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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Fluorescently Labeled Sirnas And Their Theranostic Applications In Cancer Gene Therapy, Stephen David Kozuch Aug 2018

Fluorescently Labeled Sirnas And Their Theranostic Applications In Cancer Gene Therapy, Stephen David Kozuch

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Gene therapy has emerged as a promising precision nano-medicine strategy in the treatment of numerous diseases including cancer. At the forefront of its utility are the applications of short-interfering RNA (siRNA), that silence oncogenic mRNA expression leading to cancer cell death through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Despite the therapeutic potential, siRNAs are limited by poor pharmacological properties, which has hindered their translation into the clinic. Recent studies, however, have highlighted the applications of modified siRNAs, including the use of fluorescent probes and siRNA nanostructures in cancer detection and treatment. The siRNAs reported in this thesis are designed to target ...


Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez Jul 2018

Computational Analysis Of Genomic Variants Affecting Predicted Microrna:Target Interactions In Prostate Cancer., Angélica Paola Hernández Pérez

KGI Theses and Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer of men in the United States and is third only to lung and colon as a cause of cancer death. Clinical behavior of the disease is variable and the combination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and Gleason score staging are currently the best available molecular and pathology tools to predict outcomes. Cancer biology research establishes microRNAs (miRNAs) as key molecular components in both normal and pathological states. Thus, elucidating miRNAs perturbed by genomic alterations will expand our understanding of the molecular taxonomy of PCa with the aim to complement current practices in ...


Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter Feb 2018

Mechanisms For Survival And Drug Resistance In Cancer Cells, Matthew B. Utter

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

PART I

Prostate cells are hormonally driven to grow and divide. Typical treatments for prostate cancer involve blocking the hormone androgen from activating the androgen receptor (AR) and thus inhibit growth and proliferation of the cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can lead to the selection of cancer cells that grow and divide independently of androgen receptor activation. Prostate cancer cells that are insensitive to androgens commonly display metastatic phenotypes and reduced long-term survival of patients. In this study, we provide evidence that androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have elevated phospholipase D (PLD) activity relative to the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. PLD ...


Chloramidine/Bisindolylmaleimide-I-Mediated Inhibition Of Exosome And Microvesicle Release And Enhanced Efficacy Of Cancer Chemotherapy, Uchini S. Kosgodage, Rita P. Trindade, Paul R. Thompson, Jameel M. Inal, Sigrun Lange May 2017

Chloramidine/Bisindolylmaleimide-I-Mediated Inhibition Of Exosome And Microvesicle Release And Enhanced Efficacy Of Cancer Chemotherapy, Uchini S. Kosgodage, Rita P. Trindade, Paul R. Thompson, Jameel M. Inal, Sigrun Lange

Open Access Articles

Microvesicle (MV) release from tumour cells influences drug retention, contributing to cancer drug resistance. Strategically regulating MV release may increase drug retention within cancer cells and allow for lower doses of chemotherapeutic drugs. The contribution of exosomes to drug retention still remains unknown. Potential exosome and MV (EMV) biogenesis inhibitors, tested on human prostate cancer (PC3) cells for their capacity to inhibit EMV release, were also tested on PC3 and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells for improving chemotherapy. Agents inhibiting EMV release most significantly, whilst maintaining cell viability, were chloramidine (Cl-amidine; 50 microM) and bisindolylmaleimide-I (10 microM). Apoptosis mediated by the ...


Beta1 Integrin- And Jnk-Dependent Tumor Growth Upon Hypofractionated Radiation, Aejaz Sayeed, Huimin Lu, Qin Liu, David Deming Ii, Alexander Duffy, Peter Mccue, Adam P. Dicker, Roger J. Davis, Dmitry Gabrilovich, Ulrich Rodeck, Dario C. Altieri, Lucia R. Languino Aug 2016

Beta1 Integrin- And Jnk-Dependent Tumor Growth Upon Hypofractionated Radiation, Aejaz Sayeed, Huimin Lu, Qin Liu, David Deming Ii, Alexander Duffy, Peter Mccue, Adam P. Dicker, Roger J. Davis, Dmitry Gabrilovich, Ulrich Rodeck, Dario C. Altieri, Lucia R. Languino

Open Access Articles

Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment modality although tumors invariably become resistant. Using the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model system, we report that a hypofractionated radiation schedule (10 Gy/day for 5 consecutive days) effectively blocks prostate tumor growth in wild type (beta1wt /TRAMP) mice as well as in mice carrying a conditional ablation of beta1 integrins in the prostatic epithelium (beta1pc-/- /TRAMP). Since JNK is known to be suppressed by beta1 integrins and mediates radiation-induced apoptosis, we tested the effect of SP600125, an inhibitor of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in the TRAMP model system. Our results ...


Id4 Acts As A Tumor Suppressor Via P53: Mechanistic Insight, Derrick J. Morton Jr. May 2016

Id4 Acts As A Tumor Suppressor Via P53: Mechanistic Insight, Derrick J. Morton Jr.

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Overexpression of tumor-derived mutant p53 is a common event in tumorigenesis, suggesting an advantageous selective pressure in cancer initiation and progression. Given that p53 is found to be mutated in 50% of all human cancers, restoration of mutant p53 to its wild type biological function has been a widely sought after avenue for cancer therapy. Most research efforts have largely focused on restoration of mutant p53 by artificial means given that p53 has some degree of conformational flexibility allowing for introduction of short peptides and artificial compounds. Recently, theoretical modeling and studies focused on restoration of mutant p53 by physiological ...


Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging For The Discovery Of Prostate Carcinoma Biomarkers, Lisa Harris Cazares Jan 2008

Maldi Mass Spectrometry Imaging For The Discovery Of Prostate Carcinoma Biomarkers, Lisa Harris Cazares

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The elucidation of new biological markers of prostate cancer (PCa) should aid in the detection, and prognosis of this disease. Diagnostic decision making by pathologists in prostate cancer is highly dependent on tissue morphology. The ability to localize disease-specific molecular changes in tissue would help improve this critical pathology decision making process. Direct profiling of proteins in tissue sections using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has the power to link molecular detail to morphological and pathological changes, enhancing the ability to identify candidates for new specific biomarkers. However, critical questions remain regarding the integration of this technique with clinical decision ...


Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen Jan 2007

Mechanism Of Action And Regulation Of Membrane Serine Protease Prostasin In The Prostate And Prostate Cancer, Mengqian Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed at the apical membrane surface of epithelial cells and acts as a suppressor of tumor invasion when re-expressed in highly invasive human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-invasion phenotype associated with prostasin re-expression in prostate cancer cells, we expressed wild-type human prostasin or a serine active-site mutant prostasin in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. Molecular changes were measured at the mRNA and the protein levels. The expression of several invasion-promoting molecules is regulated by prostasin re-expression, mediated by a protein-level ...