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Articles 31 - 60 of 1638

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg Apr 2019

Design And Synthesis Of A Novel Lsoxazoline As A Potential Pam-Agonist, Josselyn Roosenberg

Honors Theses

Progression of Alzheimer's disease is associated with a loss of Ml receptor activation in the brain. However, a lack of clinical success following attempts to activate the Ml receptor at the orthosteric site has contributed to a transition towards the allosteric pocket of the receptor. Here, positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) interact to potentiate the acetylcholine response. Recent research proposes that optimization of PAM activity at the expense of intrinsic agonism may posit a means to limit adverse side effects. Therefore, this project proposes a design and synthesis of a novel isoxazoline as a potent PAM agent with weak intrinsic ...


Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova Apr 2019

Analysis Of Dl-Amino Acid Ratios In Eggshells Using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography, Gergana Milkova

Honors Theses

HPLC methodology was developed to determine the concentrations and ratios of D to L amino acids in emu and ostrich eggshells treated with heat at different temperatures . We aimed to determine an internal standard and how ratios were affected under different conditions. An HPLC method was determined that gave consistent retention times and satisfactory enantioseparation . Calibration curves for each amino acid were developed from single and multi-amino acid containing dilution series producing a model that most closely replicates the eggshell-extracted amino acids.


Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja Apr 2019

Isolation And Characterization Of Novel Arginine-Derived Heterocyclic Amines, Nathaniel Srikureja

Honors Theses

Most known heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are potent mutagens present at significant concentrations in cooked meats, and can be synthesized from burned mixtures of L-creatin(in)e with various amino acids. We hypothesize that novel mutagenic HCAs may be synthesized from a heated plant-based food simulating binary amino acid mL'\:ture: L-arginine and L-threonine. A two-part solid phase extraction was used to separate nitrogen heterocycles from byproducts followed by prep­ HPLC and the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella TA98 to determine the mutagenicity of various isolates. The results indicate that this binary amino acid mixture does not yield a mutagenic sample.


Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee Apr 2019

Synthesis Of An Ideal Inhibitor For The Lpxc Enzyme, Taejun Lee

Honors Theses

Due to the growing need of antibiotics in modern day medicine, this study attempts to apply a method of medicinal chemistry that would create a novel inhibitor for a lesser known target of gram negative bacteria, the LpxC enzyme. This study proposes that a synthetic plan which consists of combining components of different molecules would create a more effective inhibitor. These components include a binding group for the active site of the enzyme, a hydrophobic chain which has been shown to interact with an allosteric site on the LpxC enzyme, and the isoxazoline ring which interacts with the zinc ion ...


The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown Apr 2019

The Mechanism Of The Enzymatic Synthesis Of 2,4-Hydroxymethfufural Phosphate, Caroline Brown

Honors Theses

This project stems from the desire to explore and eventually harness the enzymatic mechanism of 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate synthase (MfnB). The enzyme of interest, MfnB, is found most prominently in methanogens and some bacteria and can catalyze five or more separate chemical transformations in a single active site. This singular enzyme takes two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and creates a furan-containing compound, 4- (hydroxymethyl)-2-furan-carboxaldehyde-phosphate (4-HMF-P). Furan-containing compounds have been highlighted for their high potential in the production of biofuels and biomaterial compounds; thus, research efforts seek to create a more efficient synthesis process for furan compounds. The broad industrial applications ...


Developing Tale Proteins As A Biosensor For Detecting Pathogen Specific Double-Stranded Dna, Kathrine Gaiko Apr 2019

Developing Tale Proteins As A Biosensor For Detecting Pathogen Specific Double-Stranded Dna, Kathrine Gaiko

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins are important for DNA binding. They bind to specific nucleotide sequences by the use of two residues in each repeat allowing them to target specific DNA sequences. Their modular structure makes TALEs advantageous over other DNA binding proteins such as zinc finger proteins. Zinc finger proteins (ZFP) use a finger like projection to bind 3-4 subsequence base pairs while TALE proteins use two amino acid residues in each repeat to bind one nucleotide. ZFP can use SEER-Lac system for colorimetric detection, while TALE proteins can use fluorescence labeling with Alexa for detection of binding to ...


Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson Apr 2019

Study Of The Effects Of Silver Ions And Silver Nanoparticles On Embryonic Development, Martha Sharisha Johnson

Biomedical Sciences Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the study of the toxicity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) and their ions on the development of zebrafish embryos, aiming to understand unique biological effects of NPs and ions, and design new in vivo assays to characterize the toxicity of these metal NPs and metal ions. Currently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of biological effects of nanomaterials are partially understood. Some studies assume that the toxic effects of NPs can be attributed to the release of their ions. We investigate the effects of silver NPs (Ag NPs) and silver ions (Ag+ ions) on the embryonic development of zebrafish ...


Optical Stability Of 1,1′-Binaphthyl Derivatives, Nikolay V. Tkachenko, Steve Scheiner Mar 2019

Optical Stability Of 1,1′-Binaphthyl Derivatives, Nikolay V. Tkachenko, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The racemization process of various 1,1′-binaphthyl derivatives is studied by quantum calculations. The preferred racemization pathway passes through a transition state belonging to the Ci symmetry group. The energy barrier for this process is independent of solvation, the electron-withdrawing/releasing power of substituents, or their ability to engage in H-bonds within the molecule. The primary factor is instead the substituent size. The barrier is thus reduced when the −OH groups of 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol are replaced by H. There is a drop in the barrier also when the substituents are moved from the 2,2′ positions to ...


Purification And Characterization Of A Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Meshal Nazeer, Humera Waheed, Maria Saeed, Saman Yousuf Ali, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Aftab Ahmed Mar 2019

Purification And Characterization Of A Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Protein 1 (Nsltp1) From Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) Seeds, Meshal Nazeer, Humera Waheed, Maria Saeed, Saman Yousuf Ali, M. Iqbal Choudhary, Zaheer Ul-Haq, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) belongs to the family Umbelliferae, is commonly used in traditional, and folk medicine due to its carminative, stimulant, antiseptic, diuretic, antihypertensive, and hepatoprotective activities. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) reported from various plants are known to be involved in transferring lipids between membranes and in plants defense response. Here, we describe the complete primary structure of a monomeric non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1), with molecular weight of 9.66 kDa, from ajwain seeds. The nsLTP1 has been purified by combination of chromatographic techniques, and further characterized by mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation. The ajwain nsLTP1 is ...


Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo Mar 2019

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Chemistry Publications

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


Scale Up Isolation Of Aaptamine For In Vivo Evaluation Indicates Its Neurobiological Activity Is Linked To The Delta Opioid Receptor, Nicole L. Mcintosh, Eptisam Lambo, Laura Millan-Lobo, Fei Li, Li He, Phillip Crews, Jennifer L. Whistler, Tyler Johnson Mar 2019

Scale Up Isolation Of Aaptamine For In Vivo Evaluation Indicates Its Neurobiological Activity Is Linked To The Delta Opioid Receptor, Nicole L. Mcintosh, Eptisam Lambo, Laura Millan-Lobo, Fei Li, Li He, Phillip Crews, Jennifer L. Whistler, Tyler Johnson

Tyler Johnson

Opioid receptors belong to the large superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning (7TM) G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As a class, GPCRs are of fundamental physiological importance mediating the actions of the majority of known neurotransmitters and hormones. The Mu, Delta, and Kappa (MOP, DOP, KOP) opioid receptors are particularly intriguing members of this receptor family as they are the targets involved in many neurobiological diseases such as addiction, pain, stress, anxiety, and depression. Recently we discovered that the aaptamine class of marine sponge derived natural products exhibit selective agonist activity in vitro for the DOP versus MOP receptor. Our findings may explain ...


Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson Feb 2019

Thioredoxin Modulates Protein Arginine Deiminase 4 (Pad4)-Catalyzed Citrullination, Mitesh Nagar, Ronak Tilvawala, Paul R. Thompson

Open Access Articles

Protein citrullination is a post-translational modification catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs). This modification plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of numerous autoimmune disorders including RA. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating physiological regulators of PAD activity to understand the primary cause of the associated disorders. Apart from calcium, it is well-documented that a reducing environment activates the PADs. Although the concentration of thioredoxin (hTRX), an oxidoreductase that maintains the cellular reducing environment, is elevated in RA patients, its contribution toward RA progression or PAD activity has not been explored. Herein, we demonstrate that hTRX ...


