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Cancer Biology

2015

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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy Dec 2015

The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with roughly 300,000 cancer related deaths occurring globally each year. The survival of patients with HNSCC has not changed significantly over the past decade, leading investigators to search for promising molecular targets. To identify new treatment targets and biomarkers that could better guide therapy, we previously characterized the genomic alterations from primary HNSCC patient samples. We were among the first to discover that NOTCH1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in this cancer type. The spectrum of inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in HNSCC ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd Dec 2015

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper Dec 2015

Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

We have now examined the erythroid phenotype in this zebrafish strain carrying a ZFN genomic knockout of piezo1. Genotyping was performed as previously described. In contrast to the anemic phenotype observed in zebrafish subjected to morpholino knockdown of piezo, the genomic ZFN knockout of piezo1 did not segregate either with anemia in the 3-dpf embryo or with dysmorphic erythrocyte morphology in the adult fish.


Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara Oct 2015

Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 201412 NIH SCAP InnoCentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-cells and Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – plus supplement plus posters - 20151027.

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Please download the current 20151027 (October 27, 2015) Tattletales and T-Bow update from

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/75/

The bepress web site is not letting me replace the old pdf here at "65" with the additional 10 pages update.

///

The download is my/Cooper lab solution (submission) to the 2014 NIH Single Cell Analysis Program (SCAP) InnoCentive Challenge, "Follow That Cell". I submitted the Solution on 20141215Mon (with 20 minutes to spare). The Challenge web ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George Mcnamara Oct 2015

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

20151027Tue this "75"

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/75

is my update of "65" posting

See text at

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/65/

for text summary. The PDf here in "75" supersedes "65".

The PDF here has 10 pages added to the end from the "65" version (pages 40-49 of PDF when including the bepress cover page)..

here is the text in my cover page (bepress may add its own cover):

20151027Tue: added 10 page e-poster at bottom explaining Binary Tattletales and T-Bow. That is, binary with respect to protein components. For one color (number of repeats, epitope tags ...


Chromatin Interaction Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Chromosome And Telomere Clustering Between Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Bryan R. Lajoie, Rachel Patton Mccord, Coralee E. Tye, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Gillian Browne, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Job Dekker, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Gary S. Stein Sep 2015

Chromatin Interaction Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Chromosome And Telomere Clustering Between Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Bryan R. Lajoie, Rachel Patton Mccord, Coralee E. Tye, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Gillian Browne, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Job Dekker, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Gary S. Stein

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Higher-order chromatin structure is often perturbed in cancer and other pathological states. Although several genetic and epigenetic differences have been charted between normal and breast cancer tissues, changes in higher-order chromatin organization during tumorigenesis have not been fully explored. To probe the differences in higher-order chromatin structure between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells, we performed Hi-C analysis on MCF-10A mammary epithelial and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: Our studies reveal that the small, gene-rich chromosomes chr16 through chr22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer genome display decreased interaction frequency with each other compared to the inter-chromosomal interaction frequency ...


Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen Sep 2015

Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human Adenovirus (HAdV) E1A is the first protein expressed during viral infection. The primary function of E1A is to reprogram the cell for viral replication, but it is additionally capable of transforming primary rodent cells in co-operation with other oncogenes such as HAdV E1B. Despite extensive study, little is known about the function and cellular targets of the C-terminal region of E1A. Importantly, this region is required for the transforming ability of E1A with E1B, but can also suppress transformation with Ras. Previous studies showed that interaction with the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) plays a role in both functions described ...


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor Aug 2015

Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor

Janet M. Stavnezer

Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is ...


Elucidating The Role Of Hausp Ubiquitin Like Domains In The Catalytic Function Of Usp7, Anuj Patel, Nicole Davis, Andrew Mesecar Aug 2015

Elucidating The Role Of Hausp Ubiquitin Like Domains In The Catalytic Function Of Usp7, Anuj Patel, Nicole Davis, Andrew Mesecar

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Ubiquitin specific proteases (USPs) are a class of enzymes involved in myriad cellular processes. One USP of great interest due to its oncogenic properties is USP7. In normal conditions USP7 is closely regulated due to its responsibility for destabilizing the tumor suppressor, p53, through the deubiquitination of MDM2. In multiple myeloma cases, it appears the regulation of USP7 subsides, as it is largely overexpressed, leading to the inappropriate degradation of p53. Inhibition of USP7 could, therefore, prove a viable target for cancer therapy. A greater understanding of USP7’s function and structure can lead to more insight into how this ...


Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo Aug 2015

Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation (mainly through NF-κB signaling) and death (via apoptosis signaling). Recently, linear ubiquitination by LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) was reported to have a regulatory function in TNF-α mediated NF-κB activation. Although LUBAC is suggested to control not only NF-kB signaling but also the apoptosis pathway, the precise mechanism of apoptosis regulation remains unknown. Moreover, NF-κB and apoptosis pathways have opposed but fundamental functions for various cellular processes. Although these two pathways actively interplay to balance the death and survival, the ...


F-Box Protein Fbxo31 Directs Degradation Of Mdm2 To Facilitate P53-Mediated Growth Arrest Following Genotoxic Stress, Sunil K. Malonia, Parul Dutta, Manas Kumar Santra, Michael R. Green Jul 2015

F-Box Protein Fbxo31 Directs Degradation Of Mdm2 To Facilitate P53-Mediated Growth Arrest Following Genotoxic Stress, Sunil K. Malonia, Parul Dutta, Manas Kumar Santra, Michael R. Green

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

The tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability. In response to genotoxic stress, p53 levels increase and induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, thereby preventing replication of damaged DNA. In unstressed cells, p53 is maintained at a low level. The major negative regulator of p53 is MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that directly interacts with p53 and promotes its polyubiquitination, leading to the subsequent destruction of p53 by the 26S proteasome. Following DNA damage, MDM2 is degraded rapidly, resulting in increased p53 stability. Because of the important role of MDM2 in modulating p53 function, it is ...


The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim Jul 2015

The Role Of The Pleckstrin Homology Domain-Containing Protein Ckip-1 In Activation Of P21-Activated Kinase 1 (Pak1), Yong-Bae Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Adhiraj Roy, Jeong-Ho Kim

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Upon growth factor stimulation, PAK1 is recruited to the plasma membrane and activated by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation at S223 by the protein kinase CK2. However, the upstream signaling molecules that regulate this phosphorylation event are not clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate a major role of the CK2α-interacting protein CKIP-1 in activation of PAK1. CK2α, CKIP-1 and PAK1 are translocated to membrane ruffles in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF), where CKIP-1 mediates the interaction between CK2α, and PAK1 in a PI3K-dependent manner. Consistently, we observe that PAK1 mediates phosphorylation and modulation of the activity of p41-Arc ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane May 2015

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio May 2015

A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Understanding how the extracellular matrix impacts the function of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a significant but poorly understood problem. We report that breast CSCs produce a laminin (LM) 511 matrix that promotes self-renewal and tumor initiation by engaging the alpha6Bbeta1 integrin and activating the Hippo transducer TAZ. Although TAZ is important for the function of breast CSCs, the mechanism is unknown. We observed that TAZ regulates the transcription of the alpha5 subunit of LM511 and the formation of a LM511 matrix. These data establish a positive feedback loop involving TAZ and LM511 that contributes to stemness in breast cancer.


Regulation Of Cell Adhesion By The Ferm Proteins, Ptpn14 And Merlin, Patty Dimarco Hewitt May 2015

Regulation Of Cell Adhesion By The Ferm Proteins, Ptpn14 And Merlin, Patty Dimarco Hewitt

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell-cell adhesion is critical for the control of tissue organization and homeostasis. A family of proteins that regulate cell-cell adhesions is the FERM (4.1 protein, Ezrin, Radixin, Moesin) domain-containing proteins.One FERM domain protein, the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14, is mutated or deleted in several human cancers suggesting that it may be involved in tumor development and/or progression. Additionally, the loss of the FERM domain protein Merlin is associated with tumor development and metastasis.Both PTPN14 and Merlin have been shown to localize and possibly regulate adherens junction (AJ) functions. This work sought to determine ...


