Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu May 2019

Targeting Sec61Α By Ipomoeassin F Leads To Highly Cytotoxic Effect, Zhijian Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Ipomoeassin F is a flagship congener of a resin glycoside family that inhibits growth of many tumor cell lines with only single-digital nanomolar IC50 values. However, biological and pharmacological mechanisms of ipomoeassin F have been undefined. To facilitate exploration of the biological and pharmacological properties, we performed sophisticate SAR (Structure–activity relationship) studies of ipomoeassin F to understand its pharmacophore and structure properties so that we can design favorable probes for further biological investigation. By applying appropriate deviates that possess fluorescent groups and similar bio-activity, the target protein was found to be localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Through biotin affinity ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu Jan 2019

Regorafenib Enhances Lethality Of Sildenafil And Curcumin In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Kervin Benjamin Owusu

Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, more than 130,000 people will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) each year and an estimated 50,000 people will die from the disease. Standard of care (SOC) therapies for CRC combine multiple cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs. These combinations have varying degrees of effectiveness and can often result in significant patient morbidity. For second recurrence patients, the multi-kinase inhibitor, regorafenib, is an approved agent, but is often poorly tolerated at current doses. In the current study, we propose to develop therapeutic regime of combining agents with modest toxicity profiles: curcumin and sildenafil with regorafenib. Using clinically ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell Jan 2015

Rheb Dynamics On Lysosomal Membranes Determines Mtorc1 Activity After Loss Of P53 Or Activation Of Ampk, Catherine M. Bell

Theses and Dissertations

The tumor suppressor TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in human cancers. The growth-promoting complex, mTORC1 plays a part of the oncogenic profile caused by dysfunctional p53. mTORC1 sits downstream of AMPK and other crucial tumor suppressors/oncogenes, PTEN, LKB1, and Akt. The antifolate pemetrexed was found by this laboratory to activate AMPK via the inhibition of the enzyme AICART in de novo purine synthesis. This work presents a mechanism of mTORC1 activation with p53 loss, as well as of mTORC1 inhibition by pemetrexed-induced AMPK. We have found that mTORC1 activity was substantially upregulated by the loss or mutation ...


Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam Jan 2015

Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity And Its Modulation In The Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer, Asim Alam

Theses and Dissertations

The American Cancer Society estimates more than 141,000 new cases of and about 50,000 deaths from colorectal cancer every year. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy and targeted therapies such as anti-angiogenics. However, no therapies address the key driving factor of colorectal cancer: inflammation. It is well known that chronic inflammatory conditions such as Crohn’s Disease, ulcerative colitis, diabetes, obesity and cigarette smoking all elevate the risk of developing colorectal cancer. One of the hallmarks of chronic inflammation is the elevated levels of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). A primary source of these ROS/RNS is ...


The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin Jan 2015

The Role Of Srsf3 In Control Of Alternative Splicing Of Cpeb2 In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Brian P. Griffin

Theses and Dissertations

In the presented study, we identified that SRSF3 controls the alternative splicing of CPEB2 and consequently promotes a metastatic phenotype in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC causes thousands of deaths annually, frequently due to a lack of effective treatments and a high rate of metastasis in patients. Alternative splicing has been found to be dysregulated in numerous cancers, while splicing factors such as SRSF3 are variably expressed. In this study we performed a siRNA panel to screen potential splicing factors, then used specific siRNA to study the effect of its knockdown on cellular function. These results showed that SRSF3 ...


Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal Jan 2015

Pemetrexed, A Modulator Of Amp-Activated Kinase Signaling And An Inhibitor Of Wild Type And Mutant P53, Stuti Agarwal

Theses and Dissertations

New drug discoveries and new approaches towards diagnosis and treatment have improved cancer therapeutics remarkably. One of the most influential and effective discoveries in the field of cancer therapeutics was antimetabolites, such as the antifolates. The interest in antifolates increased as some of the antifolates showed responses in cancers, such as mesothelioma, leukemia, and breast cancers. When pemetrexed (PTX) was discovered, our laboratory had established that the primary mechanism of action of pemetrexed is to inhibit thymidylate 22 synthase (TS) (E. Taylor et al., 1992). Preclinical studies have shown that PTX has a broad range of antitumor activity in human ...


Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou Aug 2013

Proteomic And Biochemical Studies Of Estrogen-Mediated Signaling And Novel Estrogen Receptor-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Zhenqi Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Estrogen plays essential roles in the growth, development, and homeostasis of a number of tissues, and can also be linked to the growth of breast cancer. The biological activities of estrogen are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) ERá and ERâ, and also orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In order to identify novel proteins that are involved in ER-mediated actions of estrogen, we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic methods to systematically profile global protein expression in responses to E2 (17â-estradiol) stimulation in human breast cancer cell, and identify and characterize cellular novel proteins that are associated with ERs in breast cancer ...