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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, Cuiping Zhao Jun 2019

Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biosynthesis In Methanogens, Cuiping Zhao

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Methanogens live in a syntrophic consortium with bacteria, taking advantage of the metabolic abilities of their syntrophic partners to overcome energetic barriers and break down compounds that they cannot digest by themselves. Interspecies electron transfer, which is a major type of microbial communication in syntrophic processes, improves methanogenesis and anaerobic oxidization of methane (AOM) processes involved in syntrophic consortia. These processes have a significant impact on the global carbon cycle. Most of the essential enzymes involved in methanogenesis are iron-sulfur proteins. Iron-sulfur clusters are one of the oldest and most versatile cofactors present in all domains of life. To date ...


High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structures Of Outbreak Strain Human Norovirus Shells Reveal Size Variations, James Jung, Timothy Grant, Dennis R. Thomas, Chris W. Diehnelt, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Leemor Joshua-Tor Jun 2019

High-Resolution Cryo-Em Structures Of Outbreak Strain Human Norovirus Shells Reveal Size Variations, James Jung, Timothy Grant, Dennis R. Thomas, Chris W. Diehnelt, Nikolaus Grigorieff, Leemor Joshua-Tor

Open Access Articles

Noroviruses are a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Although GII.4 strains have been responsible for most norovirus outbreaks, the assembled virus shell structures have been available in detail for only a single strain (GI.1). We present high-resolution (2.6- to 4.1-A) cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of GII.4, GII.2, GI.7, and GI.1 human norovirus outbreak strain virus-like particles (VLPs). Although norovirus VLPs have been thought to exist in a single-sized assembly, our structures reveal polymorphism between and within genogroups, with small, medium, and large particle sizes observed. Using asymmetric reconstruction, we were able ...


Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang Jun 2019

Structure-Based Design Of Hepatitis C Virus Vaccines That Elicit Neutralizing Antibody Responses To A Conserved Epitope, Brian G. Pierce, Elisabeth N. Boucher, Kurt H. Piepenbrink, Ejemel Monir, Chelsea A. Rapp, William D. Thomas Jr., Eric J. Sundberg, Zhiping Weng, Yan Wang

Kurt Piepenbrink

Despite recent advances in therapeutic options, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a severe global disease burden, and a vaccine can substantially reduce its incidence. Due to its extremely high sequence variability, HCV can readily escape the immune response; thus, an effective vaccine must target conserved, functionally important epitopes. Using the structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody in complex with a conserved linear epitope from the HCV E2 envelope glycoprotein (residues 412 to 423; epitope I), we performed structure-based design of immunogens to induce antibody responses to this epitope. This resulted in epitope-based immunogens based on a cyclic defensin protein, as ...


Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. Mcnally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best Jun 2019

Trim5alpha Restricts Flavivirus Replication By Targeting The Viral Protease For Proteasomal Degradation, Abhilash I. Chiramel, Nicholas R. Meyerson, Kristin L. Mcnally, Rebecca M. Broeckel, Vanessa R. Montoya, Omayra Mendez-Solis, Shelly J. Robertson, Gail L. Sturdevant, Kirk J. Lubick, Vinod Nair, Brian H. Youseff, Robin M. Ireland, Catharine M. Bosio, Kyusik Kim, Jeremy Luban, Vanessa M. Hirsch, R. Travis Taylor, Fadila Bouamr, Sara L. Sawyer, Sonja M. Best

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Tripartite motif-containing protein 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) is a cellular antiviral restriction factor that prevents early events in retrovirus replication. The activity of TRIM5alpha is thought to be limited to retroviruses as a result of highly specific interactions with capsid lattices. In contrast to this current understanding, we show that both human and rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha suppress replication of specific flaviviruses. Multiple viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis complex are sensitive to TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction, but mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever, dengue, and Zika viruses, are resistant. TRIM5alpha suppresses replication by binding to the viral protease NS2B/3 to promote its K48-linked ubiquitination and ...