Measuring Single Cell Responses To Lapatinib In A Heterogeneous Population, Preety Priya May 2015

Measuring Single Cell Responses To Lapatinib In A Heterogeneous Population, Preety Priya

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is notonedisease butasaga of diseases and is the outcome of disturbed homeostasis in the normal cells due to the deregulation of its genetic makeup. With advent of technologies thatallowdetailed molecular characterizationoftumors, targeted therapies have emerged as a more promising and specific mode of treatment. However, a major challenge with targeted therapy is the acquired resistance in the cancer cells to these therapies, quite often very rapidly in the course of a few months. One of the major targets in cancer has been the EGFR/ErbB2 network in breast and other cancer types. Prior work from our lab and others ...


Investigating The Roles Of P63 And P73 Isoforms To Therapeutically Treat P53-Altered Cancers, Avinashnarayan Venkatanarayan May 2015

Investigating The Roles Of P63 And P73 Isoforms To Therapeutically Treat P53-Altered Cancers, Avinashnarayan Venkatanarayan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Investigating the roles of p63 & p73 isoforms to therapeutically treat

p53-altered cancers

Avinashnarayan Venkatanarayan, M.S.

Supervisory Professor: Elsa R. Flores, Ph.D.

The TP53 tumor suppressor is mutated in approximately 50% of human cancers rendering cancer therapies ineffective. p53 reactivation suppresses tumor formation in mice. However, this strategy has proven difficult to implement therapeutically. An alternate approach to overcome p53 loss is to manipulate the p53-family members, p63 and p73, which interact and share structural similarities to p53. p63 and p73, unlike p53 are less frequently mutated and have two major isoforms with distinct functions which makes them ...


Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh May 2015

Dna Polymerase Θ (Polq) And The Cellular Defense Against Dna Damage, Matthew J. Yousefzadeh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In mammalian cells, DNA polymerase θ (POLQ) is an unusual specialized DNA polymerase whose in vivo function is under active investigation. The protein is comprised of an N-terminal helicase-like domain, a C-terminal DNA polymerase domain, and a large central domain that spans between the two. This arrangement is also found in the Drosophila Mus308 protein, which helps confer resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents. Homologs of POLQ and Mus308 are found in eukaryotes, including plants, but a comparison of phenotypes suggests that not all of these genes are functional orthologs. Flies with defective Mus308 are sensitive to DNA interstrand crosslinking ...


A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio Jan 2015

A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Understanding how the extracellular matrix impacts the function of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a significant but poorly understood problem. We report that breast CSCs produce a laminin (LM) 511 matrix that promotes self-renewal and tumor initiation by engaging the alpha6Bbeta1 integrin and activating the Hippo transducer TAZ. Although TAZ is important for the function of breast CSCs, the mechanism is unknown. We observed that TAZ regulates the transcription of the alpha5 subunit of LM511 and the formation of a LM511 matrix. These data establish a positive feedback loop involving TAZ and LM511 that contributes to stemness in breast cancer.


Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell Jan 2015

Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell

Theses and Dissertations

The tumor suppressor TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in human cancers. The growth-promoting complex, mTORC1 plays a part of the oncogenic profile caused by dysfunctional p53. mTORC1 sits downstream of AMPK and other crucial tumor suppressors/oncogenes, PTEN, LKB1, and Akt. The antifolate pemetrexed was found by this laboratory to activate AMPK via the inhibition of the enzyme AICART in de novo purine synthesis. This work presents a mechanism of mTORC1 activation with p53 loss, as well as of mTORC1 inhibition by pemetrexed-induced AMPK. We have found that mTORC1 activity was substantially upregulated by the loss or mutation ...


Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam Jan 2015

Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam

Theses and Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimates more than 141,000 new cases of and about 50,000 deaths from colorectal cancer every year. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy and targeted therapies such as anti-angiogenics. However, no therapies address the key driving factor of colorectal cancer: inflammation. It is well known that chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn’s Disease, ulcerative colitis, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking all elevate the risk of developing colorectal cancer. One of the hallmarks of chronic inflammation is the elevated levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). A primary source of these ROS/RNS is ...


