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Cancer Biology

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 34

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Dancing Through Life: Allosteric Transitions And Structural Analysis Of Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker Dec 2014

Dancing Through Life: Allosteric Transitions And Structural Analysis Of Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The molecular chaperone protein Hsp70 is centrally involved in cellular homeostasis by assisting in the folding and degradation of protein substrates. Hsp70 is joined by co-chaperones, such as Hsp110, which contribute to specialized tasks of the Hsp70 complex. Imbalances of this heat shock protein system are believed to be involved with the deregulation of cancer pathways and other human diseases. Better understanding of how these heat shock proteins work at the molecular level, which has been investigated using molecular docking tools, will give more clues about biological function. Simulating the formation and function of Hsp70 based chaperone complexes could provide ...


Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan Dec 2014

Understanding Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 In Hematological And Nervous Systems, Feng Pan

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I proposed the study of two distinct aspects of Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) protein for understanding specific functions in different body systems.

In Part I, I characterized the molecular mechanisms of Tet2 in the hematological system. As the second member of Ten-Eleven Translocation protein family, TET2 is frequently mutated in leukemic patients. Previous studies have shown that the TET2 mutations frequently occur in 20% myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN), 10% T-cell lymphoma leukemia and 2% B-cell lymphoma leukemia. Genetic mouse models also display distinct phenotypes of various types of hematological malignancies. I performed 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq ...


The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min Dec 2014

The Role Of Nag-1 In Tumorigenesis, Kyung-Won Min

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation explores the nature of a divergent member of the Transforming Growth Factor-β [beta] superfamily, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs activated gene (NAG-1), as it relates to its regulation and biological activity in cancer context. Our lab has extensively studied on the molecular mechanism by which phytochemicals and NSAIDs induce apoptosis correlation with NAG-1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Significant data from in vitro studies suggest that NAG-1 has an anti-tumorigenic activity which elicits apoptosis in a cyclooxygenase (COX)-independent manner in CRC cells. Indeed, NAG-1 transgenic mice developed less aberrant polyp foci (APC) compared to those of ...


Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee Dec 2014

Novel Posttranslational Modification In Lkb1 Activation And Function, Szu-Wei Lee

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer cells display dramatic alterations in cellular metabolism to meet their needs of increased growth and proliferation. In the last decade, cancer research has brought these pathways into focus, and one emerging issue that has come to attention is that many oncogenes and tumor-suppressors are intimately linked to metabolic regulation (Jones and Thompson, 2009). One of the key tumor-suppressors involved in metabolism is Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1). LKB1 is the major upstream kinase of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor—AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway provides a survival advantage for cells under energy stress. LKB1 forms ...


Jab1 Negatively Regulates Pten And Promotes Resistance To Trastuzumab In Her2-Positive Breast Cancer, Thuy T. Vu Dec 2014

Jab1 Negatively Regulates Pten And Promotes Resistance To Trastuzumab In Her2-Positive Breast Cancer, Thuy T. Vu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

HER2-positive breast cancer, which is characterized by the over-expression of the HER2 onco-protein, accounts for approximately 20% of all breast cancer cases. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first targeted therapy approved for HER2-positive disease, potently prevents the activation of signaling pathways downstream of HER2 and significantly improves patients’ outcomes. However, resistance to trastuzumab is inevitable; such resistance can occur through reduced expression of PTEN protein.

Jab1 is over-expressed in 50% of primary cancers and 90% of metastatic tumors. Our lab previously showed that depletion of Jab1 in combination with trastuzumab treatment up-regulated PTEN in mouse xenografts refractory to trastuzumab. PTEN was not ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Mechanisms And Molecular Biology Of Major Tumor Suppressors, Brienne E. Engel Sep 2014

Mechanisms And Molecular Biology Of Major Tumor Suppressors, Brienne E. Engel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is devoted to the study of the molecular biology of major tumor suppressors, defined as those that prevent the cellular processes identified as the hallmarks of cancer. Specifically, the major tumor suppressors pRb and STK11 are explored in the context of osteosarcoma and lung cancer, respectively.