A H2ax–Carp-1 Interaction Regulates Apoptosis Signaling Following Dna Damage, Sreeja C. Sekhar, Jaganathan Venkatesh, Vino T. Cheriyan, Magesh Muthu, Edi Levi, Hadeel Assad, Paul Meister, Vishnu V. Undyala, James W. Gauld, Arun K. Rishi Feb 2019

A H2ax–Carp-1 Interaction Regulates Apoptosis Signaling Following Dna Damage, Sreeja C. Sekhar, Jaganathan Venkatesh, Vino T. Cheriyan, Magesh Muthu, Edi Levi, Hadeel Assad, Paul Meister, Vishnu V. Undyala, James W. Gauld, Arun K. Rishi

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP-1/CCAR1) is a peri-nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates apoptosis via chemotherapeutic Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and a novel class of CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Although Adriamycin causes DNA damage, data from Comet assays revealed that CFM-4.16 also induced DNA damage. Phosphorylation of histone 2AX (γH2AX) protein is involved in regulating DNA damage repair and apoptosis signaling. Adriamycin or CFM-4.16 treatments inhibited cell growth and caused elevated CARP-1 and γH2AX in human breast (HBC) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. In fact, a robust nuclear or peri-nuclear co-localization of CARP-1 and γH2AX occurred in cells ...


Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang Feb 2019

Bisthioether Stapled Peptides Targeting Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Gene Repression, Gan Zhang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interactions between proteins play a key role in nearly all cellular process, and therefore, disruption of such interactions may lead to many different types of cellular dysfunctions. Hence, pathologic protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute highly attractive drug targets and hold great potential for developing novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of incurable human diseases. Unfortunately, the identification of PPI inhibitors is an extremely challenging task, since traditionally used small molecule ligands are mostly unable to cover and anchor on the extensive flat surfaces that define those binary protein complexes. In contrast, large biomolecules such as proteins or peptides are ideal fits ...


Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey Feb 2019

Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping In Computer Aided Drug Design, Steven Ramsey

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The displacement of water from surfaces upon biomolecular recognition and association makes a significant contribution to the free energy changes of these processes. We therefore posit that accurate characterization of local structural and thermodynamic molecular water properties can improve computational model accuracy and predictivity of recognition and association processes. In this thesis, we discuss Solvation Thermodynamic Mapping (STM) methods that we have developed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory (IST) to better characterize active site water structural and thermodynamic properties on protein surfaces and the open source tools that we have developed, GIST-CPPTRAJ and SSTMap, which implement these methods which we ...


L-Tryptophan Adsorption Differentially Changes The Optical Behaviour Of Pseudo-Enantiomeric Cysteine-Functionalized Quantum Dots: Towards Chiral Fluorescent Biosensors, Faezeh Askari, Abbas Rahdar, John F. Trant Feb 2019

L-Tryptophan Adsorption Differentially Changes The Optical Behaviour Of Pseudo-Enantiomeric Cysteine-Functionalized Quantum Dots: Towards Chiral Fluorescent Biosensors, Faezeh Askari, Abbas Rahdar, John F. Trant

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Water-soluble chiral graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with a strong blue emission were synthesized by covalently immobilizing l-cysteine or d-cysteine onto the GQDs. Either the amine or the thiol group of cysteine was used to make the bond through amide coupling or thiol-ene click chemistry respectively. The functionalized chiral GQDs were the characterized by FT-IR and UV–vis. The enantiomeric pairs exhibit equal but opposite bands in circular dichroism spectra suggesting that there is no difference in the efficacy of conjugation. The fluorescent response of these chiral GQDs when exposed to l-tryptophan was then studied. The fluorescence of the amide-conjugated GQDs ...


Chemistry & Biochemistry Guest Lecture Series, Desmond Murray Jan 2019

Chemistry & Biochemistry Guest Lecture Series, Desmond Murray

Andrews Agenda: Campus News

No abstract provided.


Dual Geometry Schemes In Tetrel Bonds: Complexes Between Tf4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) And Pyridine Derivatives, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner Jan 2019

Dual Geometry Schemes In Tetrel Bonds: Complexes Between Tf4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) And Pyridine Derivatives, Wiktor Zierkiewicz, Mariusz Michalczyk, Rafał Wysokiński, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

When an N-base approaches the tetrel atom of TF4(T = Si, Ge, Sn) the latter moleculedeforms from a tetrahedral structure in the monomer to a trigonal bipyramid. The base can situateitself at either an axial or equatorial position, leading to two different equilibrium geometries.The interaction energies are considerably larger for the equatorial structures, up around 50 kcal/mol,which also have a shorter R(T··N) separation. On the other hand, the energy needed to deform thetetrahedral monomer into the equatorial structure is much higher than the equivalent deformationenergy in the axial dimer. When these two opposite trends are ...


