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Chemistry

2013

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Articles 1 - 30 of 127

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Base Excision Repair Of Oxidative Dna Damage Coupled With Removal Of A Cag Repeat Hairpin Attenuates Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Justin Torner, Yanbin Zhang, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu Dec 2013

Base Excision Repair Of Oxidative Dna Damage Coupled With Removal Of A Cag Repeat Hairpin Attenuates Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion, Meng Xu, Yanhao Lai, Justin Torner, Yanbin Zhang, Zunzhen Zhang, Yuan Liu

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion is responsible for numerous human neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that DNA base excision repair (BER) can mediate TNR expansion and deletion by removing base lesions in different locations of a TNR tract, indicating that BER can promote or prevent TNR expansion in a damage location–dependent manner. In this study, we provide the first evidence that the repair of a DNA base lesion located in the loop region of a CAG repeat hairpin can remove the hairpin, attenuating repeat expansion. We found that an 8-oxoguanine located in the ...


Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen Dec 2013

Synthesis, Characterization, And Application Of High Surface Area, Mesoporous, Stabilized Anatase Tio2 Catalyst Supports, Rebecca Elizabeth Olsen

Theses and Dissertations

Nanomaterials have attracted substantial attention in the area of catalysis due to the unique properties they exhibit such as high surface areas, intricate pore networks and unique morphologies. TiO2 has attracted attention as a catalyst since the discovery of its high photocatalytic activity by Fuishima and Honda in 1972. Given its high thermal stability, low cost, low environmental impact, and versatility, TiO2 is a widely used commercial catalyst and catalyst support. TiO2 is used in many applications such as photocatalysis is also an excellent support material for noble metals in a number of oxidative synthesis and pollution-control reactions. Though TiO2 ...


Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson Dec 2013

Nonlinear Spectroscopic Investigation Of Adsorption To C-18 Model Stationary Phase, Anthony D. Peterson

Theses and Dissertations

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is a commonly used separation technique in chemistry. Nevertheless, the mechanistic interactions at the molecular level among the eluent, analyte, and the stationary phase are not fully understood. Because of this limited understanding, optimization of the separation must be done experimentally. Learning more about molecular interactions should aid in improving separations. We are currently using second-harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to investigate how analytes adsorb to the surface. SHG is a spectroscopic technique that produces signal only at places of non-isotropic symmetry; this typically occurs at surfaces. SHG can be used to produce surface isotherms of test ...


Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock Dec 2013

Formation And Analysis Of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles And Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Prisms And Optical Analysis Of Cadmium Selenide Nanoparticles, Jared M. Hancock

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, methods to synthesize ZnO are reported. First, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized with small amounts of transition metal ions to create materials called dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). We employed a low temperature sol-gel method that produces ZnO nanoparticles of reproducible size and incorporates cobalt, nickel, and manganese ions into the nanoparticles. Conditions were controlled such that a range of amounts of Co, Ni, and Mn were incorporated. The incorporation was tracked by color changes in the white ZnO powder to blue for Co, green for Ni and yellow for Mn. XRD measurements showed the nanoparticles were on ...


Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski Dec 2013

Evaluation Of Vdr-Coactivator Inhibitors Using Biochemical And Cell-Based Assays, Athena Marie Baranowski

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF VDR–COACTIVATOR INHIBITORS USING BIOCHEMICAL AND CELL–BASED ASSAYS

by

Athena Baranowski

The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, 2013

Under the Supervision of Dr. Alexander Arnold

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a ligand–dependent transcription factor, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. VDR–mediated gene regulation is governed by coregulators (coactivators and corepressors). VDR coregulator binding inhibitors (CBIs), which were discovered using high throughput screening (HTS), were evaluated using cell–based assays and biochemical assays to determine their ability to inhibit the interaction between VDR and steroid receptor coactivator–2 (SRC–2). Determining their ability to ...


The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska Dec 2013

The Development And Applications Of Nmr Metabolomics Analysis Of Bacterial Metabolomes, Steven M. Halouska

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

Metabolomics is a relatively new field that involves the study of metabolic responses that are occurring within a biological system. Metabolite profiles of an organism, tissue extract, and biofluids are important indicators to determine the physiological state of a biological profile. Comparison of such profiles from different phenotypes can be used to identify specific metabolic changes leading to the understanding of metabolic pathways, disease progression, drug toxicity and efficacy, and cellular responses to different intracellular and extracellular conditions. Metabolomics investigations often use sophisticated analytical techniques such as NMR spectroscopy to provide an unbiased and comprehensive approach to evaluate metabolic perturbation ...


