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Articles 1 - 30 of 399

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer Jun 2019

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background:

Due to its complex branching structure, direct drug delivery to the remote areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most therapies, such as those treating pulmonary infection and inflammation, must utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. A novel alternative strategy is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle.

Objective:

Utilize an in vitro transferring system to assess exogenous surfactant (BLES) as a pulmonary delivery vehicle for different therapeutics.

Methods:

An in vitro technique was developed to simultaneously study surfactant delivery and ...


The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith May 2019

The Effect Of Cysteine-Reactive Catechol Antioxidants On Alcohol Dehydrogenase As A Model For Oxidative Stress In Neurodegenerative Disease, Rachel Smith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The cellular mechanisms underlying age-related neurodegeneration, especially in disease states, are poorly understood. Oxidative stress has been heavily implicated as one factor both produced by and contributing to the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. In particular, it can destroy a cell’s ability to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, thus leading to the death of individual cells and brain tissues as a whole. This study focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress and energy production in disease states. In particular, we examine the ability of catechol molecules to take on pro-oxidative properties and modify ...


Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige Apr 2019

Exercise Rescues Gene Pathways Involved In Vascular Expansion And Promotes Functional Angiogenesis In Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue, So Yun Min, Heather Learnard, Shashi Kant, Olga Gaelikman, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Tiffany Desouza, Anand Desai, John F. Keaney Jr., Silvia Corvera, Siobhan M. Craige

Open Access Articles

Exercise mitigates chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity; however, the molecular mechanisms governing protection from these diseases are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that exercise rescues metabolically compromised high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, and reprograms subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Using transcriptomic profiling, scWAT was analyzed for HFD gene expression changes that were rescued by exercise. Gene networks involved in vascularization were identified as prominent targets of exercise, which led us to investigate the vasculature architecture and endothelial phenotype. Vascular density in scWAT was found to be compromised in HFD, and exercise rescued this defect ...


The Erk Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletal Development And Homeostasis, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Kwang Hwan Park, Hwanhee Oh, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim Apr 2019

The Erk Mapk Pathway Is Essential For Skeletal Development And Homeostasis, Jung-Min Kim, Yeon-Suk Yang, Kwang Hwan Park, Hwanhee Oh, Matthew B. Greenblatt, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of protein kinases that function as key signal transducers of a wide spectrum of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK pathway is associated with human skeletal abnormalities including Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. Here, we demonstrate that ERK activation in osteoprogenitors is required for bone formation during skeletal development and homeostasis. Deletion of Mek1 and Mek2, kinases upstream of ERK MAPK, in osteoprogenitors (Mek1(Osx)Mek2(-/-)), resulted in severe osteopenia and cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), similar to that seen in humans ...


Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers Apr 2019

Characterizing Aft1/2-Grx3/4 Interaction And The Role Of Bol2 During Iron Regulation In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, William Rivers

Senior Theses

Iron dysregulation has been linked to a variety of human diseases, such as anemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia, sideroblastic-like microcytic anemia, and myopathy. Thus, it is vitally important to understand the mechanisms for regulating intracellular iron. Here, we use fluorescence microscopy techniques in live cells to study interactions of the yeast proteins Grx3/4, Aft1/2, and Bol2, which have been shown to be involved in turning off iron import when the cell has adequate iron. Modified versions of genes encoding these proteins have been incorporated into several yeast backgrounds to use fluorescence to monitor interactions under varying ...


Optimization Of Ribosome Profiling Using Low-Input Brain Tissue From Fragile X Syndrome Model Mice, Botao Liu, Gemma Molinaro, Huan Shu, Emily E. Stackpole, Kimberly M. Huber, Joel D. Richter Mar 2019

Optimization Of Ribosome Profiling Using Low-Input Brain Tissue From Fragile X Syndrome Model Mice, Botao Liu, Gemma Molinaro, Huan Shu, Emily E. Stackpole, Kimberly M. Huber, Joel D. Richter

Open Access Articles

Dysregulated protein synthesis is a major underlying cause of many neurodevelopmental diseases including fragile X syndrome. In order to capture subtle but biologically significant differences in translation in these disorders, a robust technique is required. One powerful tool to study translational control is ribosome profiling, which is based on deep sequencing of mRNA fragments protected from ribonuclease (RNase) digestion by ribosomes. However, this approach has been mainly applied to rapidly dividing cells where translation is active and large amounts of starting material are readily available. The application of ribosome profiling to low-input brain tissue where translation is modest and gene ...


Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw Feb 2019

Mutations In The Glycosyltransferase Domain Of Glt8d1 Are Associated With Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Johnathan Cooper-Knock, John E. Landers, Pamela J. Shaw

Open Access Articles

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder without effective neuroprotective therapy. Known genetic variants impair pathways, including RNA processing, axonal transport, and protein homeostasis. We report ALS-causing mutations within the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase GLT8D1. Exome sequencing in an autosomal-dominant ALS pedigree identified p.R92C mutations in GLT8D1, which co-segregate with disease. Sequencing of local and international cohorts demonstrated significant ALS association in the same exon, including additional rare deleterious mutations in conserved amino acids. Mutations are associated with the substrate binding site, and both R92C and G78W changes impair GLT8D1 enzyme activity. Mutated GLT8D1 exhibits in vitro ...


Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson Feb 2019

Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson

Open Access Articles

Protein citrullination is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs). This modification plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of numerous autoimmune disorders including RA. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating physiological regulators of PAD activity to understand the primary cause of the associated disorders. Apart from calcium, it is well-documented that a reducing environment activates the PADs. Although the concentration of thioredoxin (hTRX), an oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular reducing environment, is elevated in RA patients, its contribution toward RA progression or PAD activity has not been explored. Herein, we demonstrate that hTRX ...


Rac1 Activity Is Modulated By Huntingtin And Dysregulated In Models Of Huntington's Disease, Adelaide Tousley, Anastasia Khvorova, Neil Aronin, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason Feb 2019

Rac1 Activity Is Modulated By Huntingtin And Dysregulated In Models Of Huntington's Disease, Adelaide Tousley, Anastasia Khvorova, Neil Aronin, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that Huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease (HD), is required for actin based changes in cell morphology, and undergoes stimulus induced targeting to plasma membranes where it interacts with phospholipids involved in cell signaling. The small GTPase Rac1 is a downstream target of growth factor stimulation and PI 3-kinase activity and is critical for actin dependent membrane remodeling.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Rac1 activity is impaired in HD or regulated by normal Huntingtin.

METHODS: Analyses were performed in differentiated control and HD human stem cells and HD Q140/Q140 knock-in mice. Biochemical methods included ...


Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch Feb 2019

Hypomorphic Mutations Of Trip11 Cause Odontochondrodysplasia, Anika Wehrle, John A. Follit, Gregory J. Pazour, Andrea Superti-Furga, Martin Lowe, Ekkehart Lausch

Open Access Articles

Odontochondrodysplasia (ODCD) is an unresolved genetic disorder of skeletal and dental development. Here, we show that ODCD is caused by hypomorphic TRIP11 mutations, and we identify ODCD as the nonlethal counterpart to achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A), the known null phenotype in humans. TRIP11 encodes Golgi-associated microtubule-binding protein 210 (GMAP-210), an essential tether protein of the Golgi apparatus that physically interacts with intraflagellar transport 20 (IFT20), a component of the ciliary intraflagellar transport complex B. This association and extraskeletal disease manifestations in ODCD point to a cilium-dependent pathogenesis. However, our functional studies in patient-derived primary cells clearly support a Golgi-based disease mechanism ...


Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb Feb 2019

Multiple Variables At The Leukocyte Cell Surface Impact Fc Γ Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms, Kashyap R. Patel, Jacob T. Roberts, Adam W. Barb

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Fc γ receptors (FcγR) expressed on the surface of human leukocytes bind clusters of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to induce a variety of responses. Many therapeutic antibodies and vaccine-elicited antibodies prevent or treat infectious diseases, cancers and autoimmune disorders by binding FcγRs, thus there is a need to fully define the variables that impact antibody-induced mechanisms to properly evaluate candidate therapies and design new intervention strategies. A multitude of factors influence the IgG-FcγR interaction; one well-described factor is the differential affinity of the six distinct FcγRs for the four human IgG subclasses. However, there are several other recently described factors that ...


Senp3-Mediated Host Defense Response Contains Hbv Replication And Restores Protein Synthesis, Rui Xi, Botao Liu, Yan Han, Xiling Shen Jan 2019

Senp3-Mediated Host Defense Response Contains Hbv Replication And Restores Protein Synthesis, Rui Xi, Botao Liu, Yan Han, Xiling Shen

Open Access Articles

Certain organs are capable of containing the replication of various types of viruses. In the liver, infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the etiological factor of Hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), often remains asymptomatic and leads to a chronic carrier state. Here we investigated how hepatocytes contain HBV replication and promote their own survival by orchestrating a translational defense mechanism via the stress-sensitive SUMO-2/3-specific peptidase SENP3. We found that SENP3 expression level decreased in HBV-infected hepatocytes in various models including HepG2-NTCP cell lines and a humanized mouse model. Downregulation of SENP3 reduced HBV replication and boosted host protein ...


Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D. Jan 2019

Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs), such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been found to be involved in a variety of critical biological processes, and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been involved with several human diseases including cancer.

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the first events in the process of carcinogenesis in cervical and a subset of head and neck cancers. The expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is essential in this process by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb, respectively, in addition to their interactions with other host proteins and regulation of ...


Investigating Iron Metabolism In Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients, Alexander A. Maynard, Gardenia Pacheco Jan 2019

Investigating Iron Metabolism In Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients, Alexander A. Maynard, Gardenia Pacheco

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a stroke characterized by bleeding into the subarachnoid space of the brain, typically resulting in high mortality rate.8 Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), characterized by vasospasms induced arterial constriction, occurs in roughly one third of the surviving patients.20 The development of DCI and neurodegeneration could be linked to metabolic pathology that occurs after SAH, specifically iron induced changes in redox status. The oxidized environment induced by iron has the potential to functionally affect the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp), which is linked to neurodegeneration.15 Global LC-MS based metabolomics data revealed alterations in metabolism in the CSF ...


Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2018

Orbit: A New Paradigm For Genetic Engineering Of Mycobacterial Chromosomes, Kenan C. Murphy, Samantha J. Nelson, Subhalaxmi Nambi, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Christina E. Baer, Christopher M. Sassetti

Open Access Articles

Two efficient recombination systems were combined to produce a versatile method for chromosomal engineering that obviates the need to prepare double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) recombination substrates. A synthetic "targeting oligonucleotide" is incorporated into the chromosome via homologous recombination mediated by the phage Che9c RecT annealase. This oligonucleotide contains a site-specific recombination site for the directional Bxb1 integrase (Int), which allows the simultaneous integration of a "payload plasmid" that contains a cognate recombination site and a selectable marker. The targeting oligonucleotide and payload plasmid are cotransformed into a RecT- and Int-expressing strain, and drug-resistant homologous recombinants are selected in a single step ...


Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson Dec 2018

Peptidylarginine Deiminases 2 And 4 Modulate Innate And Adaptive Immune Responses In Tlr-7-Dependent Lupus., Yudong Liu, Yaíma L Lightfoot, Nickie Seto, Santanu Mondal, Padmavathy Nandha Premnath, Paul R. Thompson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

The peptidylarginine deiminases PAD2 and PAD4 are implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases. PAD4 may be pathogenic in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) through its role in neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation that promotes autoantigen externalization, immune dysregulation, and organ damage. The role of this enzyme in mouse models of autoimmunity remains unclear, as pan-PAD chemical inhibitors improve clinical phenotype, whereas PAD4-KO models have given conflicting results. The role of PAD2 in SLE has not been investigated. The differential roles of PAD2 and PAD4 in TLR-7-dependent lupus autoimmunity were examined. Padi4-/- displayed decreased autoantibodies, type I IFN responses, immune ...


Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou Nov 2018

Deciphering The Molecular Basis Of Mycobacteria And Lipoglycan Recognition By The C-Type Lectin Dectin-2, Alexiane Decout, Devinder Kaur, Jerome Nigou

Open Access Articles

Dectin-2 is a C-type lectin involved in the recognition of several pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Schistosoma mansonii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis that triggers Th17 immune responses. Identifying pathogen ligands and understanding the molecular basis of their recognition is one of the current challenges. Purified M. tuberculosis mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was shown to induce signaling via Dectin-2, an activity that requires the (alpha1 --> 2)-linked mannosides forming the caps. Here, using isogenic M. tuberculosis mutant strains, we demonstrate that ManLAM is a bona fide and actually the sole ligand mediating bacilli recognition by Dectin-2, although M. tuberculosis produces a ...


Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastatic Growth Depends On Pad4-Driven Citrullination Of The Extracellular Matrix, A. E. Yuzhalin, A. N. Gordon-Weeks, M. L. Tognoli, K. Jones, B. Markelc, R. Konietzny, R. Fischer, Aaron Muth, E. O'Neill, Paul R. Thompson, P. J. Venables, B. M. Kessler, S. Y. Lim, R. J. Muschel Nov 2018

Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastatic Growth Depends On Pad4-Driven Citrullination Of The Extracellular Matrix, A. E. Yuzhalin, A. N. Gordon-Weeks, M. L. Tognoli, K. Jones, B. Markelc, R. Konietzny, R. Fischer, Aaron Muth, E. O'Neill, Paul R. Thompson, P. J. Venables, B. M. Kessler, S. Y. Lim, R. J. Muschel

Open Access Articles

Citrullination of proteins, a post-translational conversion of arginine residues to citrulline, is recognized in rheumatoid arthritis, but largely undocumented in cancer. Here we show that citrullination of the extracellular matrix by cancer cell derived peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is essential for the growth of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). Using proteomics, we demonstrate that liver metastases exhibit higher levels of citrullination and PAD4 than unaffected liver, primary CRC or adjacent colonic mucosa. Functional significance for citrullination in metastatic growth is evident in murine models where inhibition of citrullination substantially reduces liver metastatic burden. Additionally, citrullination of a key matrix ...


