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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

A Numerical Study Of The Interaction Between One Dimensional Carbyne Chain And Single Stranded Dna, Zeina Salman Aug 2017

A Numerical Study Of The Interaction Between One Dimensional Carbyne Chain And Single Stranded Dna, Zeina Salman

Theses and Dissertations

resolution at the single nucleotide level when developing DNA sequencers. The purpose of this research was to numerically study the electrical properties associated with the interaction between 1D carbon chain, known as carbyne, and ssDNA. First, the electrical properties of the carbyne chain were calculated. Second, the electrical properties of the carbyne chain were calculated in the presence of different ssDNA bases. Analyzing the differences between the two cases led to determining the effects of these different bases on the electrical properties. The numerical simulation approach conducted in this research was based on the first-principle simulation. The first-principle simulation was ...


X-Ray Characterization Of Mesophases And Phase Transitions Of Dna Analogues In Solutions, Mustafa Selcuk Yasar Nov 2016

X-Ray Characterization Of Mesophases And Phase Transitions Of Dna Analogues In Solutions, Mustafa Selcuk Yasar

Doctoral Dissertations

We think of DNA as double-stranded helices (duplex), but the polymer exists in many conformations. Several triplex and quadruplex DNA structures can be formed in laboratory settings and exist in nature. This thesis first provides a brief description of the nature of the order in arrays of duplex DNA under biologically relevant molecular crowding conditions. Then we compare the duplex DNA mesophases with the corresponding liquid crystalline phase behavior of the triplex and quadruplex DNA analogues. In particular, we focus on G-quadruplexes.

Observed in the folds of guanine-rich oligonucleotides, G-quadruplex structures are based on G-quartets formed by hydrogen bonding and ...


Morphological And Material Effects In Van Der Waals Interactions, Jaime C. Hopkins Jul 2016

Morphological And Material Effects In Van Der Waals Interactions, Jaime C. Hopkins

Doctoral Dissertations

Van der Waals (vdW) interactions influence a variety of mesoscale phenomena, such as surface adhesion, friction, and colloid stability, and play increasingly important roles as science seeks to design systems on increasingly smaller length scales. Using the full Lifshitz continuum formulation, this thesis investigates the effects of system materials, shapes, and configurations and presents open-source software to accurately calculate vdW interactions.

In the Lifshitz formulation, the microscopic composition of a material is represented by its bulk dielectric response. Small changes in a dielectric response can result in substantial variations in the strength of vdW interactions. However, the relationship between these ...


Thermal Analysis Of Borosilicate Glass For Its Biological Applications, Gregory Humble Apr 2016

Thermal Analysis Of Borosilicate Glass For Its Biological Applications, Gregory Humble

Symposium of Student Scholars

Borosilicate glass doped with varying wt% of cerium oxide is investigated for biological applications. Thermal studies of each formulation were conducted using an SDT Q600 differential scanning calorimeter. 30mg samples of 350 - 425 μm particle size of each type of glass were heated to 1200°C in order to obtain the glass transition, crystallization, and melting temperatures. Samples were then heated to 900°C at several heating rates, ranging from 2°C/min to 100°C/min, then compared against each other as well as against an undoped borosilicate glass.


Molecular Simulations Of Protein-Induced Membrane Remodeling, Ryan Patrick Bradley Jan 2016

Molecular Simulations Of Protein-Induced Membrane Remodeling, Ryan Patrick Bradley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Membranes organize much of the cell and host a great deal of molecular machinery required to integrate signals from the outside, regulate the surrounding matrix, change shape, move, and grow. Understanding how a dense forest of proteins, sugars, and biomarkers modulates the shape of the cell is necessary to produce more detailed, accurate predictions of cell behavior, particularly in the studies of cell signaling processes that lead to oncogenesis. In this dissertation, I will present a series of molecular models which, when combined with continuum models and both in vitro and in vivo experiments, describe the molecular basis for membrane ...


Mirror Buckling Transitions In Freestanding Graphene Membranes Induced Through Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, James Kevin Schoelz May 2015

Mirror Buckling Transitions In Freestanding Graphene Membranes Induced Through Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, James Kevin Schoelz

Theses and Dissertations

Graphene has the ability to provide for a technological revolution. First isolated and characterized in 2004, this material shows promise in the field of flexible electronics. The electronic properties of graphene can be tuned by controlling the shape of the membrane. Of particular interest in this endeavor are the thermal ripples in graphene membranes. Years of theoretical work by such luminaries as Lev Landau, Rudolf Peierls, David Mermin and Herbert Wagner have established that 2D crystals should not be thermodynamically stable. Experimental research on thin films has supported this finding. Yet graphene exists, and freestanding graphene films have been grown ...