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Michael Menze

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disulfide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disulfide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1, Morgan E. Roberts, Jacquelyn P. Crail, Megan M. Laffoon, William G. Fernandez, Michael A. Menze, Mary E. Konkle

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1., Morgan Roberts, Jacquelyn Crail, Megan Laffoon, William Fernandez, Michael Menze, Mary Konkle Dec 2013

Identification Of Disufide Bond Formation Between Mitoneet And Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1., Morgan Roberts, Jacquelyn Crail, Megan Laffoon, William Fernandez, Michael Menze, Mary Konkle

Faculty Scholarship

MitoNEET is a protein that was identified as a drug target for diabetes, but its cellular function as well as its role in diabetes remains elusive. Protein pull-down experiments identified glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) as a potential binding partner. GDH1 is a key metabolic enzyme with emerging roles in insulin regulation. MitoNEET forms a covalent complex with GDH1 through disulfide bond formation and acts as an activator. Proteomic analysis identified the specific cysteine residues that participate in the disulfide bond. This is the first report that effectively links mitoNEET to activation of the insulin regulator GDH1.


Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci Dec 2013

Ferritin-Based Photo-Oxidation Of Biomass For Nanoparticle Synthesis, Bioremediation, And Hydrogen Evolution, Oscar Petrucci

Theses and Dissertations

The cell is the basic unit of all living organisms. It is an amazing machine capable of self-replicating, growing, and synthesizing and shuttling thousands of compounds. To perform all of these activities the cell needs energy. The original source of energy for all living beings is the Sun. The energy of the sun is collected by the autotrophs (mostly plants) through photosynthesis and stored in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates and lipids through carboxylic acid intermediates; animals use these compounds to obtain the energy for their cells. Most of the energy extracted by the cell comes from the citric acid ...


Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews Dec 2013

Investigation Into The Effects Of Pegylation On The Thermodynamic Stability Of The Ww Domain, Sam S. Matthews

Theses and Dissertations

The covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to a protein surface (known as PEGylation), has been demonstrated to increase the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins by reducing kidney clearance and immunogenicity and by protecting against proteolysis. Theses beneficial effects could be further enhanced if PEGylation consistently increased protein conformational stability (i.e. the difference in free energy between the folded and unfolded states). However, the effects of PEGylation on protein conformational stability are unpredictable; PEGylation has been reported to increase, decrease, or have no effect on the conformational stability of medicinal proteins.This thesis details the results of two ...


Obstacles And Solutions To Studying Functional Adhesives Using Vibrational Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy, Angela Renee Andersen Dec 2013

Obstacles And Solutions To Studying Functional Adhesives Using Vibrational Sum-Frequency Generation Spectroscopy, Angela Renee Andersen

Theses and Dissertations

Important aspects of adhesion occur at interfaces, including structures that may be different from those in the bulk materials. However, probing the orientation of molecules in functional adhesives poses a significant challenge because adhesive molecules are always located at a buried interface. The limited penetration depth of surface-specific analysis prohibits the study of buried interfaces using those techniques. The large quantity of bulk molecules relative to the adhesive molecules interacting at the interface results in the bulk signal swamping out adhesive signal in bulk analysis techniques. An interface-specific technique is required to study functional adhesives. One such technique that has ...


Monodentate, Bidentate And Photocrosslinkable Thiol Ligands For Improving Aqueous Biocompatible Quantum Dots, Hiroko Takeuchi Dec 2013

Monodentate, Bidentate And Photocrosslinkable Thiol Ligands For Improving Aqueous Biocompatible Quantum Dots, Hiroko Takeuchi

Theses and Dissertations

Water-soluble Quantum Dots (QDs) are highly sensitive fluorescent probes that are often used to study biological species. One of the most common ways to render QDs water-soluble for such applications is to apply hydrophilic thiolated ligands to the QD surface. However, these ligands are labile and can be easily exchanged on the QD surface, which can severely limit their application. As one way to overcome this limitation while maintaining a small colloidal size of QDs, we developed a method to stabilize hydrophilic thiolated ligands on the surface of QDs through the formation of a crosslinked shell using a photocrosslinking approach ...


Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin Dec 2013

Demonstration Of A Targeted Proteome Characterization Approach For Examining Specific Metabolic Pathways In Complex Bacterial Systems, Adam Justin Martin

Masters Theses

Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a powerful tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) tool frequently implemented in proteomic studies to provide targeted analysis of proteins and peptides. The selectivity that MRM delivers is so strong that it provides the quadrupole mass spectrometers (QQQ), on which it is commonly employed, with pertinence to proteomic studies that they would otherwise lack for their relatively low resolution. Additionally, this increased level of selectivity is sufficient enough to supplant complicated fractionation techniques, additional dimensions of chromatography, and 24 hour long MS/MS experiments in simplistic biological samples. But there is a deficiency of evidence to ...


Multi-Scale Computational Enzymology: Enhancing Our Understanding Of Enzymatic Catalysis, Rami Gherib, Hisham Mohammed Mohammed Dokainish, James Gauld Dec 2013

Multi-Scale Computational Enzymology: Enhancing Our Understanding Of Enzymatic Catalysis, Rami Gherib, Hisham Mohammed Mohammed Dokainish, James Gauld

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Elucidating the origin of enzymatic catalysis stands as one the great challenges of contemporary biochemistry and biophysics. The recent emergence of computational enzymology has enhanced our atomistic-level description of biocatalysis as well the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of their mechanisms. There exists a diversity of computational methods allowing the investigation of specific enzymatic properties. Small or large density functional theory models allow the comparison of a plethora of mechanistic reactive species and divergent catalytic pathways. Molecular docking can model different substrate conformations embedded within enzyme active sites and determine those with optimal binding affinities. Molecular dynamics simulations provide insights into ...


Interplay Of Hydrogen Bonds And N→Π* Interactions In Proteins, Gail J. Bartlett, Robert W. Newberry, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines, Derek N. Woolfson Nov 2013

Interplay Of Hydrogen Bonds And N→Π* Interactions In Proteins, Gail J. Bartlett, Robert W. Newberry, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines, Derek N. Woolfson

Brett VanVeller

Protein structures are stabilized by multiple weak interactions, including the hydrophobic effect, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic effects, and van der Waals interactions. Among these interactions, the hydrogen bond is distinct in having its origins in electron delocalization. Recently, another type of electron delocalization, the n→π* interaction between carbonyl groups, has been shown to play a role in stabilizing protein structure. Here we examine the interplay between hydrogen bonding and n→π* interactions. To address this issue, we used data available from high-resolution protein crystal structures to interrogate asparagine side-chain oxygen atoms that are both acceptors of a hydrogen bond and ...


Investigating The In Vitro Oxidative Folding Pathways Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti), Yingsong Wang Nov 2013

Investigating The In Vitro Oxidative Folding Pathways Of Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor (Bpti), Yingsong Wang

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The oxidative folding pathway of the disulfide containing protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was one of the first to be elucidated and has served as a basis for understanding the folding pathways of other proteins. During the oxidative folding of reduced BPTI, two intermediates (N' and N*) accumulate in significant amounts and act as kinetic traps. Both N' and N* bury their two remaining free thiols in their hydrophobic cores, which inhibits further oxidation. Historically, the rate limiting step was considered to be the intramolecular rearrangements of N' and N* to another intermediate with two free thiols, NSH ...


Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors And Structure-Activity Relationships, Jiawang Liu, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Maryam Foroozesh Nov 2013

Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors And Structure-Activity Relationships, Jiawang Liu, Jayalakshmi Sridhar, Maryam Foroozesh

Faculty and Staff Publications

With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes, however, the details of the structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis.


Development Of A Biosensor For Investigating Membrane Curvature Sorting, Joshua C. Black Nov 2013

Development Of A Biosensor For Investigating Membrane Curvature Sorting, Joshua C. Black

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The physical structure of cellular membranes plays a critical role in lipid and protein sorting. A novel biosensor was developed to probe the influence of curvature on sorting. This biosensor mimics large, two-dimensional membranes in dynamic equilibrium, achieves high spatial resolution between curvature and molecules of interest, and has high sensitivity, enough for single particle detection. The biosensor consists of continuous supported lipid bilayer formed over nanoparticles (40 to 200 nm diameter) deposited on a glass substrate. The nanoparticles determine the extent of curvature. This biosensor is the first to observe large-scale 2-dimensional diffusion of biomolecules on a supported lipid ...