The Molecular Basis Of Human Igg-Mediated Enhancement Of C4b-Binding Protein Recruitment To Group A Streptococcus, David Ermert, Maisem Laabei, Antonin Weckel, Matthias Morgelin, Martin Lundqvist, Lars Bjorck, Sanjay Ram, Sara Linse, Anna M. Blom Jun 2019

The Molecular Basis Of Human Igg-Mediated Enhancement Of C4b-Binding Protein Recruitment To Group A Streptococcus, David Ermert, Maisem Laabei, Antonin Weckel, Matthias Morgelin, Martin Lundqvist, Lars Bjorck, Sanjay Ram, Sara Linse, Anna M. Blom

Open Access Articles

Streptococcus pyogenes infects over 700 million people worldwide annually. Immune evasion strategies employed by the bacteria include binding of the complement inhibitors, C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H in a human-specific manner. We recently showed that human IgG increased C4BP binding to the bacterial surface, which promoted streptococcal immune evasion and increased mortality in mice. We sought to identify how IgG promotes C4BP binding to Protein H, a member of the M protein family. Dimerization of Protein H is pivotal for enhanced binding to human C4BP. First, we illustrated that Protein H, IgG, and C4BP formed a tripartite complex. Second ...


Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff, William A. Tolmasoff Jun 2019

Study Of Paper Microbial Fuel Cells For Use In On-Site Wastewater Testing, William A. Tolmasoff, William A. Tolmasoff

Master's Theses and Project Reports

This study demonstrated a technique for fabricating simple, low-cost Paper Microbial fuel cells (PMFC’s) in the model of a previous study to, for the first time, produce voltage from wastewater effluent. The PMFC’s were created by stacking and gluing the main components of an MFC together: reservoir layer; anode; cation exchange membrane (CEM); air cathode. A wax printer was used to create the hydrophobic borders of the PMFC’s on filter paper, and graphite paint was applied to the paper to create the anode. The CEM’s considered were filter paper, wax, and Nafion, with Nafion being the ...


Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor May 2019

Kinetics Of Hiv-1 Uncoating In C20 Microglial Cells, Melanie Anne Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

Uncoating is a poorly understood yet required step of HIV-1 replication that is defined as the disassembly of the viral capsid structure. The goal of this project is to characterize uncoating in C20 microglial cells. These cells are a natural target of HIV-1 that are infected to establish latent viral reservoirs and HIV-associated neurological disorders. A stable C20 cell line that expresses TRIM-CypA was established to study the kinetics of uncoating with the CsA washout assay. The expression of TRIM-CypA was confirmed by western blot and the functionality of the protein was confirmed by a viral infectivity assay. Using this ...


Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy May 2019

Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...


The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston May 2019

The Q Rule In Bacteriodetes And The Identification And Characterization Of Porphyromonas Gingivalis Glutaminyl Cyclase., John Andrew Houston

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, secretes variety of proteins, majority of which begins with glutamine. Several of these proteins were found with pyroglutamate (pGlu) at N-terminus suggesting the presence of this posttranslational modification pathway in P.gingivalis. The observation that N-terminal glutamine is over-represented as the first amino acid after signal peptide cleavage, and subsequent confirmation of pGlu formation on the nascent protein via mass spectrometry, led us to conclude that an enzyme must be present as the executor of this reaction. Hypothesis: PG2157 is a glutaminyl cyclase and is responsible for the cyclization of ...


The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker Apr 2019

The Effects Of Roundup On Tetrahymena Thermophila Growth And Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression, Ethan Viles, Henry Walker

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Roundup is a very common herbicide in the United States, but has been linked to many detrimental health effects and was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic’ by the World Health Organization in 1994. Not much research has been done to elucidate the possible effects on non-cancer gene pathways.The goal of this project was to research the influence that exposure to Roundup has on the growth of Tetrahymena thermophila and the expression of the cytochrome p450 gene. It was hypothesized that Roundup exposure would change the expression of cytochrome p450 gene and would decrease the growth rate of Tetrahymena thermophila. Background ...


