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Articles 31 - 60 of 560

Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora Jul 2018

Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Adaptation of cancer cells to changes in the biochemical microenvironment in an expanding tumor mass is a crucial aspect of malignant progression, tumor metabolism, and drug efficacy. In vitro, it is challenging to mimic the evolution of biochemical gradients and the cellular heterogeneity that characterizes cancer tissues found in vivo. It is well accepted that more realistic and controllable in vitro 3D model systems are required to improve the overall cancer research paradigm and thus improve on the translation of results, but multidisciplinary approaches are needed for these advances. This work develops such approaches and demonstrates that new droplet-based cell-encapsulation ...


Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston Jun 2018

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic membranes provide much of the usable energy for life on earth. To produce photosynthetic membrane lipids, multiple transport steps are required, including fatty acid export from the chloroplast stroma to the endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the chloroplast envelope membranes. Transport of hydrophobic molecules through aqueous space is energetically unfavorable and must be catalyzed by dedicated enzymes, frequently on specialized membrane structures. Here, we review photosynthetic membrane lipid transport to the chloroplast in the context of photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis. We independently consider the identity of transported lipids, the proteinaceous transport components, and membrane ...


Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins Jun 2018

Mapping Molecular Datasets Back To The Brain Regions They Are Extracted From: Remembering The Native Countries Of Hypothalamic Expatriates And Refugees, Arshad M. Khan, Alice H. Grant, Anais Martinez, Gully Apc Burns, Brendan S. Thatcher, Vishwanath T. Anekonda, Benjamin W. Thompson, Zachary S. Roberts, Daniel H. Moralejo, James E. Blevins

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

This article, which includes novel unpublished data along with commentary and analysis,
focuses on approaches to link transcriptomic, proteomic, and peptidomic datasets mined from
brain tissue to the original locations within the brain that they are derived from using digital atlas
mapping techniques. We use, as an example, the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic
analyses conducted in the mammalian hypothalamus. Following a brief historical overview, we
highlight studies that have mined biochemical and molecular information from the hypothalamus
and then lay out a strategy for how these data can be linked spatially to the mapped locations in a
canonical brain atlas ...


Development Of Lc-Ms For The Identification And Characterization Of Non-Adjacent Dna Photoproduct Formation In G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences, Claudia Posadas May 2018

Development Of Lc-Ms For The Identification And Characterization Of Non-Adjacent Dna Photoproduct Formation In G-Quadruplex Forming Sequences, Claudia Posadas

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ultraviolet light is well known to induce cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidone photoproducts in duplex DNA, which interfere with DNA replication and transcription. Recently, a new class of DNA photoproducts known as anti cyclobutanepyrimidine dimers have been discovered, which form in G-quadruplex forming sequences in solution. G-quadruplex structures have been proposed to form in human DNA telomeres and certain promoters in vivo but evidence for their existence has been lacking. Since anti-cyclobutante pyrimidine dimers have been shown to form in G-quadruplex forming sequences, their formation in irradiated human cells could be used to confirm the ...


Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings May 2018

Optimizing Genetic Manipulation Of Methanogens Through Faster Cloning Techniques, Merrisa Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogenesis is the biological production of methane. Only anaerobic archaea known as methanogens are capable of such a metabolic feat. They have strict living conditions and substrate sources which determine their rate of metabolism. This is of particular importance from a greenhouse gas reduction perspective or biogas capturing perspective. One of the best ways to optimize methanogen methane production is via genetic manipulation. The current procedures are timely though, therefore a faster cloning processes should be developed. The objective of this study was to optimize a premade genetic transformation kit known as the Gibson Kit. The Gibson Kit was supposed ...


Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla May 2018

Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and 95% of these cases are caused by PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Ketone bodies have previously been shown to decrease cell proliferation and cancer-induced cachexia. The molecular mechanism of ketone body-mediated growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells is not well understood. Research conducted thus far has not explored which molecular pathways are affected by ketone body treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of the ketone body sodium hydroxybutyrate on the JAK-STAT and mTOR pathways and cell migration was explored. A decrease ...


Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris Apr 2018

Reversible Heparin Molecules And Methods Of Making And Using The Same, Jian Liu, Yongmei Xu, Robert J. Linhardt, Edward Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Methods and systems for synthesizing heparin compounds are provided . The chemoenzymatic synthesis of structurally homogeneous low molecular weight heparins that have a reversible anticoagulant activity is provided . Also disclosed are heparin compounds having anticoagulant activity , including a binding affinity to antithrombin and an anti - Xa activity , but no detectable anti - lla activity . Additionally , provided are synthetic , low - molecular weight heparin com pounds with reversible anticoagulant activity , where the anticoagulant activity is reversible by protamine.


Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang Apr 2018

Prediction Of Lncrna-Disease Associations Based On Inductive Matrix Completion, Chengqian Lu, Mengyun Yang, Feng Luo, Fang-Xiang Wu, Min Li, Yi Pan, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Accumulating evidences indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in various biological processes. Mutations and dysregulations of lncRNAs are implicated in miscellaneous human diseases. Predicting lncRNA–disease associations is beneficial to disease diagnosis as well as treatment. Although many computational methods have been developed, precisely identifying lncRNA–disease associations, especially for novel lncRNAs, remains challenging.

Results: In this study, we propose a method (named SIMCLDA) for predicting potential lncRNA– disease associations based on inductive matrix completion. We compute Gaussian interaction profile kernel of lncRNAs from known lncRNA–disease interactions and functional similarity of diseases based on disease ...


Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula Apr 2018

Intraperitoneal Nanotherapy For Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Based On Sirna-Mediated Suppression Of Dj-1 Protein Combined With A Low Dose Of Cisplatin, Canan Schumann, Stephanie Chan, Jess A. Miller, Yuliya Bortnyak, Katherine Carey, Alex Fedchyk, Leon Wong, Tetiana Korzun, Abraham S. Moses, Anna Lorenz, Delany Shea, Olena Taratula, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Oleh Taratula

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Herein, we report an efficient combinatorial therapy for metastatic ovarian cancer based on siRNA-mediated suppression of DJ-1 protein combined with a low dose of cisplatin. DJ-1 protein modulates, either directly or indirectly, different oncogenic pathways that support and promote survival, growth, and invasion of ovarian cancer cells. To evaluate the potential of this novel therapy, we have engineered a cancer-targeted nanoplatform and validated that DJ-1 siRNA delivered by this nanoplatform after intraperitoneal injection efficiently downregulates the DJ-1 protein in metastatic ovarian cancer tumors and ascites. In vivo experiments revealed that DJ-1 siRNA monotherapy outperformed cisplatin alone by inhibiting tumor growth ...


Structural Determinants For The Interactions Of Chemically Modified Nucleic Acids With The Stabilin‑2 Clearance Receptor, Hans Gaus, Colton M. Miller, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris Mar 2018

Structural Determinants For The Interactions Of Chemically Modified Nucleic Acids With The Stabilin‑2 Clearance Receptor, Hans Gaus, Colton M. Miller, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The Stabilin receptors are systemic clearance receptors for some classes of chemically modified nucleic acid therapeutics. In this study, the recombinant human secreted ecto-domain of the small isoform of Stabilin-2 (s190) was purified from cell culture and evaluated for direct binding with a multitude of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) using a fluorescence polarizationbased assay. The tested ASOs varied in their backbone composition, modification of the ribose 2′ position, overall length of the oligo, and sequence of the nucleotide bases. A fully phosphorothioate (PS) ASO with a 5−10−5 pattern of flanking 2′-O-methoxyethyl modifications was then used to test ...


Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau Feb 2018

Two Distinct Domains Contribute To The Substrate Acyl Chain Length Selectivity Of Plant Acyl-Acp Thioesterase, Fuyuan Jing, Le Zhao, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The substrate specificity of acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) plays an essential role in controlling the fatty acid profile produced by type II fatty acid synthases. Here we identify two groups of residues that synergistically determine different substrate specificities of two acyl-ACP TEs from Cuphea viscosissima (CvFatB1 and CvFatB2). One group (V194, V217, N223, R226, R227, and I268 in CvFatB2) is critical in determining the structure and depth of a hydrophobic cavity in the N-terminal hotdog domain that binds the substrate’s acyl moiety. The other group (255-RKLSKI-260 and 285-RKLPKL-289 in CvFatB2) defines positively charged surface patches that may facilitate binding of ...


Quantitative Genetics Of Populus, Roba Bdeir Jan 2018

Quantitative Genetics Of Populus, Roba Bdeir

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Evidence for bark, stem and stomatal density adaptation to different climates in the model species Populus is seen in both the natural population as well as in the greenhouse, but the genetic basis of these adaptation remains poorly understood. The present thesis investigates bark texture, bark thickness, diameter and stomatal density variations among Populus population using two quantitative genetics methods to attempt understand the genetic system controlling inheritance of these traits and to associate them with respective genes. The first approach aimed at detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with all phenotypic traits in an interspecific hybrid pedigree (Populus trichocarpa ...


Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar Jan 2018

Manipulation Of Genes Involved In Secondary Cell Wall Development During Wood Formation In Poplar, Kavitha Satish Kumar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Lignins are second most abundant components of vascular plant cell walls. They provide plants with structural rigidity and are polymers of monolignols. Lignin polymerization is catalyzed by peroxidases and/or laccases. These enzymes are suggested to share functional overlap and mechanism by which they coordinate this process is not clearly understood. There are about 100 peroxidases and 50 laccase genes known in poplar genome out of which some stem differentiating xylem-specific (SDX) enzymes were selected for our study. The main objective was to genetically manipulate genes expressed in the SDX region in the cell wall to see the effects on ...


A Mechanistic Computational Model Reveals That Plasticity Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Is A Function Of Cytokine Composition And Dosage, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert G. Todd, Akram Mohammed, Deborah M. Brown, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2018

A Mechanistic Computational Model Reveals That Plasticity Of Cd4+ T Cell Differentiation Is A Function Of Cytokine Composition And Dosage, Bhanwar Lal Puniya, Robert G. Todd, Akram Mohammed, Deborah M. Brown, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

CD4+ T cells provide cell-mediated immunity in response to various antigens. During an immune response, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into specialized effector T helper (Th1, Th2, and Th17) cells and induced regulatory (iTreg) cells based on a cytokine milieu. In recent studies, complex phenotypes resembling more than one classical T cell lineage have been experimentally observed. Herein, we sought to characterize the capacity of T cell differentiation in response to the complex extracellular environment. We constructed a comprehensive mechanistic (logical) computational model of the signal transduction that regulates T cell differentiation. The model’s dynamics were characterized and analyzed ...


Simulation Of Stimulation: Cytokine Dosage And Cell Cycle Crosstalk Driving Timing-Dependent T Cell Differentiation, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar, Paul Verbruggen Jan 2018

Simulation Of Stimulation: Cytokine Dosage And Cell Cycle Crosstalk Driving Timing-Dependent T Cell Differentiation, Matteo Barberis, Tomáš Helikar, Paul Verbruggen

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Triggering an appropriate protective response against invading agents is crucial to the effectiveness of human innate and adaptive immunity. Pathogen recognition and elimination requires integration of a myriad of signals from many different immune cells. For example, T cell functioning is not qualitatively, but quantitatively determined by cellular and humoral signals. Tipping the balance of signals, such that one of these is favored or gains advantage on another one, may impact the plasticity of T cells. This may lead to switching their phenotypes and, ultimately, modulating the balance between proliferating and memory T cells to sustain an appropriate immune response ...