Nicholas Reactions In The Synthesis Of Dicobalt Dibenzocyclooctyne Complexes, Sinisa Djurdjevic, James R. Green Nov 2013

Nicholas Reactions In The Synthesis Of Dicobalt Dibenzocyclooctyne Complexes, Sinisa Djurdjevic, James R. Green

Chemistry and Biochemistry Publications

Hexacarbonyldicobalt complexes of biaryl-substituted 4-methoxybutynones and 4-methoxy-2-butynes undergo intramolecular Nicholas reactions to form dibenzocyclooctyne–Co2(CO)6 complexes in good yields. Reductive decomplexation of the cyclization products is possible, and the method has been applied to a formal synthesis of isoschizandrin.


Gas-Phase Covalent And Non-Covalent Ion/Ion Chemistry Of Biological Macromolecules, John Robert Stutzman Oct 2013

Gas-Phase Covalent And Non-Covalent Ion/Ion Chemistry Of Biological Macromolecules, John Robert Stutzman

Open Access Dissertations

Gas-phase ion/ion chemistry involves the interaction of oppositely charged ions inside of the mass spectrometer. During this gas-phase chemistry, particle transfer (i.e., proton and electron) or synthesis can occur at rapid reaction rates. Particle transfer represents a mature area of ion/ion chemistry, while selective covalent modification represents a fairly new area of gas-phase chemistry. Gas-phase covalent chemistry is based on traditional solution phase organic chemistry.

The work demonstrated in this dissertation greatly involves gas-phase covalent and non-covalent Schiff base chemistry on peptide and protein ions. The reagent dianion, 4-formyl 1,3-benzene disulfonic acid, has been used to ...


Development Of Isotags For Nmr Based Metabolite Profiling And Applications, Fariba Tayyari Oct 2013

Development Of Isotags For Nmr Based Metabolite Profiling And Applications, Fariba Tayyari

Open Access Dissertations

NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for both qualitative and quantitative metabolite profiling analysis. However, accurate quantitative analysis of biological systems especially using one dimensional NMR has been challenging due to signal overlap. In contrast, the enhanced resolution and sensitivity offered by chemoselective isotope tags have enabled new and enhanced methods for detecting hundreds of quantifiable metabolites in biofluids using NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. In this thesis we show improved sensitivity and resolution of NMR experiments imparted by 15N and 13C isotope tagging which enables the accurate analysis of plasma metabolites. To date, isotope tagging has been used ...


Influence Of Cholesterol And Bilayer Asymmetry On Membrane Protein Distribution In Polymer-Tethered Raft-Mimicking Lipid Membranes, Noor Fueza Hussain Oct 2013

Influence Of Cholesterol And Bilayer Asymmetry On Membrane Protein Distribution In Polymer-Tethered Raft-Mimicking Lipid Membranes, Noor Fueza Hussain

Open Access Dissertations

It is now widely recognized that lipid rafts, which are membrane domains enriched in cholesterol (CHOL) and sphingolipids (SL), play a significant functional role in the plasma membrane. Raft domains particularly affect membrane functionality by causing sequestering of membrane proteins. Underlying mechanisms of raft-associated membrane protein sequestration remain elusive, due to the complexity, transient nature, and small size of raft domains in cellular membranes. To address these challenges, this dissertation unveils the relationship between lipid raft composition and membrane protein sequestration and function using raft-mimicking model membrane mixtures comprised of coexisting liquid-ordered (lo) and liquid-disordered (ld) domains with reconstituted membrane ...


Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Molecular Inhibitors For Biologically Relevant Enzymes, Sarah Emma St. John Oct 2013

Design, Synthesis, And Evaluation Of Molecular Inhibitors For Biologically Relevant Enzymes, Sarah Emma St. John

Open Access Dissertations

The work in this thesis details the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of molecular inhibitors for the inhibition of biologically relevant enzymes. The first three chapters of this thesis concern the polyphenol resveratrol and its inhibition of the quinone reductase 2 (QR2) enzyme. The work on this subject resulted in the complete design, synthesis, biological and structural evaluation of a second generation library of resveratrol analogues. From this work we identified a novel resveratrol analogue that inhibits QR2 in a previously unknown binding orientation. The fourth chapter of this thesis details the de novo design of molecules for the inhibition ...