RB1 was the first tumor suppressor gene discovered. Over four decades of work have revealed that the Rb protein (pRb) is a master regulator of biological pathways influencing virtually every aspect of intrinsic cell fate including cell growth, cell-cycle checkpoints, differentiation, senescence, self-renewal, replication, genomic stability and apoptosis. While these many processes ...


Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph Aug 2014

Poly(Arginine) Derived Cancer-Targeting Peptides For The Development Of A Cancer-Targeted Gene Therapy Approach In Hepg2 Liver Cancer Cells, Stesha C. Joseph

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Cancer is a disease that has eluded medicinal approaches for many years and as a result new and improved therapeutic approaches are in constant demand. Although chemotherapy and radiation treatments have assisted in suppressing the growth of tumors, their poor selectivity and efficacy are major limitations for effective therapy en route towards the development of a cure for the cancer epidemic. With the mission of conquering cancer at heart, researchers have pursued a new form of cancer therapy, aptly named, a cancer targeting approach. This method revolves around the selection of a suitable biomarker, typically a cell surface receptor overexpressed ...


Mechanistic Analysis Of Differential Signal Transduction Mediated By The Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins Irs-1 And Irs-2: A Dissertation, Justine M. Landis Aug 2014

Mechanistic Analysis Of Differential Signal Transduction Mediated By The Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins Irs-1 And Irs-2: A Dissertation, Justine M. Landis

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins IRS-1 and IRS-2 are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that organize and propagate intracellular signaling downstream of specific growth factor receptors, including the Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptors (IR and IGF-1R, respectively). Despite sharing a high level of homology and the ability to stimulate Phosphotidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling, IRS-1 and IRS-2 play distinct roles in mammary tumor progression. Specifically, IRS-1 promotes growth and proliferation, whereas IRS- 2 promotes motility, invasion, survival, aerobic glycolyis, and metastasis. To further understand the differences between IRS-1 and IRS-2, I investigated the mechanistic basis of IRS-2-mediated ...


Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk Aug 2014

Mapping The Human Vasculature By In Vivo Phage Display, Julianna Bronk

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In vivo phage display screenings by intravenous injection of a random phage-displayed peptide library allow for the selection of peptides that localize to specific vascular beds. At the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, we have had the opportunity to perform phage display screenings in cancer patients in order to select for cancer specific targets directly in humans. These targets serve to define biochemical diversity of endothelial cell surfaces and can be validated and explored towards the design of vascular-targeted pharmacology. In the most recent patient screen, samples were recovered from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as 26 additional ...


Egfr Modulates Microrna Maturation In Response To Hypoxia Through Phosphorylation Of Argonaute2, Jia Shen Aug 2014

Egfr Modulates Microrna Maturation In Response To Hypoxia Through Phosphorylation Of Argonaute2, Jia Shen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are generated by two-step processing to yield small RNAs that negatively regulate target gene expression at posttranscriptional level. Deregulation of miRNAs has been linked to diverse pathological processes, including cancer. Recent studies have also implicated miRNAs in regulatory roles to cope with a spectrum of stresses, such as hypoxia, which is frequently encountered in the poorly angiogenic core of a solid tumor. However, the upstream regulators of miRNA biogenesis machineries remain obscure, raising the question of how tumor cells efficiently coordinate and impose specificity on miRNA expression and function in response to stresses. Here, we show that EGFR ...


Angiomotin Is A Novel Cadherin-11 Interacting Protein That Mediates Migration In Prostate Cancer Cells, Angelica Ortiz Aug 2014

Angiomotin Is A Novel Cadherin-11 Interacting Protein That Mediates Migration In Prostate Cancer Cells, Angelica Ortiz

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer (PCa), the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States, has the proclivity to metastasize to bone resulting in sclerotic lesions. These cancer induced bone growths cause bone pain and fractures. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms contributing to PCa bone metastasis is required in order to find better prognostic tools and suitable targets for metastasis treatment and/ or prevention. Previous work in our laboratory showed increased expression of cadherin-11 (Cad11), a mesenchymal cadherin, during PCa progression. Furthermore, Cad11 expression endows PCa cells with increased migratory potential and metastasis to bone. Deletion of the Cad11 ...


Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor Aug 2014

Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is ...


Inhibition Of Colon Cancer By Polyphenols From Whole Cranberry, Catherine Neto, Anne Liberty, Sarah Frade, Anuradha Tata, Tracie Ferreira, Mingyue Song, Xian Wu, Hang Xiao May 2014

Inhibition Of Colon Cancer By Polyphenols From Whole Cranberry, Catherine Neto, Anne Liberty, Sarah Frade, Anuradha Tata, Tracie Ferreira, Mingyue Song, Xian Wu, Hang Xiao

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The ability of cranberry fruit extracts to inhibit colon carcinogenesis is under investigation using a combination of in vitro and in vivo methods. Compounds isolated from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon) including oligomeric polyphenols known as proanthocyanidins (PACs) decreased the proliferation of HCT116 and HT-29 colon cancer cells, induced apoptosis and reduced the formation of tumor colonies. Treatment of HCT116 colon cancer cells with cranberry polyphenols produced changes in expression of genes and proteins associated with the MAPK pathway, confirmed by microarray analysis, quantitative (Q)-PCR and Western blotting. Based on cranberry's effect in vitro, a feeding study was conducted ...


Inhibition Of Bromodomain Proteins In Treatment Of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Andrew M. Evens, James E. Bradner, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner May 2014

Inhibition Of Bromodomain Proteins In Treatment Of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Sally E. Trabucco, Rachel M. Gerstein, Andrew M. Evens, James E. Bradner, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Only ~50% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, enter long-term remission after standard chemotherapy, and patients who do not respond to treatment have few options. Therefore, there is a critical need for effective and targeted therapeutics for DLBCL. Recent studies highlight the incidence of increased c-MYC protein in DLBCL and the correlation between high levels of c-MYC and poor survival prognosis of DLBCL patients, suggesting that c-MYC is a compelling therapeutic target for DLBCL therapy. The small molecule JQ1 suppresses c-MYC expression through inhibition of the BET family ...


Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina May 2014

Branching Into Rnai: Synthesis, Characterization And Biology Of Branch And Hyperbranch Sirnas, Anthony Muriithi Maina

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The cancer epidemic continues to afflict millions of humans world-wide each year and despite a renewed hope with the development of new and improved forms of therapy, a cure for cancer remains an elusive goal. This is partly related to the rise of resilient forms of tumors that have evolved with resistance towards conventional chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Moreover, these non-specific therapeutic regimens are highly toxic, leading to severe immunosuppressive effects which poisons the body and compromises the road towards remission. In an effort to mitigate these limitations, cancer-targeting approaches are currently experiencing a renaissance in the translation of new ...


The Regulation Of Microrna Biogenesis By Ribosome-Interacting Proteins, Brian Pickering May 2014

The Regulation Of Microrna Biogenesis By Ribosome-Interacting Proteins, Brian Pickering

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs that affect gene expression through degradation of complementary mRNA targets or inhibition of translation. As they affect approximately 50% of all cellular processes, miRNA are tightly regulated by the cell through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Transcribed miRNA are capped and polyadenylated (referred to as pri-miRNA) which are cleaved by Drosha and DGCR8 to generate 60-90 nucleotide precursor miRNA. The precursors are cleaved again by Dicer and loaded into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) of which Argonaute 2 is the functional component. Many of the proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis share a common role in ...