Endosomal Escape Of Antisense Oligonucleotides Internalized By Stabilin Receptors Is Regulated By Rab5c And Eea1 During Endosomal Maturation, Colton M. Miller, W. Brad Wan, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris Jan 2018

Endosomal Escape Of Antisense Oligonucleotides Internalized By Stabilin Receptors Is Regulated By Rab5c And Eea1 During Endosomal Maturation, Colton M. Miller, W. Brad Wan, Punit P. Seth, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Second-generation (Gen 2) Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) show increased nuclease stability and affinity for their RNA targets, which has translated to improved potency and therapeutic index in the clinic. Gen 2 ASOs are typically modified using the phosphorothioate (PS) backbone modification, which enhances ASO interactions with plasma, cell surface, and intracellular proteins. This facilitates ASO distribution to peripheral tissues and also promotes cellular uptake after injection into animals. Previous work identified that Stabilin receptors specifically internalize PS-ASOs in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver and the spleen. By modulating expression of specific proteins involved in the trafficking and maturation of ...


Single-Molecule Unbinding Forces Between The Polysaccharide Hyaluronan And Its Binding Proteins, Fouzia Bano, Markku I. Tammi, David W. Kang, Edward N. Harris, Ralf P. Richter Jan 2018

Single-Molecule Unbinding Forces Between The Polysaccharide Hyaluronan And Its Binding Proteins, Fouzia Bano, Markku I. Tammi, David W. Kang, Edward N. Harris, Ralf P. Richter

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The extracellular polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is ubiquitous in all vertebrate tissues, where its various functions are encoded in the supramolecular complexes and matrices that it forms with HA-binding proteins (hyaladherins). In tissues, these supramolecular architectures are frequently subjected to mechanical stress, yet how this affects the intermolecular bonding is largely unknown. Here, we used a recently developed single-molecule force spectroscopy platform to analyze and compare the mechanical strength of bonds between HA and a panel of hyaladherins from the Link module superfamily, namely the complex of the proteoglycan aggrecan and cartilage link protein, the proteoglycan versican, the inflammation-associated protein TSG-6 ...


A Tlr/Akt/Foxo3 Immune Tolerance–Like Pathway Disrupts The Repair Capacity Of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors, Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M. Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L. Marks, Edward N. Harris, Bruce Baggentoss, Paul H. Weigel, Larry S. Sherman, Stephen A. Back Jan 2018

A Tlr/Akt/Foxo3 Immune Tolerance–Like Pathway Disrupts The Repair Capacity Of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors, Taasin Srivastava, Parham Diba, Justin M. Dean, Fatima Banine, Daniel Shaver, Matthew Hagen, Xi Gong, Weiping Su, Ben Emery, Daniel L. Marks, Edward N. Harris, Bruce Baggentoss, Paul H. Weigel, Larry S. Sherman, Stephen A. Back

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Cerebral white matter injury (WMI) persistently disrupts myelin regeneration by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). We identified a specific bioactive hyaluronan fragment (bHAf) that downregulates myelin gene expression and chronically blocks OPC maturation and myelination via a tolerance-like mechanism that dysregulates pro-myelination signaling via AKT. Desensitization of AKT occurs via TLR4 but not TLR2 or CD44. OPC differentiation was selectively blocked by bHAf in a maturation-dependent fashion at the late OPC (preOL) stage by a noncanonical TLR4/TRIF pathway that induced persistent activation of the FoxO3 transcription factor downstream of AKT. Activated FoxO3 selectively localized to oligodendrocyte lineage cells in white ...


