epithelial cells and acts as a suppressor of tumor invasion when re-expressed in highly invasive human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-invasion phenotype associated with prostasin re-expression in prostate cancer cells, we expressed wild-type human prostasin or a serine active-site mutant prostasin in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. Molecular changes were measured at the mRNA and the protein levels. The expression of several invasion-promoting molecules is regulated by prostasin re-expression, mediated by a protein-level ...


A Member Of The Novel Fikk Family Of Plasmodium Falciparum Putative Protein Kinases Exhibits Diacylglycerol Kinase Activity And Is Exported To The Host Erythrocyte, David Floyd Curtis Jan 2007

A Member Of The Novel Fikk Family Of Plasmodium Falciparum Putative Protein Kinases Exhibits Diacylglycerol Kinase Activity And Is Exported To The Host Erythrocyte, David Floyd Curtis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plasmodium falciparum is one of four species known to cause malaria in humans and is the species that is associated with the most virulent form of the disease. Malaria causes nearly two million deaths each year, many of these occurring among children in under-developed countries of the world. One reason for this is the prevalence of drug resistant strains of malaria that mitigate the efficacy of existing drugs. Hence, the identification of a new generation of pharmacological agents for malaria is extremely urgent. The recent identification of a group of novel protein kinases within the Plasmodium falciparum genome has provided ...


Retrocyclin Rc-101 Overcomes Cationic Mutations On The Heptad Repeat 2 Of Hiv-1 Gp41, Christopher Fuhrman Jan 2007

Retrocyclin Rc-101 Overcomes Cationic Mutations On The Heptad Repeat 2 Of Hiv-1 Gp41, Christopher Fuhrman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Retrocyclin RC-101, a θ-defensin with lectin-like properties, potently inhibits infection by many HIV-1 subtypes by binding to the heptad repeat (HR)-2 region of gp41 and preventing six-helix bundle formation. In the present study, we used in silico computational exploration to identify residues of HR2 that interacted with RC-101 and then analyzed the HIV-1 Sequence Database at LANL for residue variations in the HR1 and HR2 segments that could plausibly impart in vivo resistance. Docking RC-101 to gp41 peptides in silico confirmed its strong preference for HR2 over HR1, and implicated residues crucial for its ability to bind HR2. We ...


Mutations In Transmembrane Domains 1, 4 And 9 Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Alter Susceptibility To Chloroquine, Quinine And Quinidine, Roland A. Cooper, Kristan D. Lane, Bingbing Deng, Jianbing Mu, Jigar J. Patel, Thomas E. Wellems, Xinzhuan Su, Michael T. Ferdig Jan 2007

Mutations In Transmembrane Domains 1, 4 And 9 Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Alter Susceptibility To Chloroquine, Quinine And Quinidine, Roland A. Cooper, Kristan D. Lane, Bingbing Deng, Jianbing Mu, Jigar J. Patel, Thomas E. Wellems, Xinzhuan Su, Michael T. Ferdig

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) resistance transporter (PfCRT) can result in verapamil-reversible CQ resistance and altered susceptibility to other antimalarials. PfCRT contains 10 membrane-spanning domains and is found in the digestive vacuole (DV) membrane of intraerythrocytic parasites. The mechanism by which PfCRT mediates CQ resistance is unclear although it is associated with decreased accumulation of drug within the DV. On the permissive background of the P. falciparum 106/1(K76) parasite line, we used single-step drug selection to generate isogenic clones containing unique pfcrt point mutations that resulted in amino acid changes in PfCRT transmembrane domains 1 (C72R ...