Signaling Pathways Induced By Leptin During Epithelial(-)Mesenchymal Transition In Breast Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Juan Carlos Juarez-Cruz, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Nov 2018

Signaling Pathways Induced By Leptin During Epithelial(-)Mesenchymal Transition In Breast Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Juan Carlos Juarez-Cruz, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Leptin is an adipokine that is overexpressed in obese and overweight people. Interestingly, women with breast cancer present high levels of leptin and of its receptor ObR. Leptin plays an important role in breast cancer progression due to the biological processes it participates in, such as epithelial(-)mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT consists of a series of orchestrated events in which cell(-)cell and cell(-)extracellular matrix interactions are altered and lead to the release of epithelial cells from the surrounding tissue. The cytoskeleton is also re-arranged, allowing the three-dimensional movement of epithelial cells into the extracellular matrix. This transition provides ...


Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton Nov 2018

Mechanisms Mediating The Pro-Fibrotic Effects Of Estradiol, Haley Fulton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease which promotes fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Scleroderma patients have upregulated production of fibrotic extracellular matrix proteins and upregulated serum estradiol levels compared to control subjects. Estradiol effects eukaryotic transcription and gene expression when it enters the nucleus via one of its nuclear hormone receptors. Estrogen receptor one/ estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is present on the nuclear membrane and binds the ligand estrogen. These experiments were designed to study the various isoforms of ESR1 and determine if gene expression of ESR1 was greater in fibroblasts and human skin stimulated with estradiol than ...


Rare Gene Fusion Rearrangement Sptnb1-Pdgfrb In An Atypical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Vanessa Fiorini Furtado, Neeraj Y. Saini, William V. Walsh, Venu G. Bathini, Patricia M. Miron Oct 2018

Rare Gene Fusion Rearrangement Sptnb1-Pdgfrb In An Atypical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Vanessa Fiorini Furtado, Neeraj Y. Saini, William V. Walsh, Venu G. Bathini, Patricia M. Miron

Open Access Articles

The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia recognizes a distinct class of myeloid and lymphoid tumors with eosinophilia-related proliferations associated with specific gene rearrangements, one of which involves rearrangements of platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) gene. We report a case of a rare PDGFRB rearrangement with SPTNB1 (spectrin beta, nonerythrocytic 1) that presented as atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm.


Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee Oct 2018

Effects Of Maternal Protein Restriction On The Pulmonary Surfactant System During The Early Life And Adulthood, Reza Khazaee

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined by low birth weight and contributes to a variety of adult-onset diseases with different severities between males and females. However, the effects of FGR on the pulmonary surfactant are not fully elucidated. In this thesis, first, we investigated the FGR effects on the lung function and the surfactant system at the early postnatal life. It was hypothesized that FGR contributes to alterations of lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. Second, we assessed the FGR effects on the surfactant system in response to sepsis in adulthood. It was hypothesized that FGR ...


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay Oct 2018

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

David Turay, MD

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Microrna-96 Promotes Schistosomiasis Hepatic Fibrosis In Mice By Suppressing Smad7, Xufeng Luo, Dongmei Zhang, Jun Xie, Qin Su, Xing He, Ruipu Bai, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan Oct 2018

Microrna-96 Promotes Schistosomiasis Hepatic Fibrosis In Mice By Suppressing Smad7, Xufeng Luo, Dongmei Zhang, Jun Xie, Qin Su, Xing He, Ruipu Bai, Guangping Gao, Weiqing Pan

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Infection with Schistosoma causes aberrant expression of host microRNAs (miRNAs), and normalizing the levels of dysregulated miRNAs can attenuate pathology. Here, we show that the host miRNA, miR-96, is markedly upregulated during the progression of hepatic schistosomiasis. We demonstrate that elevation of miR-96 induces hepatic fibrosis in infected mice by suppressing the expression of its target gene, Smad7. We show that infection with Schistosoma induces the expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), which in turn upregulates the expression of miR-96 through SMAD2/3-DROSHA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-96 with recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8)-mediated delivery of Tough ...