3-O Sulfation Of Heparin Leads To Hepatotropism And Longer Circulatory Half-Life, Colton M. Miller, Yongmei Xu, Katrina M. Kudrna, Blake E. Hass, Brianna M. Kellar, Andrew W. Egger, Jian Liu, Edward N. Harris Jan 2018

3-O Sulfation Of Heparin Leads To Hepatotropism And Longer Circulatory Half-Life, Colton M. Miller, Yongmei Xu, Katrina M. Kudrna, Blake E. Hass, Brianna M. Kellar, Andrew W. Egger, Jian Liu, Edward N. Harris

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Introduction: Heparins are common blood anticoagulants that are critical for many surgical and biomedical procedures used in modern medicine. In contrast to natural heparin derived from porcine gut mucosa, synthetic heparins are homogenous by mass, polymer length, and chemistry.

Materials & methods: Stable cell lines expressing the human and mouse Stabilin receptors were used to evaluate endocytosis of natural and synthetic heparin. We chemoenzymatically produced synthetic heparin consisting of 12 sugars (dodecamers) containing 14 sulfate groups resulting in a non-3-O sulfated structure (n12mer). Half of the n12mer was modified with a 3-O sulfate on a single GlcNS sugar producing the 3-O ...


Reactive Oxygen Species In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Samia Boukhenouna, Mark A. Wilson, Karim Bahmed, Beata Kosmider Jan 2018

Reactive Oxygen Species In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Samia Boukhenouna, Mark A. Wilson, Karim Bahmed, Beata Kosmider

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Environmental exposure, primarily cigarette smoking, can cause high oxidative stress and is the main factor of COPD development. Cigarette smoke also contributes to the imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant due to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, endogenously released ROS during the inflammatory process and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to this disease progression. ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can oxidize different biomolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids leading to epithelial cell injury and death. Various detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant defense systems can be involved in ROS removal. In this ...


Editorial: Structure And Function Of Chloroplasts, Rebecca L. Roston, Juliette Jouhet, Fei Yu, Hongbo Gao Jan 2018

Editorial: Structure And Function Of Chloroplasts, Rebecca L. Roston, Juliette Jouhet, Fei Yu, Hongbo Gao

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The primary energy resource of life on earth is the sun, whose energy is captured in the form of usable carbons by a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs within a cellular organelle adapted to that purpose, called the chloroplast. Chloroplasts are unique metabolic and sensory organelles restricted to plants, algae, and a few protists. In this special topic, we aimed to gather new research, hypotheses, and reviews that would help us to better understand the important role of chloroplasts in all photosynthetic organisms. We were fortunate enough to have submissions from many talented chloroplast researchers. This topic contains a total ...


Role Of Selenof As A Gatekeeper Of Secreted Disulfide-Rich Glycoproteins, Sun Hee Yim, Robert A. Everley, Frank A. Schildberg, Sang-Goo Lee, Andrea Orsi, Zachary R. Barbati, Kutay Karatepe, Dmitry E. Fomenko, Petra A. Tsuji, Hongbo R. Luo, Steven P. Gygi, Roberto Sitia, Arlene H. Sharpe, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev Jan 2018

Role Of Selenof As A Gatekeeper Of Secreted Disulfide-Rich Glycoproteins, Sun Hee Yim, Robert A. Everley, Frank A. Schildberg, Sang-Goo Lee, Andrea Orsi, Zachary R. Barbati, Kutay Karatepe, Dmitry E. Fomenko, Petra A. Tsuji, Hongbo R. Luo, Steven P. Gygi, Roberto Sitia, Arlene H. Sharpe, Dolph L. Hatfield, Vadim N. Gladyshev

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Selenof (15-kDa selenoprotein; Sep15) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident thioredoxin-like oxidoreductase that occurs in a complex with UDPglucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase. We found that Selenof deficiency in mice leads to elevated levels of non-functional circulating plasma immunoglobulins and increased secretion of IgM during in vitro splenic B cell differentiation. However, Selenof knockout animals show neither enhanced bacterial killing capacity nor antigen-induced systemic IgM activity, suggesting that excess immunoglobulins are not functional. In addition, ER-to-Golgi transport of a target glycoprotein was delayed in Selenof knockout embryonic fibroblasts, and proteomic analyses revealed that Selenof deficiency is primarily associated with antigen presentation and ...