You Are What You Eat At Any Age: Carbon And Nitrogen Analysis Of Mummies From An Ancient Egyptian Necropolis, Stephen Funk, R. Paul Evans Apr 2019

You Are What You Eat At Any Age: Carbon And Nitrogen Analysis Of Mummies From An Ancient Egyptian Necropolis, Stephen Funk, R. Paul Evans

Library/Life Sciences Undergraduate Poster Competition 2019

The BYU Egypt Project at Fag el-Gamus necropolis and adjacent Seila Pyramid has studied over 700 mummies excavated over the past 30 years. The necropolis includes an open area with densely located vertical burial shafts and a hill with horizontal burial shafts. The chronological and dietary history of the mummies was assessed using stable isotopy and 14C analysis of accessible biological samples.


How A Cell Knows Where To Divide: Oscillation Of Mind In Vivo, Colby Ferreira Apr 2019

How A Cell Knows Where To Divide: Oscillation Of Mind In Vivo, Colby Ferreira

Senior Honors Projects

Over two-million people in the United States are infected by antibiotic resistant bacteria each year. Of this number 23,000 die from these infections and other complications. Due to this, novel antibiotic targets are constantly being investigated. One process in prokaryotes that holds promise is cellular division. Bacterial cells grow and reproduce using a series of proteins known as the cell division machinery. This machinery enables the division of the parental cell into two identical daughter cells. The cell division machinery is similar between bacterial taxa, making it an ideal target for new classes of antibiotics. Therefore, understanding the molecular ...


Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank Apr 2019

Arthropod Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides In Tick-Borne Bacterial And Viral Infections, Vikas Kumar Taank

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are human illness transmitted by an arthropod vector. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that VBD has a huge impact worldwide that is responsible for affecting a billion people and causes 700,000 deaths annually. In recent years, there has been a continuous increase in the incidences of tick-borne diseases such as Lyme diseases and human anaplasmosis as reported by Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Very few reliable VBD control strategies have emerged till now. Transmission-blocking vaccines can provide effective management of VBDs but requires identification and characterization of novel vector-pathogen conserved molecules that play a significant ...


Anti-Drug Antibody Responses Impair Prophylaxis Mediated By Aav-Delivered Hiv-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies, Matthew R. Gardner, Ina Fetzer, Lisa M. Kattenhorn, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Amber S. Zhou, Barnett Alfant, Jesse A. Weber, Hema R. Kondur, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Guangping Gao, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Michael Farzan Mar 2019

Anti-Drug Antibody Responses Impair Prophylaxis Mediated By Aav-Delivered Hiv-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies, Matthew R. Gardner, Ina Fetzer, Lisa M. Kattenhorn, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Amber S. Zhou, Barnett Alfant, Jesse A. Weber, Hema R. Kondur, Jose M. Martinez-Navio, Sebastian P. Fuchs, Ronald C. Desrosiers, Guangping Gao, Jeffrey D. Lifson, Michael Farzan

Open Access Articles

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs is a promising approach for the prevention of HIV-1 infection. The immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 subtype is usually selected for this application, because it efficiently mediates antibody effector functions and has a somewhat longer half-life. However, the use of IgG1-Fc has been associated with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) that correlate with loss of antibody expression. In contrast, we have shown that expression of the antibody-like molecule eCD4-Ig bearing a rhesus IgG2-Fc domain showed reduced immunogenicity and completely protected rhesus macaques from simian-HIV (SHIV)-AD8 challenges. To directly ...


Targeted Therapy For The Future: The Use Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Against P. Aeurginosa, Matthew Froid Mar 2019

Targeted Therapy For The Future: The Use Of Novel Antimicrobial Peptides Against P. Aeurginosa, Matthew Froid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Pathogenic bacteria, such as the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are becoming resistant to our current arsenal of antibiotics at an alarming rate. P. aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial acquired infections and is a primary co-morbidity in patients with compromised immune systems. One potential source of new antibiotic agents is antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small proteins, and some have shown a high degree of efficacy and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. An experimental AMP that has been developed by Dr. Wang at UNMC, DASamp2, has shown to be effective against virulent bacteria, including P ...


Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch Jan 2019

Principles For Enhancing Virus Capsid Capacity And Stability From A Thermophilic Virus Capsid Structure, Nicholas P. Stone, Gabriel Demo, Emily Agnello, Brian A. Kelch

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The capsids of double-stranded DNA viruses protect the viral genome from the harsh extracellular environment, while maintaining stability against the high internal pressure of packaged DNA. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability in an extreme environment, we used cryoelectron microscopy to determine the capsid structure of the thermostable phage P74-26. We find the P74-26 capsid exhibits an overall architecture that is very similar to those of other tailed bacteriophages, allowing us to directly compare structures to derive the structural basis for enhanced stability. Our structure reveals lasso-like interactions that appear to function like catch bonds. This architecture allows the capsid ...


The Spatial Organization Of Mycobacterial Membrane, Julia Puffal Jan 2019

The Spatial Organization Of Mycobacterial Membrane, Julia Puffal

Doctoral Dissertations

Mycobacteria comprises a large group of organisms including the pathogenic species Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. A fast- growing saprophytic member of this genus, however, Mycobacterium smegmatis, is oftentimes used as a model organism for the pathogenic species. With a unique cell envelope architecture and unconventional polar growth, spatial coordination of cell envelope biosynthesis is vital for proper assembly of this complex structure. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of known lateral heterogeneities in mycobacterial plasma membrane, with a particular focus on the intracellular membrane domain (IMD), a spatially distinct region of the plasma membrane with diverse functions ...


Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena Jan 2019

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena

Masters Theses

Bacteria have developed various means of secreting proteins that can enter the host cell membrane. In this work I focus on two systems: cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and Type III Secretion.

Cholesterol is a molecule that is critical for physiological processes and cell membrane function. Not only can improper regulation lead to disease, but also the role cholesterol plays in cell function indicates it is an important molecule to understand. In response to this need, probes have been developed that detect cholesterol molecules in membranes. However, it has been recently shown that there is a need for probes that only respond to ...


Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago Jan 2019

Protein Degradation Regulates Phospholipid Biosynthetic Gene Expression In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Bryan Salas-Santiago

Doctoral Dissertations

Transcriptional regulation of most phospholipid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is coordinated by inositol and choline. Inositol affects phosphatidic acid (PA) intracellular levels. Opi1p interacts physically with PA and is the main repressor of the phospholipid biosynthetic genes. It is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound to the ER membrane protein Scs2p. When PA levels drop, Opi1p is translocated into the nucleus repressing most phospholipid biosynthetic genes. The OPI1 locus was identified in a screen looking for overproduction and excretion of inositol (Opi-). Opi- mutants are generally associated with a defect in repression of the ...


Impact Of Seasonal And Host-Related Factors On The Intestinal Microbiome And Cestode Community Of Sorex Cinereus And Sorex Monticola, Katelyn D. Cranmer Jan 2019

Impact Of Seasonal And Host-Related Factors On The Intestinal Microbiome And Cestode Community Of Sorex Cinereus And Sorex Monticola, Katelyn D. Cranmer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The intestinal microbiome of mammals plays a significant role in host health and response to environmental stimuli and can include both beneficial native bacteria as well as parasitic worms. In this study, I examined the intestinal cestode and bacterial communities of two closely related species of shrew, Sorex monticola and Sorex cinereus, over a six month period in 2016. Specimens were collected approximately every three weeks from May to October from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in Cowles, New Mexico. A total of 79 shrews were prepared with the gastrointestinal tracts removed and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. An additional 9 ...


Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey Jan 2019

Detection Of Beta-Lactamase Variants In Municipal Wastewater And Fresh Water, Sunil Pandey

Masters Theses

The occurrence and spread of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) are pressing public health problems worldwide. A key factor contributing to the spread of ARGs is lateral gene transfer. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are measured hot spots of microbial diversity and resistance because they receive polluted wastewater from diverse sources and contain a variety of different environments with dense bacterial loads. Due to the overuse of antibiotics the genetic capacities of microbes have profited. This helps every source of resistance gene and every means of horizontal gene transmission to develop the multiple mechanism of resistance to each antibiotic used clinically, agriculturally, or ...


Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados Jan 2019

Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados

Doctoral Dissertations

DNA is the substrate of many cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. These processes are coordinated to maintain genome integrity and ensure accurate duplication of genetic and epigenetic information. Genome-wide studies have provided evidence of the relationship between transcription and DNA replication timing. A global analysis of DNA replication initiation in T. brucei showed that TbORC1 (subunit of the origin recognition complex, ORC) binding sites are located at the boundaries of transcription units. Although recent studies in T. brucei indicate functional links among DNA replication and transcription, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we adapted ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee Dec 2018

The Effects Of Inulin And Galactooligosaccharides On The Production Of Reuterin By Lactobacillus Reuteri, Micah Dwight Forshee

ELAIA

The microbiome is a dynamic community that can positively and negatively influence host health. Lactobacillus reuteri is a probiotic that has received much attention for its ability to inhibit pathogens such as Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium difficile. It does so by its unique ability to metabolize glycerol into the antimicrobial compound 3-HPA, which is commonly referred to as reuterin. The ability to secrete reuterin is dependent not only on glycerol availability but also the concentration of glucose. In fact, there appears to be a “goldilocks” ratio between glucose and glycerol as either too much or too little glucose ...


Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer Dec 2018

Potent Cas9 Inhibition In Bacterial And Human Cells By Acriic4 And Acriic5 Anti-Crispr Proteins, Jooyoung Lee, Aamir Mir, Alireza Edraki, Bianca Garcia, Nadia Amrani, Hannah E. Lou, Ildar Gainetdinov, April Pawluk, Raed Ibraheim, Xin D. Gao, Pengpeng Liu, Alan R. Davidson, Karen L. Maxwell, Erik J. Sontheimer

Open Access Articles

In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. Previously we discovered bacteriophage-encoded Cas9-specific anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that serve as countermeasures against host bacterial immunity by inactivating their CRISPR-Cas systems (A. Pawluk, N. Amrani, Y. Zhang, B. Garcia, et al., Cell 167:1829-1838.e9, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.11.017). We hypothesized that the evolutionary advantages conferred by anti-CRISPRs would drive the widespread occurrence of these proteins in nature (K ...


Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey Dec 2018

Virulence Regulation In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Via The Alginate Regulators, Algu And Algr, The Posttranscriptional Regulator, Rsma, And The Two-Component System, Algz/R, Sean Stacey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacillus able to colonize a wide variety of environments. In the human host, P. aeruginosa can establish an acute infection or persist and create a chronic infection. P. aeruginosa is able to establish a niche and persist in human hosts by using a wide array of virulence factors used for: movement, killing host cells, and evading immune cells and antibiotics. Understanding virulence factors and their regulation has proved to be an important means of combating the morbidity and mortality of P. aeruginosa as well as the ever-increasing threat of drug resistance. By targeting virulence factors ...


Distribution Of Dengue And Zika Virus Igg Immunoglobulin, Madison Smith, Awadalkareem Adam, Anuja Mathew Dec 2018

Distribution Of Dengue And Zika Virus Igg Immunoglobulin, Madison Smith, Awadalkareem Adam, Anuja Mathew

Senior Honors Projects

Introduction. Dengue Virus (DENV) and Zika Virus (ZIKV) are viruses that belong to the Flavivirus family. They are transmitted by the Aedes aegypti species of mosquitoes. Infection with DENV can result in no symptoms, mild symptoms which include fever, rash, and headache (dengue fever) or more severe symptoms which include hemorrhage, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and shock, dengue shock syndrome (DSS). ZIKV, until recently caused mild disease but an outbreak in Brazil was associated with fetal complications such as microcephaly or Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Due to the similarity between ZIKV and DENV, antibodies (Abs) generated in humans to these ...


Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi Dec 2018

Assessment Of Salmonella Enterica Biofilms And Expression Differences Among Serovars, Zhaohao Shi

Theses and Dissertations

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms associated by a matrix of extracellular polymers. In this state, microorganisms occupy an ecological niche distinct from their free-floating, planktonic counterparts. Also, biofilm bacteria become biologically unique as they form communities and lose motility. The acquisition of these physiological attributes enables the biofilm to persist through harsh environmental conditions, including antimicrobial induced stress and to resist sanitization efforts. Because of these features, biofilms can rapidly disseminate across numerous surfaces and as they establish, become challenging to remove. This is a particular issue for the food industry as processing plants offer favorable conditions for biofilm formation ...


Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou Nov 2018

Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou

Open Access Articles

Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...