The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller May 2014

The Effect Of Small Molecule 390 On Cxcr4 Receptors, Selam B. Zenebe-Gete '14, Shruti R. Topudurti '14, Shum Andrew, Richard J. Miller

Student Publications & Research

CXCR4 is the chemokine receptor which aids in chemotaxis of stem cells, such as those in the bone marrow or the brain. SDF-1 is the natural ligand for the CXCR4 receptor. Similarities between novel molecule 390 synthesized by the Miller Lab and SDF-1 make this novel small molecule a possible agonist of the CXCR4 receptor. To determine whether 390 is an agonist to the CXCR4 receptor, we transfected cells with CXCR4 and exposed them to no agonist [vehicle control], SDF-1, or varying concentrations of our agonist drug. Next, we took calcium images using the dye fura-2, which indicates changes in ...


Phthalates And Phthalate Alternatives: Effects On Proliferative And Estrogenic Target Genes In Ishikawa Cells, Ranjani Sundar '15, Ping Yin, Serdar E. Bulun May 2014

Phthalates And Phthalate Alternatives: Effects On Proliferative And Estrogenic Target Genes In Ishikawa Cells, Ranjani Sundar '15, Ping Yin, Serdar E. Bulun

Student Publications & Research

Phthalates are used as plasticizers in many of the products found in medical, household, and industrial applications. Much research has not been completed on the effects of these phthalates as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As these chemicals are ingested, the mechanism by which they affect the reproductive system is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to observe how 2 phthalates, Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and 2 phthalate alternatives, Dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP) and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene)affect uterine cells in comparison to a vehicle treatment and 17β-Estradiol treatment. Changes in expression of mRNA were observed ...


Diabetes And Obesity Induce Transcriptomic And Metabolomic Changes Enhancing Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness, Guermarie Velázquez Torres May 2014

Diabetes And Obesity Induce Transcriptomic And Metabolomic Changes Enhancing Pancreatic Cancer Aggressiveness, Guermarie Velázquez Torres

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive types of cancer, with poor prognosis that lacks effective diagnostic markers and therapies. It is expected that in 2014 the incidence and the mortality of pancreatic cancer in the United States will be 46,420 and 39,590 respectively. Diabetes and obesity are modifiable risk factors associated with accelerated pancreatic carcinogenesis and tumor progression, but the biological mechanisms are not completely understood. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate direct evidence for the mechanisms mediating these epidemiologic phenomena. Our hypothesis is that obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) accelerate pancreatic ...


Defining The Sites Of Interaction Of The Fancd2, Fance, And Fancl Proteins, Joseph Mcclanaghan May 2014

Defining The Sites Of Interaction Of The Fancd2, Fance, And Fancl Proteins, Joseph Mcclanaghan

Senior Honors Projects

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure and increased cancer susceptibility. FA is caused by mutations in any one of 16 genes. These genes encode for proteins that function in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair damaged DNA. Because of its important r­­­ole in DNA repair, this pathway is considered a major cellular tumor suppressor pathway, i.e. is critical for the prevention of cancer. Underscoring this fact, several of the FA genes - including BRCA2, BRIP1, PALB2, and RAD51C - are bona fide breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes.

My project involves studying ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

Honors Scholar Theses

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer May 2014

Modeling The Adaptive Immune Response To Mutation-Generated Antigens, Rory J. Geyer

University Scholar Projects

Somatic mutations may drive tumorigenesis or lead to new, immunogenic epitopes (neoantigens). The immune system is thought to represses neoplastic growths through the recognition of neoantigens presented only by tumor cells. To study mutations as well as the immune response to mutation-generated antigens, we have created a conditional knockin mouse line with a gene encoding, 5’ to 3’, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), ovalbumin (which is processed to the immunologically recognizable peptide, SIINFEKL), and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), or, YFP-ovalbumin-CFP. A frame shift mutation has been created at the 5’ end of the ovalbumin gene, hence YFP should always be expressed ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce Apr 2014

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...


Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Apr 2014

Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among North American and European women, is mostly sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, we investigated the activity of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Non-cancerous human breast epithelial MCF10A cells were exposed to NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP sequentially or in combination and then analyzed for the acquisition of cancerous ...