Multimode Analysis Of Nanoscale Biomolecular Interactions, Purushottam Babu Tiwari Feb 2015

Multimode Analysis Of Nanoscale Biomolecular Interactions, Purushottam Babu Tiwari

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomolecular interactions, including protein-protein, protein-DNA, and protein-ligand interactions, are of special importance in all biological systems. These interactions may occer during the loading of biomolecules to interfaces, the translocation of biomolecules through transmembrane protein pores, and the movement of biomolecules in a crowded intracellular environment. The molecular interaction of a protein with its binding partners is crucial in fundamental biological processes such as electron transfer, intracellular signal transmission and regulation, neuroprotective mechanisms, and regulation of DNA topology. In this dissertation, a customized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has been optimized and new theoretical and label free experimental methods with related analytical ...


Defining The Free Energy Landscape For Protein Induced Cell Membrane Curvature, Richard W. Tourdot Jan 2015

Defining The Free Energy Landscape For Protein Induced Cell Membrane Curvature, Richard W. Tourdot

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Using methods from computational statistical mechanics, this thesis aims to elucidate the free energy landscape for protein mediated curvature induction in cell membranes. In particular, a mesoscale model of the cell membrane is utilized in this thesis to probe the thermodynamics of several membrane morphological dependent phenomena including membrane tubulation, the formation of endocytic buds, and protein recruitment on cell protrusions. This model allows for the quantification of membrane proteins curvature sensing behavior due to thermal fluctuations, and is able to predict morphologies which form due to membrane proteins cooperative effects. Analysis of the free energy landscape for generation of ...


Superior To One Of Glass: Natural Gradient Index Lenses Via Patchy Particle Self-Assembly, Jing Cai Jan 2015

Superior To One Of Glass: Natural Gradient Index Lenses Via Patchy Particle Self-Assembly, Jing Cai

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

To achieve acute and sensitive vision in a camera-like eye in the ocean, a graded refractive index spherical lens is required to maximize the photon flux on the retina, while leaving an eye structure that fits in the head of an animal. This biological lens must also maintain low protein density fluctuation at the length-scale of a wavelength of visible light in order to maintain transparency. In squids, this sophisticated optical design emerges from the properties of a single protein fold, the S-crystallin. In this thesis, I study the material properties and the self-assembly of the squid lens system. I ...


Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu Jan 2013

Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces For Study Of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

Cells exhibit high sensitivity and diverse responses to the intrinsic nanotopography of the extracellular matrix through their nanoscale cellular sensing machinery. A simple microfabrication method for precise control and spatial patterning of the local nanoroughness on glass surfaces by using photolithography and reactive ion etching is reported. It is demonstrated that local nanoroughness as a biophysical cue could regulate a diverse array of NIH/3T3 fi broblast behaviors, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and cytoskeleton contractility. The capability to control and further predict cellular responses to nanoroughness might suggest novel methods for developing biomaterials mimicking nanotopographic structures in vivo ...


Nanotopography Influences Adhesion, Spreading, And Self-Renewal Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Luis G. Villa-Diaz, Yubing Sun, Shinuo Weng, Jin Koo Kim, Raymond H. W. Lam, Lin Han, Rong Fan, Paul H. Krebsbach, Jianping Fu Apr 2012

Nanotopography Influences Adhesion, Spreading, And Self-Renewal Of Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Weiqiang Chen, Luis G. Villa-Diaz, Yubing Sun, Shinuo Weng, Jin Koo Kim, Raymond H. W. Lam, Lin Han, Rong Fan, Paul H. Krebsbach, Jianping Fu

Weiqiang Chen

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have great potentials for future cell-based therapeutics. However, their mechanosensitivity to biophysical signals from the cellular microenvironment is not well characterized. Here we introduced an effective microfabrication strategy for accurate control and patterning of nanoroughness on glass surfaces. Our results demonstrated that nanotopography could provide a potent regulatory signal over different hESC behaviors, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, clonal expansion, and self-renewal. Our results indicated that topological sensing of hESCs might include feedback regulation involving mechanosensory integrin-mediated cell matrix adhesion, myosin II, and E-cadherin. Our results also demonstrated that cellular responses to nanotopography were cell-type ...


A Threading Approach To Protein Structure Prediction: Studies On Tnf-Like Molecules, Rev Proteins, And Protein Kinases , Yungok Ihm Jan 2004

A Threading Approach To Protein Structure Prediction: Studies On Tnf-Like Molecules, Rev Proteins, And Protein Kinases , Yungok Ihm

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main focus of this dissertation is the application of the threading approach to specific biological problems. The threading scheme developed in our group targets incorporating important structural features necessary for detecting structural similarity between the target sequence and the template structure. This enables us to use our threading method to solve problems for which sequence-based methods are not very much useful. We applied our threading method to predict the three-dimensional structures of lentivirus (EIAV, HIV-1, FIV, SIV) Rev proteins. Predicted structures of Rev proteins suggest that they share a structural similarity among themselves (four-helix bundle). Also, the threading approach ...