Differential Binding Of Tetrel-Bonding Bipodal Receptors To Monatomic And Polyatomic Anions, Steve Scheiner Jan 2019

Differential Binding Of Tetrel-Bonding Bipodal Receptors To Monatomic And Polyatomic Anions, Steve Scheiner

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Previous work has demonstrated that a bidentate receptor containing a pair of Sn atoms can engage in very strong interactions with halide ions via tetrel bonds. The question that is addressed here concerns the possibility that a receptor of this type might be designed that would preferentially bind a polyatomic over a monatomic anion since the former might better span the distance between the two Sn atoms. The binding of Cl was thus compared to that of HCOO, HSO4, and H2PO4 with a wide variety of bidentate receptors. A pair of SnFH2 groups, as strong ...


Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez Jan 2019

Fabrication Of Miniaturized Paper-Based Microfluidic Devices (Micropads), E. Brandon Strong, Spencer A. Schultz, Andres Martinez, Nathaniel W. Martinez

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) are emerging as cost-effective and portable platforms for point-of-care assays. A fundamental limitation of microPAD fabrication is the imprecise nature of most methods for patterning paper. The present work demonstrates that paper patterned via wax printing can be miniaturized by treating it with periodate to produce higher-resolution, high-fidelity microPADs. The optimal miniaturization parameters were determined by immersing microPADs in various concentrations of aqueous sodium periodate (NaIO4) for varying lengths of time. This treatment miniaturized microPADs by up to 80% in surface area, depending on the concentration of periodate and length of the reaction time ...


Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla Jan 2019

Investigation Of Amyloid Β Oligomer Dissociation Mechanisms By Single Molecule Fluorescence Techniques, Hope Cook Abdalla

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is currently considered the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and places a large financial burden on society as healthcare resources are limited and the disease does not have a cure. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles; however current literature suggests Aβ oligomers are the main aggregating species leading to AD symptoms. Therefore, the underlying cause of Alzheimer’s, accumulation of amyloid beta, is currently being studied in hopes of developing treatment options. Our research aims at determining the mechanism and kinetics of Aβ oligomer dissociation into non-toxic ...


Limited Sequence Diversity Within A Population Supports Prebiotic Rna Reproduction, Ryo Mizuuchi, Niles Lehman Jan 2019

Limited Sequence Diversity Within A Population Supports Prebiotic Rna Reproduction, Ryo Mizuuchi, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

The origins of life require the emergence of informational polymers capable of reproduction. In the RNA world on the primordial Earth, reproducible RNA molecules would have arisen from a mixture of compositionally biased, poorly available, short RNA sequences in prebiotic environments. However, it remains unclear what level of sequence diversity within a small subset of population is required to initiate RNA reproduction by prebiotic mechanisms. Here, using a simulation for template-directed recombination and ligation, we explore the effect of sequence diversity in a given population for the onset of RNA reproduction. We show that RNA reproduction is improbable in low ...


Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber Jan 2019

Principles And Properties Of Rna Self-Assembly, Gabriel Tauber

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules are membraneless assemblies of condensed RNA and protein that form through multivalent interactions between the constituent components. Recently, RNA self-assembly has been shown to contribute to the formation of stress granules, which are RNP granules associated with the stress response and neurodegeneration. However, little is understood about the properties of self-assembled RNA. Here, I show that different RNA sequences can self- assemble into condensates with distinct material properties and partitioning preferences in vitro. Due to interactions that minimize surface free energy, RNA self-assembly can generate the spontaneous self-patterning of RNA assemblies. By reducing surface free energy, thereby ...


Nanoscale Stiffness Cues Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Activation To Myofibroblasts, Michaela Wenning Jan 2019

Nanoscale Stiffness Cues Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Activation To Myofibroblasts, Michaela Wenning

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Surgery is currently the primary treatment option for aortic valve stenosis (AVS) patients, many of whom are ineligible for surgery and are left untreated. AVS is progression is known to differ between males and females, and an understanding of sex-specific mechanisms of disease progression is imperative in developing accurate treatment options for men and women. The development of a nonsurgical therapy for AVS patients requires a deeper understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of AVS progression. Currently, the role of calcium phosphate nanoparticles detected in the aortic valve during early stages of AVS in influencing disease progression and valvular ...