The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin Jan 2015

The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin

Theses and Dissertations

In the presented study, we identified that SRSF3 controls the alternative splicing of CPEB2 and consequently promotes a metastatic phenotype in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC causes thousands of deaths annually, frequently due to a lack of effective treatments and a high rate of metastasis in patients. Alternative splicing has been found to be dysregulated in numerous cancers, while splicing factors such as SRSF3 are variably expressed. In this study we performed a siRNA panel to screen potential splicing factors, then used specific siRNA to study the effect of its knockdown on cellular function. These results showed that SRSF3 ...


Mouse Polyomavirus T Antigens: Directors Of Cell Cycle Signaling, Catherine Nicholas Jan 2015

Mouse Polyomavirus T Antigens: Directors Of Cell Cycle Signaling, Catherine Nicholas

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Polyomaviruses (PyV) efficiently replicate by disrupting host cell signaling pathways. Disruption of the cell cycle is implicated in nearly all tumor formation. Studies of cellular transformation by primate PyV, SV40, and mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) have led to numerous findings concerning tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulation pathways (Das D. and Imperiale 2009, Dahl et. al. 2005). Expression of PyV T Antigens (TAg) modifies signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints to the virus’ advantage. Expected modifications include inhibiting checkpoint proteins between G1 and S phases as well as promoting kinases with downstream signaling effects that result in progression to S ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Coupled Proteins In Human Serum Albumin, Kyle M. Mahoney Jan 2015

Synthesis And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Coupled Proteins In Human Serum Albumin, Kyle M. Mahoney

University Honors Program Theses

Recently, cancer has become an ever-growing issue and has led to many researchers attempt to unravel the mystery of the disease. This research has led to a promising field of treatment: nanotechnology-coupled pharmaceuticals. Nanoparticles act as a whole unit when in conjugation with other molecules and add to the carrier molecule, most often proteins, benefits the nanoparticles themselves possess. One such carrier protein that can be conjugated with nanoparticles is Human Serum Albumin (HSA). Albumin is of interest in cancer research for two reasons: it is native to the human vasculature so it does not elicit immunological reactions, and it ...


Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal Jan 2015

Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal

Theses and Dissertations

New drug discoveries and new approaches towards diagnosis and treatment have improved cancer therapeutics remarkably. One of the most influential and effective discoveries in the field of cancer therapeutics was antimetabolites, such as the antifolates. The interest in antifolates increased as some of the antifolates showed responses in cancers, such as mesothelioma, leukemia, and breast cancers. When pemetrexed (PTX) was discovered, our laboratory had established that the primary mechanism of action of pemetrexed is to inhibit thymidylate 22 synthase (TS) (E. Taylor et al., 1992). Preclinical studies have shown that PTX has a broad range of antitumor activity in human ...


The Significance Of Crispr/Cas9-Directed Cul3 Knockout On Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, Zoe A. Lautz Jan 2015

The Significance Of Crispr/Cas9-Directed Cul3 Knockout On Human Colorectal Cancer Cells, Zoe A. Lautz

Departmental Honors Projects

Cancer, the second leading cause of death in the US, is caused by mutations in select genes that alter cellular function leading to uncontrolled proliferation. Understanding the specific genes that drive cancer can lead to the generation of novel cancer therapies. To identify novel genes that drive cancer in the colon (CRC), lungs, and ovaries in mice, Starr et al. employed a transposon-based insertional mutagenesis system. One of the genes identified, APC, is mutated in 70-80% of human CRCs. CUL3, suspected to be a general driver gene, was discovered in the lung cancer screen. CUL3 was analyzed for its role ...


Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Wang Dec 2014

Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Enhanced By Multiple Carcinogens And Intervened By Dietary Ergosterol And Mimosine, Lenora Pluchino, Amethyst Liu, Hwa-Chain Wang

Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

No abstract provided.