Synthesis Of Novel Isoprenoid Diphosphate Analogs As Chemical Tools To Investigate Protein Geranylgeranylation, Kayla Jo Temple Oct 2013

Synthesis Of Novel Isoprenoid Diphosphate Analogs As Chemical Tools To Investigate Protein Geranylgeranylation, Kayla Jo Temple

Open Access Dissertations

Many proteins require prenylation in order to be biologically functional. Some such proteins include the small Ras and Rho GTPase superfamilies, nuclear lamins A and B, and the kinesin motor proteins CENP-E and F. Prenyltransferase (PTase) inhibition is currently being explored as a possible treatment not only for cancer but for a wide variety of other diseases.

Clinical studies revealed that the effectiveness of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to treat Ras-dependent tumors is determined by which isoform of Ras is overactive. Unfortunately the majority of Ras-dependent tumors have a mutation in either the N- or K-Ras isoforms; both of these isoforms ...


Detection Of Boronic Acids Through Excited-State Intramolecular Proton-Transfer Fluorescence, Matthew R. Aronoff, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines Oct 2013

Detection Of Boronic Acids Through Excited-State Intramolecular Proton-Transfer Fluorescence, Matthew R. Aronoff, Brett Vanveller, Ronald T. Raines

Brett VanVeller

Boronic acids are versatile reagents for the chemical synthesis of organic molecules. They and other boron-containing compounds can be detected readily by the interruption of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolone. This method is highly sensitive and selective, and useful for monitoring synthetic reactions and detecting boron-containing compounds on a solid support.


Size-Based Separation Of Bioparticles Using Planar Nanofluidic Devices, Jie Xuan Sep 2013

Size-Based Separation Of Bioparticles Using Planar Nanofluidic Devices, Jie Xuan

Theses and Dissertations

Nanofluidic devices are structures having at least one dimension in the submicron range, which is of the same order of magnitude as the sizes of biomolecules and bioparticles such as proteins and viruses. As a result, size-selective separations are important applications for nanofluidics. Well-defined micro or nano device structures fabricated via micromachining have greatly reduced sample consumption and enabled separations in a parallel fashion, promising significant speed and resolution advantages over conventional size separation techniques, such as gel electrophoresis and size exclusion chromatography. In collaboration with others, I have developed a size separation method using nanofluidic devices consisting of an ...


Characterizing The Promiscuity Of Ligab, A Lignin Catabolite Degrading Extradiol Dioxygenase From Sphingomonas Paucimobilis Syk-6, Kevin P. Barry, Erika A. Taylor Sep 2013

Characterizing The Promiscuity Of Ligab, A Lignin Catabolite Degrading Extradiol Dioxygenase From Sphingomonas Paucimobilis Syk-6, Kevin P. Barry, Erika A. Taylor

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

LigAB from Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 is the only structurally characterized dioxygenase of the largely uncharacterized superfamily of Type II extradiol dioxygenases (EDO). This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative ring-opening of protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid or PCA) in a pathway allowing the degradation of lignin derived aromatic compounds (LDACs). LigAB has also been shown to utilize two other LDACs from the same metabolic pathway as substrates, gallate, and 3-O-methyl gallate; however, kcat/KM had not been reported for any of these compounds. In order to assess the catalytic efficiency and get insights into the observed promiscuity of this enzyme, steady-state kinetic analyses ...


Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien Sep 2013

Computational De Novo Design And Characterization Of A Protein That Selectively Binds A Highly Hyperpolarizable Abiological Chromophore, H Christopher Fry, Andreas Lehmann, Louise E. Sinks, Inge Asselberghs, Andrey Tronin, Venkata Krishnan, J Kent Blasie, Koen Clays, William F. Degrado, Jeffery G. Saven, Michael J. Therien

Departmental Papers (Chemistry)

This work reports the first example of a single-chain protein computationally designed to contain four α-helical segments and fold to form a four-helix bundle encapsulating a supramolecular abiological chromophore that possesses exceptional nonlinear optical properties. The 109-residue protein, designated SCRPZ-1, binds and disperses an insoluble hyperpolarizable chromophore, ruthenium(II) [5-(4'-ethynyl-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridinyl))-10,20-bis(phenyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-(2,2';6',2″-terpyridine)(2+) (RuPZn) in aqueous buffer solution at a 1:1 stoichiometry. A 1:1 binding stoichiometry of the holoprotein is supported by electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra, as well as equilibrium ...