8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Oct 2018

8th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2018

Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher

Open Access Articles

Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Delta and slx8Delta cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription, we assessed ...


T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot Sep 2018

T Cell Epitope Engineering: An Avian H7n9 Influenza Vaccine Strategy For Pandemic Preparedness And Response, Leonard Moise, Bethany M. Biron, Christine M. Boyle, Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Hyesun Jang, Celia A. Schiffer, Ted M. Ross, William D. Martin, Anne S. De Groot

Schiffer Lab Publications

The delayed availability of vaccine during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic created a sense of urgency to better prepare for the next influenza pandemic. Advancements in manufacturing technology, speed and capacity have been achieved but vaccine effectiveness remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe a novel vaccine design strategy called immune engineering in the context of H7N9 influenza vaccine development. The approach combines immunoinformatic and structure modeling methods to promote protective antibody responses against H7N9 hemagglutinin (HA) by engineering whole antigens to carry seasonal influenza HA memory CD4(+) T cell epitopes - without perturbing native antigen structure - by galvanizing HA-specific memory ...


Men’S Health In Industries: Plastic Plant Pollution And Prevalence Of Pre-Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Sultan Ayoub Meo, Faris Jamal Almutairi, Majed Mohammed Alasbali, Turki Badr Alqahtani, Saad Saeed Almutairi, Rakan Abdulaziz Albuhayjan, Fawziah Al Rouq, Naseer Ahmed Sep 2018

Men’S Health In Industries: Plastic Plant Pollution And Prevalence Of Pre-Diabetes And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Sultan Ayoub Meo, Faris Jamal Almutairi, Majed Mohammed Alasbali, Turki Badr Alqahtani, Saad Saeed Almutairi, Rakan Abdulaziz Albuhayjan, Fawziah Al Rouq, Naseer Ahmed

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Plastic production is prominently increasing and its pollution is an emerging environmental global health concern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among nonsmoking plastic industry workers. Three hundred and forty volunteers male plastic industry workers were interviewed after medical history and examination; finally, 278 nonsmoking plastic industry workers were selected. The mean age for the participants was 38.03 ± 10.86 years and body mass index was 25.52 ± 3.15 (kg/m)2. The plastic industry workers had been exposed to plastic plant pollution for 8 hr daily, 6 days ...


Rna Binding Proteins Co-Localize With Small Tau Inclusions In Tauopathy, Brandon F. Maziuk, Daniel J. Apicco, Anna Lourdes Cruz, Lulu Jiang, Peter E. A. Ash, Edroaldo Lummertz. Da Rocha, Cheng Zhang, Wai Haung Yu, John D. Leszyk, Jose F. Abisambra, Hu Li, Benjamin Wolozin Aug 2018

Rna Binding Proteins Co-Localize With Small Tau Inclusions In Tauopathy, Brandon F. Maziuk, Daniel J. Apicco, Anna Lourdes Cruz, Lulu Jiang, Peter E. A. Ash, Edroaldo Lummertz. Da Rocha, Cheng Zhang, Wai Haung Yu, John D. Leszyk, Jose F. Abisambra, Hu Li, Benjamin Wolozin

Open Access Articles

The development of insoluble, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of the microtubule-associated protein tau is a defining feature of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidence suggests that tau pathology co-localizes with RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are known markers for stress granules (SGs). Here we used proteomics to determine how the network of tau binding proteins changes with disease in the rTg4510 mouse, and then followed up with immunohistochemistry to identify RNA binding proteins that co-localize with tau pathology. The tau interactome networks revealed striking disease-related changes in interactions between tau and a multiple RBPs, and biochemical fractionation studies ...


Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor Aug 2018

Bayesian Analytical Approaches For Metabolomics : A Novel Method For Molecular Structure-Informed Metabolite Interaction Modeling, A Novel Diagnostic Model For Differentiating Myocardial Infarction Type, And Approaches For Compound Identification Given Mass Spectrometry Data., Patrick J. Trainor

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolomics, the study of small molecules in biological systems, has enjoyed great success in enabling researchers to examine disease-associated metabolic dysregulation and has been utilized for the discovery biomarkers of disease and phenotypic states. In spite of recent technological advances in the analytical platforms utilized in metabolomics and the proliferation of tools for the analysis of metabolomics data, significant challenges in metabolomics data analyses remain. In this dissertation, we present three of these challenges and Bayesian methodological solutions for each. In the first part we develop a new methodology to serve a basis for making higher order inferences in metabolomics ...