Structural Basis For The Substrate Inhibition Of Proline Utilization A By Proline, David A. Korasick, Travis A. Pemberton, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner Jan 2018

Structural Basis For The Substrate Inhibition Of Proline Utilization A By Proline, David A. Korasick, Travis A. Pemberton, Benjamin W. Arentson, Donald F. Becker, John J. Tanner

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Proline utilization A (PutA) is a bifunctional flavoenzyme that catalyzes the two-step oxidation of L-proline to L-glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and L-glutamate-y-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GSALDH) active sites. Substrate inhibition of the coupled PRODH-GSALDH reaction by proline is a common kinetic feature of PutAs, yet the structural basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. To understand the mechanism of substrate inhibition, we determined the 2.15 Å resolution crystal structure of Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA complexed with proline. Proline was discovered in five locations remote from the PRODH active site. Most notably, strong electron density indicated that proline bound tightly to ...


Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha Jan 2018

Total Mercury Determination In Muscle And Liver Tissue Samples From Brazilian Amazon Fish Using Slurry Sampling, João Vitor De Queiroz, José Cavalcante Souza Vieira, Izabela Da Cunha Bataglioli, Alis Correia Bittarello, Camila Pereira Braga, Grasieli De Oliveira, Cilene Do Carmo Federici Padilha, Pedro De Magalhães Padilha

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

This paper presents a slurry sampling method for total mercury determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) in tissue of fish from the Amazon. The tissue samples were lyophilized and macerated, and then the slurry samples were prepared by putting 20 mg of tissue, added to a solution containing Triton X-100, Suprapur HNO3, and zirconium nitrate directly in sampling vials of a spectrometer. Mercury standard solutions were prepared under the same conditions as the slurry samples. The slurry samples and the mercury standard solutions were sonicated for 20 s. Twenty microliters of slurry samples were injected into the ...


Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle E. Howell, Karin V. Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brian A. Couch, Rebecca Roston Jan 2018

Visualizing The Invisible: A Guide To Designing, Printing, And Incorporating Dynamic 3d Molecular Models To Teach Structure–Function Relationships, Michelle E. Howell, Karin V. Van Dijk, Christine S. Booth, Tomáš Helikar, Brian A. Couch, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the intricate relationship between macromolecular structure and function represents a central goal of undergraduate biology education (1–3). In teaching complex three-dimensional (3D) concepts, instructors typically depend on static two-dimensional (2D) textbook images or computer-based visualization software, which can lead to unintended misconceptions (4–6). While chemical and molecular kits exist, these models cannot handle the size and detail of macromolecules. Consequently, students may graduate in the life sciences without understanding how structure underlies function or acquiring skills to translate between 2D and 3D molecular models (5, 7).


Characterization Of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate-Based Dynamic Hydrogels For Use As Reversible 3-D Cell Culture Matrices, Krisitan Stipe Jan 2018

Characterization Of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate-Based Dynamic Hydrogels For Use As Reversible 3-D Cell Culture Matrices, Krisitan Stipe

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


Cancerdiscover: An Integrative Pipeline For Cancer Biomarker And Cancer Class Prediction From High-Throughput Sequencing Data, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar Jan 2018

Cancerdiscover: An Integrative Pipeline For Cancer Biomarker And Cancer Class Prediction From High-Throughput Sequencing Data, Akram Mohammed, Greyson Biegert, Jiri Adamec, Tomáš Helikar

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Accurate identification of cancer biomarkers and classification of cancer type and subtype from High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) data is a challenging problem because it requires manual processing of raw HTS data from various sequencing platforms, quality control, and normalization, which are both tedious and timeconsuming. Machine learning techniques for cancer class prediction and biomarker discovery can hasten cancer detection and significantly improve prognosis. To date, great research efforts have been taken for cancer biomarker identification and cancer class prediction. However, currently available tools and pipelines lack flexibility in data preprocessing, running multiple feature selection methods and learning algorithms, therefore, developing ...


