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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw May 2017

Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins serve as essential signaling intermediates for the activation of PI3K by both the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its close family member, the insulin receptor (IR). Although IRS-1 and IRS-2 share significant homology, they regulate distinct cellular responses downstream of these receptors and play divergent roles in breast cancer. To investigate the mechanism by which signaling through IRS-1 and IRS-2 results in differential outcomes, we assessed the involvement of the microtubule cytoskeleton in IRS-dependent signaling. Treatment with drugs that either stabilize or disrupt microtubules reveal that an intact microtubule cytoskeleton contributes to ...


The Beneficial Role Of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species In Apoptosis-Induced Compensatory Proliferation, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann Aug 2016

The Beneficial Role Of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species In Apoptosis-Induced Compensatory Proliferation, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) maintains tissue homeostasis following massive stress-induced cell death. During this phenomenon, dying cells induce proliferation of the surviving cells to compensate for the tissue loss, and thus restore organ size. Along with wound healing and tissue regeneration, AiP also contributes to tumor repopulation following radiation or chemotherapy. There are several models of AiP. Using an "undead" AiP model that causes hyperplastic overgrowth of Drosophila epithelial tissue, we recently demonstrated that extracellular reactive oxygen species (eROS) are produced by undead epithelial cells, and are necessary for inducing AiP and overgrowth. Furthermore, hemocytes, the Drosophila blood cells, are seen ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma Induces Ros-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioma Cells And Augments The Cytotoxicity Of Temozolomide, Gillian Conway, Alan Casey, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Yupeng Liu, Orla L. Howe, Patrick Cullen, James Curtin Feb 2016

Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma Induces Ros-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioma Cells And Augments The Cytotoxicity Of Temozolomide, Gillian Conway, Alan Casey, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Yupeng Liu, Orla L. Howe, Patrick Cullen, James Curtin

Articles

Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) is an ionised gas produced under high voltage that can generate short-lived chemically active species and induce a cytotoxic insult in cancer cells. Cell-specific resistance to NTAP-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance against NTAP could be overcome using the human glioma cell line U373MG.

Methods:

Non-thermal atmospheric plasma was generated using a Dielectric Barrier Device (DBD) system with a maximum voltage output of 120 kV at 50 Hz. The viability of U373MG GBM cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was determined using morphology, flow ...


Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo Aug 2015

Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation (mainly through NF-κB signaling) and death (via apoptosis signaling). Recently, linear ubiquitination by LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) was reported to have a regulatory function in TNF-α mediated NF-κB activation. Although LUBAC is suggested to control not only NF-kB signaling but also the apoptosis pathway, the precise mechanism of apoptosis regulation remains unknown. Moreover, NF-κB and apoptosis pathways have opposed but fundamental functions for various cellular processes. Although these two pathways actively interplay to balance the death and survival, the ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane May 2015

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina May 2014

Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The cancer epidemic continues to afflict millions of humans world-wide each year and despite a renewed hope with the development of new and improved forms of therapy, a cure for cancer remains an elusive goal. This is partly related to the rise of resilient forms of tumors that have evolved with resistance towards conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Moreover, these non-specific therapeutic regimens are highly toxic, leading to severe immunosuppressive effects which poisons the body and compromises the road towards remission. In an effort to mitigate these limitations, cancer-targeting approaches are currently experiencing a renaissance in the translation of new ...


Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari Oct 2013

Killerflip: A Novel Lytic Peptide Specifically Inducing Cancer Cell Death, B Pennarun, G. Gaidos, O Bucur, A Tinari

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

One of the objectives in the development of effective cancer therapy is induction of tumor-selective cell death. Toward this end, we have identified a small peptide that, when introduced into cells via a TAT cell-delivery system, shows a remarkably potent cytoxicity in a variety of cancer cell lines and inhibits tumor growth in vivo, whereas sparing normal cells and tissues. This fusion peptide was named killer FLIP as its sequence was derived from the C-terminal domain of c-FLIP, an anti-apoptotic protein. Using structure activity analysis, we determined the minimal bioactive core of killerFLIP, namely killerFLIP-E. Structural analysis of cells using ...


Investigating The Interplay Between Protein Kinases And Caspases, Jacob P. Turowec Mar 2013

Investigating The Interplay Between Protein Kinases And Caspases, Jacob P. Turowec

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The balance between cell survival and death is a crucial process in human development and tissue homeostasis, but is also misregulated in disease. In large part, apoptosis is controlled by caspases, a hierarchical series of cysteine aspartic acid proteases that demolish the cell by cleaving key structural and enzymatic proteins, but emerging paradigms have highlighted the ability of kinases to regulate caspase activity. One way in which kinases can control the progression of apoptosis is through phosphorylation of caspase substrates, which acts to prevent caspase cleavage of that target.

In this thesis, we develop new strategies to study this regulatory ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...


Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jul 2010

Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Purpose In preparation for a Phase I clinical trial utilizing a combined cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic strategy using adenoviruses expressing Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L) and thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) to treat glioblastoma (GBM), we tested the hypothesis that Ad-TK+GCV would be the optimal tumor killing agent in relation to efficacy and safety when compared to other pro-apoptotic approaches. Experimental Design and Results The efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV was compared with Ads encoding the pro-apoptotic cytokines (TNF-α, TRAIL, FasL), alone or in combination with Ad-Flt3L. In rats bearing small GBMs (day 4), only Ad-TK+GCV or Ad-FasL improved survival. In rats bearing large ...


Defects In Death-Inducing Signalling Complex Formation Prevent Jnk Activation And Fas-Mediated Apoptosis In Du 145 Prostate Carcinoma Cells, James Curtin, Thomas Cotter Nov 2003

Defects In Death-Inducing Signalling Complex Formation Prevent Jnk Activation And Fas-Mediated Apoptosis In Du 145 Prostate Carcinoma Cells, James Curtin, Thomas Cotter

Articles

Androgen-independent prostate carcinomas are resistant to chemotherapy and cell lines derived from androgen-independent prostate carcinomas such as DU 145 cells are highly resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The incubation of DU 145 cells with anti-Fas IgM agonistic antibody of Fas receptor fails to activate JNK, a stress kinase involved in regulating apoptosis. We have previously shown that JNK activation is sufficient and necessary to promote Fas-mediated apoptosis in DU 145 cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which JNK activation and apoptosis are abrogated. HSP27 is overexpressed in DU 145 cells and has previously been reported to sequester DAXX and prevent JNK ...


Anisomycin Activates Jnk And Sensitises Du 145 Prostate Carcinoma Cells To Fas Mediated Apoptosis, James Curtin, Thomas Cotter Nov 2002

Anisomycin Activates Jnk And Sensitises Du 145 Prostate Carcinoma Cells To Fas Mediated Apoptosis, James Curtin, Thomas Cotter

Articles

Treatment of the hormone refractory prostate cancer cell line DU 145 with sublethal concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs has been reported to sensitise these cells to Fas mediated apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which this occurs has not been determined. Our group has shown that inhibition of JNK activity completely abrogates the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. Using anisomycin, a potent JNK agonist, we have demonstrated a role for JNK in Fas mediated apoptosis in DU 145 cells. Inhibition of Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 completely inhibits this process which suggests that DU 145 cells require mitochondrial amplification of the Fas apoptotic ...