Identifying C-Mannosylatedproteins In Raw264.7 Cells Via In Vitro Hsc70 Co-Immunoprecipitation Strategies, Nicholas Ryan Kegley Jan 2019

Identifying C-Mannosylatedproteins In Raw264.7 Cells Via In Vitro Hsc70 Co-Immunoprecipitation Strategies, Nicholas Ryan Kegley

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

C-mannosylation is a specific type of glycosylation in which α-mannose is covalently bound to the C2 atom of a tryptophan via a carbon-carbon bond. Presently, it is known to occur on proteins that contain the W-x-x-W-x-x-W/C motif found within the Thrombospondin Type-1 Repeat (TSR), with ‘x’ denoting any amino acid. C-mannosylation has been implicated in a number of cellular functions, including protein secretion and type I cytokine receptor function. Previous research has shown that exogenous C-mannosylated peptides derived from TSR-containing proteins upregulate the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. This ...


Robert J. Lefkowitz And Discovery Of The G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Family, Clarence Lee Jan 2019

Robert J. Lefkowitz And Discovery Of The G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Family, Clarence Lee

Natural Sciences Poster Sessions

This poster for the Natural Sciences Poster Session at Parkland College features Dr. Robert J. Lefkowitz, 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry winner (with Brian Kobilka) for their research on G-protein-coupled receptors, proteins in the plasma membrane that allow for the transmission of information through the membrane and into the cell. This research was to impact the development of medications that target these receptors, such as SSRIs.


Seven Coordinate Molybdenum And Tungsten Complexes Containing Tpm And Tpm Derivatives And The Impact Of Ligand Substitution On Nmr Chemical Shifts, Cole Seager Jan 2019

Seven Coordinate Molybdenum And Tungsten Complexes Containing Tpm And Tpm Derivatives And The Impact Of Ligand Substitution On Nmr Chemical Shifts, Cole Seager

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

A series of known and new seven coordinate molybdenum and tungsten complexes of tris(pyrazolyl)methane (Tpm) and substituted Tpm, [TpmM(CO)3X]+, have been synthesized. Depending on the identity of X, (bromo, iodo, hydrido) and the substitution of the Tpm ligand, substantial chemical shift differences are observed for the hydrogen on the central carbon of the Tpm ligand. Factors impacting the chemical shift of the hydrogen on the central carbon of the Tpm ligand, such as the electron donating ability of the Tpm ligand and the electronegativity of the additional ligand on the metal, will be discussed.


Case Studies Of Potential Reference Materials In Cultural Heritage Science, Heidi Kastenholz Jan 2019

Case Studies Of Potential Reference Materials In Cultural Heritage Science, Heidi Kastenholz

Undergraduate Honors Thesis Collection

The study of cultural heritage objects requires reference materials for comparison in order to determine the identity of chemical compounds in historically/culturally significant artifacts. The reference materials available today can be inaccurately labeled, can contain inauthentic compounds, or can simply be formed differently than what the labeled material should be. Utilizing the laboratory at the Indianapolis Museum of Art at Newfields, three case studies were conducted over three different potential reference materials in order to properly identify each of the three materials being focused on here. Based on the analysis, the labels for these materials often do not match ...


Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes For Sensitive Determination Of Lysosomal & Mitochondrial Ph In Live Cells, Wafa Mazi Jan 2019

Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probes For Sensitive Determination Of Lysosomal & Mitochondrial Ph In Live Cells, Wafa Mazi

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Varied intracellular pH levels are critical for various physiological processes such as enzymatic activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis, ion transport, and muscle contraction. Cellular compartments, like lysosomes, must retain an acidic environment (pH ~ 4.5) to activate hydrolytic enzymes necessary for the breakdown of large biomolecules. Another cellular organelle, the mitochondria, provides the cell with energy and must retain an alkalis environment (pH ~ 8.0) for proper function. Substantial lysosomal and mitochondrial pH deviation is associated with cellular dysfunction and disease. Therefore, the precise detection of lysosomal and mitochondrial pH is essential to provide a better understanding of cellular physiological ...