A Kras-Directed Transcriptional Silencing Pathway That Mediates The Cpg Island Methylator Phenotype, Ryan W. Serra, Minggang Fang, Sung Mi Park, Lloyd Hutchinson, Michael R. Green Mar 2014

A Kras-Directed Transcriptional Silencing Pathway That Mediates The Cpg Island Methylator Phenotype, Ryan W. Serra, Minggang Fang, Sung Mi Park, Lloyd Hutchinson, Michael R. Green

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Approximately 70% of KRAS-positive colorectal cancers (CRCs) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of many genes. The factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, CIMP is not understood. Among the CIMP genes are the tumor suppressors p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), and p16(INK4A), encoded by the INK4-ARF locus. In this study, we perform an RNA interference screen and identify ZNF304, a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein, as the pivotal factor required for INK4-ARF silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing activated KRAS. In KRAS-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, ZNF304 is bound ...


Toward The Synthesis Of Aspernigrin A Precursor 6-Benzyl-4- Hydroxypyran-2-One: Optimization And Cross-Coupling Strategies, Seth A. Sharber, Anne M. Reeve Mar 2014

Toward The Synthesis Of Aspernigrin A Precursor 6-Benzyl-4- Hydroxypyran-2-One: Optimization And Cross-Coupling Strategies, Seth A. Sharber, Anne M. Reeve

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

A viable pathway toward the synthesis of the benzyl pyrone 6-benzyl-4-hydroxypyran2-one, a key precursor to the secondary metabolite natural product aspernigrin A, 6- benzyl-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide, has been realized and partially optimized. This benzyl pyrone is the hinge point of the retrosynthetic plan that guides many of our schemes, which is predicated on the construction of a benzyl pyridone from the commercially available pyrone 4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-pyrone. Synthesis of the benzyl pyrone relies on the Stille palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of the bromopyrone 6-(bromomethyl)-4-methoxy-pyran-2-one with tributylphenylstannane, a reaction which is yet to be studied in our lab. The protection, oxidation, and ...


Responses To Ionizing Radiation And Translation Inhibition In Drosophila Melanogaster And Human Cancer Cells, Stefanie Michaela Stickel Jan 2014

Responses To Ionizing Radiation And Translation Inhibition In Drosophila Melanogaster And Human Cancer Cells, Stefanie Michaela Stickel

Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

A common regimen for the treatment of solid tumors includes ionizing radiation (IR), chemotherapies, and targeted agents, such as kinase inhibitors. Cancer therapies have been traditionally tailored to the tissue origin of the tumor, rather than the mutation type; however, this concept has been changing with evidence that agents targeted to specific mutations are effective in many cancer types. The latter theory assumes that inhibition of the oncogenic mutation trumps differences between tissues, a concept that has never been proven in a whole organism. My results in the first half of this thesis show for the first time that isogenic ...


Cancellation Of Cellular Responses To Nanoelectroporation By Reversing The Stimulus Polarity, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Betsy Gregory, Karl H. Schoenbach Jan 2014

Cancellation Of Cellular Responses To Nanoelectroporation By Reversing The Stimulus Polarity, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Betsy Gregory, Karl H. Schoenbach

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanoelectroporation of biomembranes is an effect of high-voltage, nanosecond-duration electric pulses (nsEP). It occurs both in the plasma membrane and inside the cell, and nanoporated membranes are distinguished by ion-selective and potential-sensitive permeability. Here we report a novel phenomenon of bioeffects cancellation that puts nsEP cardinally apart from the conventional electroporation and electrostimulation by milli- and microsecond pulses. We compared the effects of 60- and 300-ns monopolar, nearly rectangular nsEP on intracellular Ca2+mobilization and cell survival with those of bipolar 60 + 60 and 300 + 300 ns pulses. For diverse endpoints, exposure conditions, pulse numbers (1-60), and amplitudes (15-60 ...