Computational Systems Biology Approach For The Study Of Rheumatoid Arthritis: From A Molecular Map To A Dynamical Model, Vidisha Singh, Marek Ostaszewski, George D. Kalliolias, Gilles Chiocchia, Robert Olaso, Elisabeth Petit-Teixeira, Tomáš Helikar, Anna Niarakis Jan 2018

Computational Systems Biology Approach For The Study Of Rheumatoid Arthritis: From A Molecular Map To A Dynamical Model, Vidisha Singh, Marek Ostaszewski, George D. Kalliolias, Gilles Chiocchia, Robert Olaso, Elisabeth Petit-Teixeira, Tomáš Helikar, Anna Niarakis

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

In this work we present a systematic effort to summarize current biological pathway knowledge concerning Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). We are constructing a detailed molecular map based on exhaustive literature scanning, strict curation criteria, re-evaluation of previously published attempts and most importantly experts’ advice. The RA map will be web-published in the coming months in the form of an interactive map, using the MINERVA platform, allowing for easy access, navigation and search of all molecular pathways implicated in RA, serving thus, as an on line knowledgebase for the disease. Moreover the map could be used as a template for Omics data ...


The Colomoto Interactive Notebook: Accessible And Reproducible Computational Analyses For Qualitative Biological Networks, Aurelien Naldi, Celine Hernandez, Nicolas Levy, Gautier Stoll, Pedro T. Monteiro, Claudine Chaouiya, Tomáš Helikar, Andrei Zinovyev, Laurence Calzone, Sarah Cohen-Boulakia, Denis Thieffry, Loic Pauleve Jan 2018

The Colomoto Interactive Notebook: Accessible And Reproducible Computational Analyses For Qualitative Biological Networks, Aurelien Naldi, Celine Hernandez, Nicolas Levy, Gautier Stoll, Pedro T. Monteiro, Claudine Chaouiya, Tomáš Helikar, Andrei Zinovyev, Laurence Calzone, Sarah Cohen-Boulakia, Denis Thieffry, Loic Pauleve

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Analysing models of biological networks typically relies on workflows in which different software tools with sensitive parameters are chained together,many times with additional manual steps. The accessibility and reproducibility of such workflows is challenging, as publications often overlook analysis details, and because some of these tools may be difficult to install, and/or have a steep learning curve. The CoLoMoTo Interactive Notebook provides a unified environment to edit, execute, share, and reproduce analyses of qualitative models of biological networks. This framework combines the power of different technologies to ensure repeatability and to reduce users’ learning curve of these technologies ...


Towards The Synthetic Design Of Camelina Oil Enriched In Tailored Acetyl-Triacylglycerols With Medium-Chain Fatty Acids, Sunil Bansal, Hae Jin Kim, Gunnam Na, Megan E. Hamilton, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chaofu Lu, Timothy P. Durrett Jan 2018

Towards The Synthetic Design Of Camelina Oil Enriched In Tailored Acetyl-Triacylglycerols With Medium-Chain Fatty Acids, Sunil Bansal, Hae Jin Kim, Gunnam Na, Megan E. Hamilton, Edgar B. Cahoon, Chaofu Lu, Timothy P. Durrett

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

The ability to manipulate expression of key biosynthetic enzymes has allowed the development of genetically modified plants that synthesise unusual lipids that are useful for biofuel and industrial applications. By taking advantage of the unique activities of enzymes from different species, tailored lipids with a targeted structure can be conceived. In this study we demonstrate the successful implementation of such an approach by metabolically engineering the oilseed crop Camelina sativa to produce 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). Different transgenic camelina lines that had been genetically modified to produce MCFAs through the expression of MCFA-specific thioesterases ...