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Full-Text Articles in Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston Jun 2018

Lipid Transport Required To Make Lipids Of Photosynthetic Membranes, Evan Labrant, Allison C. Barnes, Rebecca Roston

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Photosynthetic membranes provide much of the usable energy for life on earth. To produce photosynthetic membrane lipids, multiple transport steps are required, including fatty acid export from the chloroplast stroma to the endoplasmic reticulum, and lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the chloroplast envelope membranes. Transport of hydrophobic molecules through aqueous space is energetically unfavorable and must be catalyzed by dedicated enzymes, frequently on specialized membrane structures. Here, we review photosynthetic membrane lipid transport to the chloroplast in the context of photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis. We independently consider the identity of transported lipids, the proteinaceous transport components, and membrane ...


Synthesis And Transfer Of Galactolipids In The Chloroplast Envelope Membranes Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Amélie Kelly, Barbara Kalisch, Georg Hölzl, Sandra Schulze, Juliane Thiele, Michael Melzer, Rebecca L. Roston, Christoph Benning, Peter Dörmann Jan 2016

Synthesis And Transfer Of Galactolipids In The Chloroplast Envelope Membranes Of Arabidopsis Thaliana, Amélie Kelly, Barbara Kalisch, Georg Hölzl, Sandra Schulze, Juliane Thiele, Michael Melzer, Rebecca L. Roston, Christoph Benning, Peter Dörmann

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Galactolipids [monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol

(DGDG)] are the hallmark lipids of photosynthetic

membranes. The galactolipid synthases MGD1 and DGD1

catalyze consecutive galactosyltransfer reactions but localize to the

inner and outer chloroplast envelopes, respectively, necessitating

intermembrane lipid transfer. Here we show that the N-terminal

sequence of DGD1 (NDGD1) is required for galactolipid transfer

between the envelopes. Different diglycosyllipid synthases (DGD1,

DGD2, and Chloroflexus glucosyltransferase) were introduced into

the dgd1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis in fusion with N-terminal extensions

(NDGD1 and NDGD2) targeting to the outer envelope. Reconstruction

of DGDG synthesis in the outer envelope membrane was

observed only with diglycosyllipid synthase fusion ...


Expression Of Lipase From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Nicotiana Tobacum And Lactuca Sativa Chloroplasts, Bethany Lloyd Jan 2012

Expression Of Lipase From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In Nicotiana Tobacum And Lactuca Sativa Chloroplasts, Bethany Lloyd

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is a global threat and the leading cause of death among individuals infected with HIV. TB treatment requires multi-drug cocktails, due to the increasing rates of drug resistance of the bacterium. With multi-drug cocktails, strains have been documented to be resistant to all major drugs in the fight against TB. Since the strains are drug resistant, it calls for an increasing need for vaccine and treatment development for the purpose of preventing and managing the disease. The most widely distributed vaccine against TB is Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin (BCG). Apart from ...


Amelioration Of Amyloid Burden In Advanced Human And Mouse Alzheimer's Disease Brains By Oral Delivery Of Myelin Basic Protein Bioencapsulated In Plant Cells, Neha Kohli Jan 2012

Amelioration Of Amyloid Burden In Advanced Human And Mouse Alzheimer's Disease Brains By Oral Delivery Of Myelin Basic Protein Bioencapsulated In Plant Cells, Neha Kohli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid plaque deposition in aging brains by aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In this study, the effect of chloroplast derived myelin basic protein (MBP) fused with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was investigated in advanced diseased stage of human and mouse AD brains. The CTB-fusion protein in chloroplasts facilitates transmucosal delivery in the gut by the natural binding ability of CTB pentameric form with GM1 receptors on the intestinal epithelium. Further, bioencapsulation of the MBP within plant cells confers protection from enzymes and acids in the digestive system ...